3 Energy Absorbed vs. Temperature Energy absorbed versustemperature for a steel in annealedand in quenched and temperedstates. (Adapted with permissionfrom J. C. Miguez Suarez and K. K.Chawla, Metalurgia-ABM, 34 (1978)825.)
4 Temperature Effect on Fracture Surface Effect of temperatureon the morphology of fracturesurface of Charpy steel specimen.Test temperatures Ta < Tb < Tc <Td. (a) Fully brittle fracture. (b, c)Mixed-mode fractures. (d) Fullyductile (fibrous) fracture.
5 Charpy Testing of Steel: DBTT Results of Charpy testsfor AISI 1018 steel (cold drawn).
7 Charpy V-notch Curve Charpy V-notch curve for a pressure-vessel steel. Notethat the NDT temperaturedetermined by the drop-weighttest corresponds to the high-toughregion of the Charpy curve.Pneumatic pressurization; material:21/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, yield stress590 MPa. (After W. J. Langford,Can. Met. Quart., 19 (1980) 13.)
8 Oscilloscope Record (a) Typical oscilloscope record of an instrumented Charpyimpact test. (b) Schematicrepresentation of (a).
9 Fracture Toughness Test Specimens Typical ASTM standardplane-strain fracture toughnesstest specimens. (a) Compacttension. (b) Bending. (c)Photograph of specimens ofvarious sizes. Charpy and tensilespecimens are also shown, forcomparison purposes. (Courtesyof MPA, Stuttgart.)
10 Load Displacement Curves vs. Fracture Toughness Test Schematic of typicalload–displacement curves in a KIctest.
11 Plastic Zone at Crack Tip Plastic zone at the x1crack tip in a plate of finitethickness.
12 Displacement Measurement Assembly formeasuring displacement in anotched specimen.
15 Variation of Kc with Specimen Thicckness Variation in Kc withflaw size, specimen thickness, andspecimen width.
16 Load P vs. Crack Opening Displacement: Different Responses
17 Plastic Hinge Mechanism mechanism of deformation.
18 J-Integral Testing Method for determining JIc. (a) Load identical specimens to differentdisplacements. (b) Measure theaverage crack extension by heattinting. (c) Calculate J for eachspecimen. (d) Plot J versus a tofind JIc.
19 Flexure Test Normal stresses along a section of beam for linearly elastic material.
20 Three-Point and Four-Point Bend (Flexure) Tests TThree-PointApplication of loadsand bending moment diagrams for(a) three-point bending and (b)four-point bending tests.
21 Miniaturized Specimen:Four-Point Bending Shematic drawing ofthe miniaturized disk-bend test.(Adapted from H. Li, F. C. Chen,and A. J. Ardell, Met. Trans A, 22(1991) 2061.)
22 Fracture Testing Methods for Ceramics methods for brittle materials. (a)Double-cantilever beam (DCB). (b)Double torsion. (c) Notch flexure.
23 Chevron Notch Test Chevron notch test. (a) Schematic of the test arrangement and the details of thenotch plane. (b) The chevron tiplength, a0, can be measured fromoptical micrographs of brokenspecimens. (c) Chevron short-rodspecimen.
24 Hardness Indentation in Brittle Materials Fractures produced byhardness indentations in (a) AsS3glass (courtesy of B. R. Lawn andB. J. Hockey) and (b) Al203.Add equation
25 Plastic Deformation and Crack in Indentation of Brittle Material Schematicrepresentation of indentationgenerating a plastic deformationregion and a semicircular crack.
26 Fracture Toughness: Comparison by Different test Methods Comparison betweenconventional and indentationfracture toughness determinationsfor glasses and ceramics. (From G.R. Anstis, P. Chankitul, B. R. Lawn,and D. B. Marshall, J. Am. Cer. Soc.,64 (1981) 533.)
27 Adhesion of Thin Film to Substrate: Testing Indentation tests forthe determination of toughness ofbond between substrate and thinfilm; (a) method used for ductilecoating on brittle substrate (typicalof electronic components); (b)method used for brittle coatingson ductile substrate; (c) calculatednormalized energy release rate asa function of normalized crackdiameter. (Adapted from J. J.Vlassak, M. D. Drory, and W. D.Nix, J. Mater. Res., 12 (1997) 100.)