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Chapter 9 Fracture Testing. (a) Charpy impact testing machine. (b) Charpy impact test specimen. (c) Izod impact test specimen. Impact Testing Charpy Impact.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Fracture Testing. (a) Charpy impact testing machine. (b) Charpy impact test specimen. (c) Izod impact test specimen. Impact Testing Charpy Impact."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Fracture Testing

2 (a) Charpy impact testing machine. (b) Charpy impact test specimen. (c) Izod impact test specimen. Impact Testing Charpy Impact Testing

3 Energy absorbed versus temperature for a steel in annealed and in quenched and tempered states. (Adapted with permission from J. C. Miguez Suarez and K. K. Chawla, Metalurgia-ABM, 34 (1978) 825.) Energy Absorbed vs. Temperature

4 Effect of temperature on the morphology of fracture surface of Charpy steel specimen. Test temperatures Ta < Tb < Tc < Td. (a) Fully brittle fracture. (b, c) Mixed-mode fractures. (d) Fully ductile (fibrous) fracture. Temperature Effect on Fracture Surface

5 Results of Charpy tests for AISI 1018 steel (cold drawn). Charpy Testing of Steel: DBTT

6 Drop-weight test specimen. Drop-Weight Test Specimen

7 Charpy V-notch curve for a pressure-vessel steel. Note that the NDT temperature determined by the drop-weight test corresponds to the high-tough region of the Charpy curve. Pneumatic pressurization; material: 21/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, yield stress 590 MPa. (After W. J. Langford, Can. Met. Quart., 19 (1980) 13.) Charpy V-notch Curve

8 (a) Typical oscilloscope record of an instrumented Charpy impact test. (b) Schematic representation of (a). Oscilloscope Record

9 Typical ASTM standard plane-strain fracture toughness test specimens. (a) Compact tension. (b) Bending. (c) Photograph of specimens of various sizes. Charpy and tensile specimens are also shown, for comparison purposes. (Courtesy of MPA, Stuttgart.) Fracture Toughness Test Specimens

10 Schematic of typical load–displacement curves in a KIc test. Load Displacement Curves vs. Fracture Toughness Test

11 Plastic zone at the x1 crack tip in a plate of finite thickness. Plastic Zone at Crack Tip

12 Assembly for measuring displacement in a notched specimen. Displacement Measurement

13 Measuring Conditioned Value K Q

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15 Variation in Kc with flaw size, specimen thickness, and specimen width. Variation of Kc with Specimen Thicckness

16 Load P vs. Crack Opening Displacement: Different Responses

17 Plastic hinge mechanism of deformation. Plastic Hinge Mechanism

18 Method for determining JIc. (a) Load identical specimens to different displacements. (b) Measure the average crack extension by heat tinting. (c) Calculate J for each specimen. (d) Plot J versus a to find JIc. J-Integral Testing

19 Normal stresses along a section of beam for linearly elastic material. Flexure Test

20 Application of loads and bending moment diagrams for (a) three-point bending and (b) four-point bending tests. Three-Point and Four-Point Bend (Flexure) Tests TThree-Point

21 Shematic drawing of the miniaturized disk-bend test. (Adapted from H. Li, F. C. Chen, and A. J. Ardell, Met. Trans A, 22 (1991) 2061.) Miniaturized Specimen:Four-Point Bending

22 Fracture-testing methods for brittle materials. (a) Double-cantilever beam (DCB). (b) Double torsion. (c) Notch flexure. Fracture Testing Methods for Ceramics

23 Chevron notch test. (a) Schematic of the test arrangement and the details of the notch plane. (b) The chevron tip length, a0, can be measured from optical micrographs of broken specimens. (c) Chevron short-rod specimen. Chevron Notch Test

24 Fractures produced by hardness indentations in (a) AsS3 glass (courtesy of B. R. Lawn and B. J. Hockey) and (b) Al203. Hardness Indentation in Brittle Materials

25 Schematic representation of indentation generating a plastic deformation region and a semicircular crack. Plastic Deformation and Crack in Indentation of Brittle Material

26 Comparison between conventional and indentation fracture toughness determinations for glasses and ceramics. (From G. R. Anstis, P. Chankitul, B. R. Lawn, and D. B. Marshall, J. Am. Cer. Soc., 64 (1981) 533.) Fracture Toughness: Comparison by Different test Methods

27 Indentation tests for the determination of toughness of bond between substrate and thin film; (a) method used for ductile coating on brittle substrate (typical of electronic components); (b) method used for brittle coatings on ductile substrate; (c) calculated normalized energy release rate as a function of normalized crack diameter. (Adapted from J. J. Vlassak, M. D. Drory, and W. D. Nix, J. Mater. Res., 12 (1997) 100.) Adhesion of Thin Film to Substrate: Testing


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