Presentation on theme: "Steel Erection - OSHA’s First Negotiated Rule"— Presentation transcript:
1 Steel Erection - OSHA’s First Negotiated Rule Photo was take during the construction of Rockefeller Center, NYC.Sometimes referred to as NY lunch. This and the other old time photos are from the construction of the Empire State Building, NYC, during the 1930s.Ironworker on the right end has a glass bottle in hand…remember back In the 1930’s you would normally find a thermos in a lab – very expensive. Most likely a water bottle.This power point program was created by Bill Donovan, OSHA Region V, , Some components of this presentation were compiled by Ray Nellor, OSHA Region VIII, Dave Berard, OSHA Region I, Ron Kallstrom, OSHA Region VII, S.E.S.A.C. and S.E.N.R.A.C. members and the OSHA Steel Erection Compliance Directive Task Force. If you have questions, please contact Bill.
2 Subpart R - Steel Erection Issued January 18, 2001Long overdue updating of the existing standardAddresses hazards associated with: double connections, column stability, falls, hoisting & rigging, joist installation, engineered metal buildings, decking, multiple lifts, structural stability…Effective Date: January 18, 2002…+ Phase-in of “Component” requirements, e.g., bolt holes for joist connections, etc. (permit obtained before, 1/18/01) or steel erection began before 9/16/01Background slide is from the building of the Empire State Building. Photograph is subtitled, “Iccarus”.
3 Layout of Subpart R .750 - Scope .756 - Beams & Columns DefinitionsSite Layout, Site-specific Erection Plan & Construction SequencingHoisting & RiggingStructural Steel AssemblyColumn AnchorageBeams & ColumnsOpen Web Steel JoistsSystems-engineered Metal BuildingsFalling Object ProtectionFall ProtectionTrainingAppendices A - H
4 Scope of Subpart RSubpart R applies to steel erection activities such as, connecting, bolting, plumbing & guying, joist installation, decking, and related work (e.g., hoisting & rigging) that occurs in tiered and non-tiered buildings, bridges, stadiums, and special structures BUT NOT communication and broadcast towers or tanks (e.g., water or fuel tanks)
6 Highway over pass – steel frame work is subpart R, concrete deck and masonry wall are subpart M
7 Installation of steel beams are subpart R, but construction with metal studs are subpart M
8 Installation of steel stairways are covered by subpart R
9 Construction of steel tanks is not covered by subpart R Construction of steel tanks is not covered by subpart R. Fall protection for these type operations will be covered by (a)
10 Communication towers are not covered by subpart R Communication towers are not covered by subpart R. See communication tower CPL for more info.
11 Ironworkers tools (typical of a connector – add an 8 pound hammer (“beater”) and a sleever bar. Note: the old quick release safety belt does not meet (d) and therefore could only now be used for a tool belt. Weight of connectors tools is upwards of 75 pounds!
12 DefinitionsConnector - means an employee who, working with hoisting equipment, is placing &connecting structural membersand/or components.Hoisting Equipment means acrane or a derrick NOT a come-along!
13 A “come-a-long”Mechanical device usually consisting of a chain or cable attached at each end, that is used to facilitate movement of materials through leverage.This is not considered “hoisting equipment.”
14 Connectors landing a beam to make a beam to column connection Connectors landing a beam to make a beam to column connection. No fall protection in use…Fall protection is required depending on height. Ironworker walking the bottom flange of the steel is called “cooning”.
15 Connector signaling crane (or signal man) lining up a beam to column connection.
16 Connector perched atop of a column landing a beam Connector perched atop of a column landing a beam. Note beam seat welded in place on column. Beam is held in place by crane. Ironworker is not tied off (old photo) column height is approximately 23-1/2 feet high…
17 Stadium project. Connector waiting for incoming truss to be connected Stadium project. Connector waiting for incoming truss to be connected. Note the horizontal lifeline in place – ironworkers on this project were utilizing 100% fall protection
18 Connector after making beam to column connection on cantilevered beam, walks beam (cooning the steel) to disconnect the rigging for the crane. Connector is tied off to retractable lifeline; fall height is greater than 80 feet.
19 Ironworker landing structural precast concrete tier section on a stadium project. This is precast concrete erection and is covered by subpart M. The installation of the steel raker (diagonal) beams is steel erection covered by subpart R. Note that the iron worker is using a “Y” lanyard (2 legs) for 100% tie off.
