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3.1 STEEL 3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds 3.1.2 Microstructure of steels 3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes 3.1.4 Mechanical properties 3.1.5 Steels.

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Presentation on theme: "3.1 STEEL 3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds 3.1.2 Microstructure of steels 3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes 3.1.4 Mechanical properties 3.1.5 Steels."— Presentation transcript:

1 3.1 STEEL Iron-carbon compounds Microstructure of steels Manufacturing and forming processes Mechanical properties Steels for different applications Joints in steel

2 Definitions Iron… A chemical element (Fe) Ion… A charged particle, e.g. Cl - or Fe ++ Iron is an element with the chemical symbol Fe. Steel and cast iron are described as "ferrous" metals and are made from iron with different carbon contents.

3 Carbon contents Carbon ContentMaterial 0.02%Wrought Iron - no longer generally available in the UK 0.15%Low carbon steel %Mild and high yield steels %High carbon and tool steels 3-4%Cast irons

4 Ironbridge

5 3.1 STEEL Iron-carbon compounds Microstructure of steels Manufacturing and forming processes Mechanical properties Steels for different applications Joints in steel

6 MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS ON STRENGTH CARBON CONTENT CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE Control by Heating Control by Working Control by Alloying

7 Face centred cubic and Body centred cubic

8 Volume change on heating steel

9 The nomenclature is: FERRITE or Fe: This is the bcc iron which is formed on slow cooling and may contain up to 0.08% Carbon. Soft, ductile and not particularly strong. CEMENTITE: This is iron carbide which contains about 6.67% Carbon. PEARLITE: This in the laminar mixture of ferrite and cementite and has an average carbon content of about 0.78%. Hard, brittle and strong AUSTENITE or Fe: This is the fcc iron which is formed at high temperatures and may contain up to 2%C

10 Phase diagram for steel (iron/carbon)

11 Strengths and carbon contents of steels

12 High carbon content. Low elongation value. Low impact resistance. Brittle failure.

13 MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS ON STRENGTH CARBON CONTENT CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE Control by Heating Control by Working Control by Alloying

14 Movement of dislocation 1 Grain Boundary

15 Movement of dislocation 2 Grain Boundary

16 Movement of dislocation 3 Grain Boundary

17 Effect of ferrite grain size on the ductile/brittle transition temperature for mild steel

18 Pore fluid expression die after tensile failure. The inner core has fractured but the outer shell is a less brittle steel so there was no explosive failure.

19 MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS ON STRENGTH CARBON CONTENT CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE Control by Heating Control by Working Control by Alloying

20 Cooling Steel from High Temperatures Slow Cooling (annealing) gives large grain size – ductile steel Cooling in air (normalising) gives smaller grains Rapid cooling in water (quenching) gives hard brittle steel

21 Part of iron/carbon phase diagram

22 Cooling Steel from High Temperatures Slow Cooling (annealing) gives large grain size – ductile steel Cooling in air (normalising) gives smaller grains Rapid cooling in water (quenching) gives hard brittle steel

23 Effect of carbon content on hardness for products of rapid cooling (martensite and bainite)

24 MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS ON STRENGTH CARBON CONTENT CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE Control by Heating Control by Working Control by Alloying

25 Early cold worked steel

26 MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS ON STRENGTH CARBON CONTENT CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE Control by Heating Control by Working Control by Alloying

27 3.1 STEEL Iron-carbon compounds Microstructure of steels Manufacturing and forming processes Mechanical properties Steels for different applications Joints in steel

28 Rolling sequence for steel angle

29 Rolled steel sections RSCRolled Steel Column UBUniversal Beam RSARolled Steel Angle RSTRolled steel T RHSRolled Hollow Section

30 The RSJ The UB has parallel flanges. A limited number of traditional RSJs (Rolled Steel Joists) with tapered flanges are produced in smaller section sizes. Web Flange RSJ Flange UB

31 3.1 STEEL Iron-carbon compounds Microstructure of steels Manufacturing and forming processes Mechanical properties Steels for different applications Joints in steel

32 Stress-Strain curves

33 Stress-Strain curve for steel Yield Elastic 0.2% proof stress Stress Strain 0.2% Plastic Failure

34 Embrittlement at cold temperatures

35 S-N curves for fatigue

36 3.1 STEEL Iron-carbon compounds Microstructure of steels Manufacturing and forming processes Mechanical properties Steels for different applications Joints in steel

37 The properties required of structural steels are: Strength. This is traditionally specified as a characteristic value for the 0.2% proof stress Ductility to give impact resistance. Ductility increases with reducing carbon content. Weldability. (see below).

38 Steel frame (1)

39 Steel frame (2)

40 Steel frame (3)

41 Steel structure

42 Light weight steel

43 Steel Framed housing

44 Housing Details

45 Steel in masonry structure

46 Steel Bridge

47 Reinforcing Steels Reinforcing steels are tested for strength and must also comply with the requirements of a "rebend" test to ensure that they retain their strength when bent to shape. This limits the carbon content. High yield bars are cold worked.

48 Bending Reinforcement

49 Prestressing steels Prestressing steels (high tensile steels) are not bent so they can have higher carbon contents that normal reinforcement and have higher strengths. This limits the ductility but is necessary to avoid loss of prestress due to creep

50 Prestressed slabs

51 Pre- stressing systems

52 3.1 STEEL Iron-carbon compounds Microstructure of steels Manufacturing and forming processes Mechanical properties Steels for different applications Joints in steel

53 The main methods of welding are: Gas welding. In order to produce a hot enough flame a combustible gas (e.g. acetylene) is burnt with oxygen. This method is not used for major welding jobs but has the advantage that the torch will also cut the metal. Arc welding. In this method a high electric current is passed from the electrode (the new metal for the weld) to the parent metal. The electrode is coated with a "flux" which helps the weld formation and prevents contact with air which would cause oxide and nitride formation. Inert gas shielded arc welding. This method uses a supply of inert gas (often argon) to keep the air off the weld so no flux is needed.

54 Gas and Arc welding

55 General points about welding. Do not look directly at a welding process (especially electric arc). It may damage your eyes. Always allow for the effect of heating and uncontrolled cooling of the parent metal. e.g. if high yield reinforcing bar is welded the effect of the cold working will be lost - and with it much of the strength. This heating will also often cause distortion. Check the welding rods. If they have become damp the flux will be damaged. Use the correct rods for the steel (e.g. stainless). Remember that the welding process cuts into the parent metal and, if done incorrectly, may cause substantial loss of section.

56 OTHER JOINTING SYSTEMS Bolted Joints Rivets

57 Rivets and bolts

58 Riveting the Empire State Building


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