20 “Topping Out”“Topping out” – when highest piece (top) of steel is placed it is common to place piece with an American flag attached…and maybe a Christmas tree depending on the season…
21 Derrick floor: An elevated floor of a building or structure that has been designated to receive hoisted pieces of steel prior to final placement
22 OpeningA gap or void 12 inches or more in its least dimension in a floor, roof or other walking/working surface.Skylights and smoke domes shall be regarded as openings.
23 Project structural engineer of record Registered, licensed professional engineer responsible for the design of structural steel framing and whose seal appears on the structural contract documents.
24 Shear connectorSteel bars, steel lugs, headed steel studs, and similar devices which are attached to a structural member for the purpose of achieving composite action with concrete.
25 Steel joistAn open web, secondary load-carrying member of 144 feet or less, designed by the manufacturer, used for the support of floors and roofs.This does not include structural steel trusses or cold-formed joists.
26 Steel joist girderAn open web, primary load-carrying member, designed by a manufacturer, used for the support of floors and roofs.
27 Systems-engineered metal building Field-assembled building system consisting of framing, roof and wall coverings.
28 1926.752 Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence
29 (a) Approval to begin steel erection ASTM standard test method (concrete must be 75% of the minimum compressive design strength): footings, piers, wallsRepairs, replacements and modifications to anchor bolts made in accordance with (b)(b) Commencement of Steel ErectionSteel Erector shall not erect steel unless it has received written notification of the requirements of (a) have been met
32 (c) Site layout (controlling contractor shall provide): Adequate accessA firm, properly graded, drained area, readily accessible for the safe storage of materials and the safe operation of equipmentEmpire state building NYC 1933
33 Adequate space for storage of materials Alos good access to erection area.
34 1926.753 - Hoisting & Rigging Crane inspections as per ANSI B30.5-1994 Qualified operator is in charge of lifts and has final callQualified riggerOK to use man baskets ( (g)(2) does not apply, rest of .550 does apply)Preplan routes to minimize employee exposure to suspended loadsMultiple lift rigging procedures….
35 Critical liftA lift that (1) exceeds 75 percent of the rated capacity of the crane or derrick, or (2) requires the use of more than one crane or derrick.
39 Can You Christmas Tree Steel? This rigging does not meet the new standard. Pieces are five feet apart and 7 pieces are picked! Rigging assembly was not manufactured or certified by a qualified rigger.
40 This assembly does meet the new subpart R requirement This assembly does meet the new subpart R requirement. Pieces are rigged more than 7 feet apart, rigging assembly certified by a qualified rigger. Note horizontal lifelines installed while the pieces are on the ground.
42 multiple lift rigging assembly is used; (1) Multiple lift shall only be performed if the following are met:multiple lift rigging assembly is used;maximum members is hoisted of five per lift;only structural members are lifted; andemployees engaged in the lift have been trained in the procedures in (c)(1)(c) Multiple lift rigging procedure.(1) A multiple lift shall only be performed if the following criteria are met: (i) A multiple lift rigging assembly is used; (ii) A maximum of five (5) members is hoisted per lift; (iii) Only structural members are lifted; and (iv) All employees engaged in the multiple lift have been trained in these procedures in accordance with Sec (c)(1).(2) Components of the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be specifically designed and assembled with a maximum capacity for total assembly and for each individual attachment point. This capacity, certified by the manufacturer or a qualified rigger, shall be based on the manufacturer's specifications with a 5 to 1 safety factor for all components.(3) The total load shall not exceed: (i) The rated capacity of the hoisting equipment specified in the hoisting equipment load charts; or (ii) The rigging capacity specified in the rigging rating chart.(4) The multiple lift rigging assembly shall be rigged with the members: (i) Attached at their center of gravity and maintained reasonably level; (ii) Rigged from the top down; and (iii) Rigged at least 7 feet (2.1 m) apart.(5) The members on the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be set from the bottom up.(6) Controlled load lowering shall be used whenever the load is over the connectors.Construction Safety Council
43 rigged at least 7 feet apart (4)The multiple lift rigging assembly shall be rigged with the members:rigged at least 7 feet apartrigged from the top downattached at their center of gravity and maintained levelConstruction Safety Council
44 (2) Components of the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be specifically designed and assembled with a maximum capacity for total assembly and for each individual attachment point.Capacity must be certified by the manufacturer or a qualified rigger and have a 5 to 1 safety factorConstruction Safety Council
45 1926.753(e) (3) The total load shall not exceed: The rated capacity of the hoisting equipmentThe rigging capacity(4) The multiple lift rigging assembly shall be rigged with the members:attached at their center of gravity and maintained level;rigged from the top down; andrigged at least 7 feet apart(e)(5) The members on the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be set from the bottom up.(6) Controlled load lowering shall be used whenever the load is over the connectors.
46 A Typical Multiple Lift Rigging Assembly What do you need to know? D C How much does each piece weigh?What size slings?What size and type of hooks?What size of shackles?ADE (shackle)BF (hook)Pop quiz! What size rigging components are needed? How much does each pieces weigh? W 18 x 130 x 22’ means 18 inch wide x 130 pounds per linear foot x beam is 22 feet long = 22 x 130 = 2,860 pounds for each of the top two beams. Have the class figure out the weight of the big beam and then using the next four slides and the standard figure out which size slings, shackles, and hooks they need to safely lift this load.GCH (shackle)I (hook)
51 Another variation of a manufactured multiple lift rigging assembly
52 1926.754 - Structural Steel Assembly Riveters on the empire state building. The old standard had lots of stuff that covered riveting the only problem is that no one rivets any more! (maybe on a historic structure). Bolted connections are now as strong or stronger than riveted connections.
53 1926.754(a) - Structural stability SHALL be maintained at ALL times during the erection process! Rivet catcher
54 1926.754 Structural Steel Assembly (b)(3) - maintain fully planked or decked floor or net 2 stories or 30 ft. below any erection work(c) Walking/working surfaces - trip hazards and slip resistance (SR effective 7/18/06)(d) Plumbing-up - as per competent person(e) Metal decking - (2)(iii) - metal decking holes/openings SHALL not be cut until immediately prior to being filled/used
55 Two story, +/- 30 foot, fall to the interior; Almost 50 feet fall to the exterior. The interior fall in this case would be measured from the top of the flange to the deck two stories below. The flange on these beams is too wide to “coon”. Usually there is 15 feet between floors but this can vary – double check the plan to be sure. In this case the ironworkers (in this case connectors) must be protected from the exterior fall. Fall protection for the interior is dependant upon the distance if it is over 30 feet, then they too would need additional fall protection. Note the exterior fall protection on the lower decked level – perimeter rails are up.
56 Plumbing Up!Structure is being plumbed as it is being erected – it goes hand and hand. Raise, connect, plumb, bolt…etc.
57 All columns must be inspected / evaluated by a competent person All columns must be inspected / evaluated by a competent person. Plumbing up of the structure as per competent person’s evaluation.– Plumbing up the structure is commonly done by turn buckles and wire rope.
58 Metal deckingCommercially manufactured, structural grade, cold rolled metal panel formed into a series of parallel ribs; this includes metal floor, and roof decks, standing seam metal roofs, other metal roof systems and other products such as bar gratings, checker plate, expanded metal panels.
60 Decking holeA gap or void more than 2 inches in its least dimension and less than 12 inches in its greatest dimension in a floor, roof or other walking/working surface.
61 Framed metal deck openings Must be turned down to allow continuous deck installation except where not allowed by structural design.This frame is not turned down and not decked over.
62 Skylights and smoke domes shall be regarded as openings. As long as they do not meet the strength requirements of a cover (which in most cases they will not)
63 Column Anchorage(a) General requirements for erection stabilityColumns anchored by a min. of 4 rods (bolts)Each anchor rod, assembly including base plate and foundation, designed to resist a 300# eccentric load at 18” from the column face
64 1926.755 - Column Anchorage (a) (continued) Columns set on level finished floors, pre-grouted leveling plates, leveling nuts, or shim packsAll columns shall be evaluated by a competent person to determine whether guying or bracing is needed
65 (b) Repair, Replacement Or Field Modification (1) Need approval of the project structural engineer.(2) Prior to column erection, the controlling contractor shall provide written notification to the steel erector if there has been any repair, etc., to the anchor rods (bolts).Project structural engineer of record, would be defined by OSHA to mean the registered, licensed professional responsible for the design of structural steel framing and whose seal appears on the structural contract documents.Construction Safety Council
66 Field modification of anchor rods Check the change log! Ask to see change orders. Look for ooze coming out from under the column plate (this is a sign that the anchor bolt was replaced with grout).
67 Modified anchor bolts. Anchor bolt on right was epoxied in using a expansion bolt. This needs to be approved by the structural engineer of record which usually means a pull test needs to be done. ASK!
68 Shim Packs How many can you use? Column must rest right. Shims are OK but they are not a replacement if the footings are too short!How many can you use?
70 Look for cracked footings – footing is shot Look for cracked footings – footing is shot! Anchor bolt cracked the concrete and bent the anchor bolt on the right – could have been bad concrete also that cracked as the anchor bolt was tighten down.
71 Everyone knows where the anchor bolts are supposed to be and it does happen that the anchor bolts are installed in the wrong space (e.g. , off by a foot on certain footings). The steel erector will check the lay out before he erects his columns – if they are off the Erector will let the GC know about it! If the anchor rods are off they can be repaired or replaced if done correctly.
72 Shopping mall project, almost done Shopping mall project, almost done. Roof deck over loading dock – one column high(23-1/2 feet high) – sounds easy enough…
73 Anchor bolts were off by a foot on one of the footings * Anchor bolts were off by a foot on one of the footings. – see the next two slides also.* On an adjacent column two of the four anchor bolts were too short (both on the east side).* Steel erector brought it to the attention of the GC.GC had foundation contractor install new anchor bolts on footing in which they were off by one foot. Two new bolts were epoxied in – NO pull test was done – Structural Engineer of Record did not approve. Steel erector Supt complained to GC and GC said “…get it up, we’ll fix it later…”the columns were raised and beams set with initial connections with one beam connecting the two poorly anchored columns.The steel was then loaded with 3 bundles of bar joists!Connector on top of the column with the new anchor bolts was attempting to connect a joist from the existing structure to the column. The column was out of alignment and needed to be nudged – so the column steel having a line attached to was pulled by had into place toward the west– the column went past vertical and started to tip. The “moment”…engineers call it.The new anchor bolts were also on the east side and one sliced down the side of the footing failing to grab enough concrete! The anchor bolt opposite it was not made so the column started to fall pushing the beam into the adjacent column which also did not have enough anchor bolts! These bolts sheared and the steel began to rotate and COLLAPSE! The raising gang scattered!One connector road the steel down and broke his femur.As the steel was falling another ironworker (hook up man) ran and fell into the trench between the collapsing columns, he hugged the footing and the column scraped his back as it fell (he was ok, shook up, but ok and very lucky.)Next two slides show the bad anchor bolts. The previous slide shows the roof steel completed after the accident.
74 Prevent Steel Collapse! New bolt not tested!Prevent Steel Collapse!4 bolts minimum per column! [.755(a)]Repair, replacement or field modification of anchor bolts must be approved by the structural engineer of record! [.755(b)]Anchor bolts (now referred to as anchor rods) were off by one foot (common occurrence):This forced the steel erector to have new bolts installed (actually was able to locate column to the west, there by salvaging two existing (old) bolts and installing two new anchor rods).Concrete was drilled and a new bolts were epoxied in (Hilti makes an epoxy expansion bolt system).The new anchor rods were not pull tested nor were they approved by the Structural Engineer of Record.The new top right side bolt bolt sliced down the side of the footing and never had a chance of making a good seal.The bolt on the bottom right side was not made because the threads were too beat up.In effect, only two bolts were made.Adjacent Column also had anchor bolt problems and when pulling the column in to alignment to make a beam connection this column started to fall.This column pushed the next column and the steel frame started to spin and it all came down (2 columns, couple of beams , 2 bundles of joists)One Ironworker road the column down and broke his femur (lucky). Another Ironworker just missed being crushed by the falling column (it scraped his back – even luckier).Under old standard we could not cite the concrete/foundation contractor for installing crappy anchor bolts and it was a stretch to cite the GC using 5(a)(1) from the AISC code. New standard covers it all.New bolt not made!= 2 anchor bolts
76 (a)General. Secured with at least two bolts per connection (a)General. Secured with at least two bolts per connection. Competent person to evaluate.(b)Diagonal bracing. With bracing, secured by at least one bolt per connection.(c)Double connections at columns and/or at beam webs over a column. At least one bolt or similar connection device is present.Construction Safety CouncilBeams & Columns
78 Double connectionAttachment method where the connection point is intended for two pieces of steel which share common bolts on either side of a central piece.
79 In order to make the “double connection”: the connector has to back out the boltshold the beam in place with a spud wrench (fig. 1)When second beam arrives, align and hold it with a spud wrenchpush bolts back through first beam into second beam and secure in place.(old way – no beam seat, flanged or clipped connection used)
80 Beams & Columns -(c) Double connections at columns and/or at beam webs over a column: At least one bolt or similar connection device must be present (e.g., a beam seat, etc.)Clipped connectionDouble connections have haunted ironworkers for yearsOutlawed in Canada almost 10 years agoUnder the old standard, there would come a point when the ironworker would have to back out the common bolts and secure the beam he was sitting on with a spud wrenchStandard covers beam seats, flanged connections, offset connections and similar devices – all of which must be approved by Structural Engineer of Record.Staggered connection
81 One bolt always stayed made! staggered connection
85 Construction Safety Council (d)Column splices. Designed to resist a 300# eccentric load located at 18” from column face.(e)Perimeter columns. Must extend a min. of 48” above the finished floor for safety cables. Holes or other attachment device attached to perimeter columns(e) Perimeter columns. Perimeter columns shall extend a minimum of 48 inches (1.2 m) above the finished floor to permit installation of perimeter safety cables prior to erection of the next tier except where structural design and constructibility do not allow. (See appendix F to this subpart.)(f) Perimeter safety cables.(1) Perimeter safety cables shall be installed at the perimeter during the structural steel assembly of multi-story structures.(2) Perimeter safety cables shall consist of 1/2-inch wire rope or equivalent installed at inches above the finished floor and at the midpoint between the finished floor and the top cable.(3) Holes or other devices shall be provided by the fabricator/ supplier and shall be in or attached to perimeter columns at inches above the finished floor and the midpoint between the finished floor and the top cable to permit installation of perimeter safety cables except where structural design and constructibility allow.
91 Diagonal bracingSolid web structural members used as diagonal bracing must be secured by at least one bolt per connection drawn up wrench tight or the equivalent as specified by the project structural engineer of record.
92 Open Web Steel JoistsAddresses proper joist end attachment, erection procedureserection bridging requirements according to Tables A & B (similar to SJI Tables)Holes in joists/bolting required for joists in 40’+ baysRequirements for landing and placing loads on joistsSome requirements may be modified through a site-specific erection plan (tandem setting of some 60’+ joists and requirements for landing decking bundles)
94 Anchored bridgingSteel joist bridging is connected to a bridging terminus point.
95 Bolted diagonal bridging Diagonal bridging that is bolted to a steel joist or joists.
96 Bridging clipA device that is attached to the steel joist to allow the bolting of the bridging to the steel joist.
97 Attachment points for diagonal bridging (“bridging terminus points”) – see appendix C for illustrations.
98 Bridging terminus point Means a wall, beam,tandem joists (with all bridging installed and horizontal truss in the plane of the top cord) or other element at an end or intermediate point of a line of bridging that provides an anchor point for the steel joist bridging.(Bridging is secured to the wall or beam)
99 Steel Erection Operation An employee was assigned to connect the X-braces at the end of 40-foot long bar joists. Only one end of the bar joist he was working on had been welded. The employee was sitting on the unwelded end of the bar joist trying to connect the X-braces. He lost his balance, dislodging the bar joist from its end support, and fell approximately 24 feet to his death.
100 Steel Erection Operation Five iron workers were distributing 90-foot-long open web bar joists on a building under construction. The bar joists were supported by vertical columns spaced 30 feet apart. The steel columns were not framed in at least two directions and the bar joists were not field bolted to the vertical columns to prevent collapse. The bar joists shifted, causing the vertical columns to lean. This caused entire section of columns and pen web bar joists to collapse. Two employees rode the iron down. One was fatally injured and one received serious injuries.Steel Erection Operation
101 Open Web Steel JoistsWhen columns not framed in 2 directions by beams, Steel joists shall be field-bolted at the columnHoist cables not released until joists are field-bolted and the bottom chord is restrained by stabilizer plate(a)(8) applies to initial connection of joists – see CPL for clarification.
102 Open Web Steel Joists(b) Attachment of steel joists and steel girders: “K”, “LH” & “DLH” series joists to be attached by specific welds or equivalent boltsexcept for panels, each joist shall be attached to the support structure at least on one end of both sides of the seat immediately upon placement(b) applies to permanent/final connections of joists.
103 Open Web Steel Joists(c) Erection of steel joists: as per incorporated SJI tables(d) Erection bridging(e) Landing & placing loadsConnecting joists from scissor lift is a good practice.
104 Ironworker welding horizontal bridging for joists Ironworker welding horizontal bridging for joists. If the joists are still held in place by the crane so that the bridging may be attached then it would be considered connecting. THIS is NOT connecting and fall protection is required at 15 feet.
109 1926.758 - Systems-Engineered Metal Buildings Specific requirements for metal buildings (e.g., Butler buildings, etc.) including:4 anchor rods/columnrigid frames to have 50% of bolts or mfg spec.girt connectionsjoists and purlins
110 Metal building collapse while under erection Metal building collapse while under erection! Modified anchor bolts and not enough bolts per column…add high winds….
111 Only one bolt at column footing allowed column to pivot.
113 System-Engineered Metal Buildings Rigid frames will have 50 percent of their bolts or the number of bolts specified by the manufacturer (which ever is greater) installed and tightened before the hoisting equipment is released.
114 System-Engineered Metal Buildings Minimum of four (4) anchor rods (anchor bolts) per structural columns
115 GirtIs the “Z” or “C” shaped member formed from sheet steel spanning between primary framing and supporting wall materials.(Engineered metal buildings)
119 The installation of the metal decking and its associated insulation are both subpart R activities. What’s wrong in this slide?Need to secure pails at edge; set up a control decking zone (CDZ) – if no CDZ then fall protection at 15 feet.
120 §1926.759 Falling Object Protection (does not apply to materials being hoisted) Secure loose items aloftControlling contractor to bar operations below steel erection unless falling object protection provided (from objects other than hoisted materials)
121 Falling Object Protection Secure all loose items aloft
122 § Fall ProtectionAll must be protected at heights greater than 2 stories or 30 feet, including connectors and deckersBetween 15 and 30 feet: Fall protection required for all with exceptions for:Deckers in controlled decking zone (CDZ) andConnectorsConnectors must be provided and wear equipment necessary to be able to be tied-off, or be provided with other means of fall protectionDEFINITION OF CONNECTOR:"an employee who, working with hoisting equipment,is placing and connecting structural members and/or components"
123 Personal fall arrest system Means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level.System consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline or suitable combination of these.
124 Positioning device Fall Restraint…? Means a body belt or body harness rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated, vertical surface, such as a wall or column and work with both hands free while leaning.Fall Restraint…?= NO ( I mean ZERO!) Free Fall
125 Fall protectionPersonal fall arrest system.OSHA would define this term to mean a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level; a personal fall arrest system consists of an anchorage, connectors, and a body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combination of these.Fall restraint (Positioning device) system.This term would be defined by OSHA to mean a body belt or body harness used to prevent an employee from free falling more than 24 inches (61 cm) and where self rescue can be assured. Such a system consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body belt or harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combination of these.The criteria for ``positioning device systems'' found in Sec (e) would apply to these types of fall restraint systems used in steel erection.(d)(1)- Fall Protection systems shall meet the requirements of !
126 Times Square, NYCIronworker upper right is connecting a diagonal beam – no fall protection to the exterior!Safety nets are used here for interior falls (see next slide) – fall height greater than 100 feet! Beeter get a vertical life line on to that column so that he can tie off.
133 Roof EyeThe roof eye is place through a joist – make sure the the entire PFAS is evaluated by a competent/qualified person to insure all works together properly.
134 Shackles and eye bolts often are very good anchor points and are inexpensive and available around the construction site. Make sure they are properly rate and installed correctly. Should use a shouldered eye bolt for more strength.
135 Horizontal lifeline is attached to beam prior to being lifted Horizontal lifeline is attached to beam prior to being lifted. Once the connectors make their initial connections they can tie off to the horizontal so they can get to the next beam.
136 Working Fast - SafelyMoving point to point! This ironworker has two lanyards for 100% tie off – he will need them when he moves between systems or around columns.
138 Uni Strut in UseVertical beamers (in this case Uni-Strut) are tighten down on to the column (1 above the iron worker and 1 below) and a retractable lifeline is installed onto the upper strut before the column is raised. The iron worker attaches to the retractable lifeline and skins the column to get to his work area – the lower strut! They now connect the incoming beam while being tied off.
139 Scissors lifts and Man baskets Scissor lifts must be used in accordance with , 452 and Extensible and articulated boom lifts (JLGs, etc.) must be used in accordance with ANSI A 92.5, SIA and EMI safety guides. We are seeing a lot of connecting being done out of lifts and a lot of joist work being done with them also.Be ready for the question: can you use a lift to access and elevated work area? If they eliminate both the fall hazard (this means two lanyards) and the tipping hazard of the lift it should be ok. ANSI/SIA/EMI frown upon it, but if there is no hazard then…
140 Horizontal LifelinesHorizontal lifelines must me installed in accordance with (d)(8)
141 Deckers using a horizontal life line Deckers using a horizontal life line. Note the flags demarcating the CDZ.Various types of horizontal lifelines are used for decking. Multiple lines are commonly used to form a sliding “H” system – two parallel horizontal lifelines with a movable perpendicular line attached between.
142 Vertical post attached exterior of a preengineered metal building Vertical post attached exterior of a preengineered metal building. After the building is complete the post is removed and the siding is patched.
143 Picture shows how the vertical safety post is installed through the wall attaching to the beam.
144 Careful planning is necessary for determining where you attach your horizontal lifelines to. You should not attach them to joists; need to make sure you have adequate clearance; and that the system is designed by and installedand used in accordance with a qualified persons design.Start to worry when you see people tied off at their feet – can they fall far enough to hit the ground with out activating the system? In a fall could they create enough force to fail the system? Ask lots of questions. The system does not have to be pretty to work right and save lives. In this case the workers have 50 foot of clearance and the horizontal lifeline is anchored to the steel posts attached beams out of the picture. All the sag in the cable was by design (because of the span and for shock absorbency) so that a fall would not create enough force to pull the system down. Workers would free fall almost 12 feet (very dangerous – qualified person needs to know what they are doing) + another 12 feet of cable stretch ½ feet for lanyard stretch + 1 foot for D-ring slide = 28 1/2 feet of clearance need just so the ironworkers don’t hit the ground! System was not pretty but this was the only way they could tied off 100% in this area (working above tanks, etc.)
145 §1926.760 Fall Protection (cont.) Controlled decking zone:For leading edge decking worklimited accessdesignated boundaries by control linesWork practices for attaching deck:install safety attachments from leading edge backno final attachments allowed in CDZup to 3000 SF of unsecured deckingspecific training requirements--Between 15 and 30 feet--Where metal decking is initially being installed and forms the leading edge of a work area--Access limited to leading edge decking workers--Boundaries up to 90' x 90' from leading edge
146 Controlled Deck Zone (CDZ) ?No trip hazards allowed in the CDZ! Get the nelson studs out of there.
147 Safety deck attachment An initial attachment that is used to secure an initially placed sheet of decking to keep proper alignment and bearing with structural support members.
148 Warning Line SystemCDZsControlled Decking Zones
149 §1926.760 Fall Protection (cont.) Perimeter cables requiredMust be installed “as soon as the metal decking has been installed”Custody of Fall Protection Equipment:Controlling contractor must choose to either:accept responsibility for maintaining fall protection equipment left by erector,OR ensure that it is removed (.760(e))
152 § TrainingQualified person to train workers in use & operation of fall protection equipmentQualified person to train workers engaged in specific activities:“christmas-treeing”connectingCDZ proceduresAll other training to be covered by (b)(2) and or by other specific subparts.
153 Ironworkers in training at SESAC in Denver, CO Ironworkers in training at SESAC in Denver, CO. At this location, a training frame is erected by the apprentices to learn what’s what. They also learn how to use various PFAS.
154 NYC – note the empire state building and WTC in back ground – staged photo by crew to recreate for posterity the NY Lunch photo from 1933.