3Post-ImpressionismFour major Post Impressionist painters, and the aspects of Impressionism that they criticized and how those criticisms were reflected in their work:Vincent van GoghInstead of reproducing the colors exactly as he saw them before his eyes, as Impressionists did, he explored the capabilities of colors and distorted forms to express his emotions as he confronted nature.Paul GauguinHe rejected objective representation in favor or subjective expression. Unlike the Impressionists but like van Gogh, he believed color above all must be expressive.Georges SeuratHe was less concerned with the recording of immediate color sensations than he was with their careful and systematic organization into a new kind of pictorial order.Paul CézanneHe felt that Impressionism lacked form and structure. His objective was to create a lasting structure behind the formless and fleeting visual information the eye absorbs.
4The Great Wave off Kanagawa Katsushika HokusaiThe Great Wave off Kanagawa1857 color woodblock print 9 7/8 x 14 3/4 in.
5Ando Hiroshige Plum Garden, Kameido 1857 color woodblock print 36 x 24 cm
6Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec At the Moulin Rouge oil in canvas 4 ft. x 4 ft. 7 in.
7For Van Gogh, the primary purpose of color in his paintings was to express emotion “of an ardent temperament.”Vincent van GoghThe Night Café1888 oil on canvas 2 ft. 4 1/2 in. x 3 ft.
8Vincent van Gogh Starry Night 1889 oil on canvas 2 ft. 5 in. x 3 ft. 1/4 in.
9Application of paint:The thickness, shape, and direction of his brush strokes create a tactile counterpart to his intense color schemes. He moved the brush vehemently back and forth or at right angles, or squeezed dots or streaks onto the canvas from a paint tube.Vincent van GoghStarry Night1889 oil on canvas 2 ft. 5 in. x 3 ft. 1/4 in.
10Gauguin's use of color differed from Van Gogh's in that his color areas are flatter, often visually dissolving into abstract patches or patterns.Paul GauguinThe Vision after the Sermon1888 oil on canvas 2 ft. 4 3/4 in. x 3 ft. 1/2 in.
11Gauguin spent the last ten years of his life in Tahiti. Paul GauguinWhere Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?1897 oil on canvas 4 ft. 6 13/16 in. x 12 ft. 3 in.
12"I want to make of Impressionism something solid and lasting like the art in the museums” Paul Cézanne.Paul CézanneThe Basket of Applesca oil on canvas 2 ft. 3/8 in. x 2 ft. 7 in.
14Paul CézanneMount Sainte Victoire1885 oil on canvas
15Paul CézanneMount Sainte Victoire1897 oil on canvas
16The role color played in Cézanne's paintings: To create the effects of distance, depth, structure, and solidity.The power of colors to modify the direction and depth of lines and planes.Paul CézanneMount Sainte-Victoireoil on canvas 2 ft. 3 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 11 1/4 in.
18The French painter who used the work of color theorists like Chevreul and Rood to develop a scientifically precise method of applying paint was Georges Seurat.The technique did he develop for applying color to canvas was called Pointillism (or divisionism): the separation of carefully observed colors into their component parts. The artist applies these pure component colors to the canvas in tiny dots or daubs. The shapes on the canvas become comprehensible only from a distance, where the viewer’s eye blends the dots.Georges SeuratA Sunday on La Grande Jatteoil on canvas 6 ft. 9 in. x 10 ft.
20A Sunday on La Grande Jatte Georges SeuratA Sunday on La Grande Jatteoil on canvas 6 ft. 9 in. x 10 ft.
21Symbolism “avant-garde” “Front guard,” a synonym for any particularly new or cutting-edge cultural manifestation, derived from nineteenth-century French military usage where the avant-garde were soldiers sent ahead of the army’s main body to reconnoiter and make occasional raids on the enemy.Avant-garde refers to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics.
22By the end of the nineteenth century, a major change occurred in the artist's vision of reality: The representation of nature had become completely subjectivized to the point that artists did not imitate nature but created free interpretations of it.Puvis de Chavannes was admired by members of the Academy because of hisclassicism while the avant-garde artists admired him because of his vindication of imagination and artistic independence from the world of materialism and the machine.Pierre Puvis de ChavannesThe Sacred Grove1884 oil on canvas 2 ft. 11 1/2 in. x 6 ft. 10 in.
23Self-Portrait with Death Playing the Violin Arnold BöcklinSelf-Portrait with Death Playing the Violin1872 oil on canvas
25Three stylistic characteristics of the work of Gustave Moreau. Gorgeous color.Intricate line.Richly detailed shape.Gustave MoreauJupiter and Semeleca oil on canvas 7 ft. x 3 ft. 4 in.
26Gustave Moreau Oedipus and the Sphinx 1864 oil on canvas 81 1/4 x 41 1/4 in.
27According to Redon, his originality consisted in: “Bringing to life, in a human way, improbable beings and making them live according to the laws of probability, by putting … the logic of the visible at the service of the invisible.”Odilon RedonThe Cyclops1898 oil on canvas 2 ft. 1 in. x 1 ft. 8 in.
28The work of Henri Rousseau can be related to that of the Symbolists through his reliance on dream and fantasy, but his style differs from theirs in the following way:His visual, conceptual, and technical naiveté was compensated for by a natural talent for design and an imagination teeming with exotic images of mysterious tropical landscapes.Henri RousseauThe Sleeping Gypsy1897 oil on canvas 4 ft. 3 in. 6 ft. 7 in.
29The major themes in the work of Edvard Munch: The pain of human life, the powerlessness of humans before the great natural forces of death and love and the emotions associated with them.Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Edvard MunchThe Scream1893 oil, pastel and casein on cardboard 2 ft. 11 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 5 in.
30Edvard Munch The Dance of Life 1900 oil on canvas 49 1/2 x 75 1/2 in. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.Edvard MunchThe Dance of Life1900 oil on canvas49 1/2 x 75 1/2 in.
31Realism, Baroque, classicism, and Michelangelo. Stylistic influences are most evident in the sculpture of Jean‑Baptiste Carpeaux:Realism, Baroque, classicism, and Michelangelo.Jean-Baptiste CarpeauxUgolino and His Childrenmarble 6 ft. 5 in. high
32The style Augustus Saint‑Gaudens utilized for his monument to Mrs The style Augustus Saint‑Gaudens utilized for his monument to Mrs. Henry Adams was considered Classical.Augustus Saint-GaudensAdams Memorial1891 bronze 5 ft. 10 in. high
33Concerns he shared with Muybridge and Eakins: The human body in motion.Concerns Rodin shared with the Impressionists:The effect of light on the three-dimensional surface.Auguste RodinWalking Man1905 bronze 6 ft. 11 3/4 in. high
34What did the commisioners of the Burghers of Calais find offensive in the work? The roughly textured figures, the bedraggled impression of the burghers, and the absence of a platform to separate the sculpture from the viewing public.Auguste RodinBurghers of Calaisbronze 6 ft. 10 1/2 in. high
35Arts and Crafts The Arts and Crafts movement originated in England. The goal of the movement was to decry the impact of rampant industrialism and to create an “art made by the people for the people as a joy for the maker and the user.”
36The type of objects its members produced included interior decorative objects such as wallpaper, textiles, furniture, books, rugs, stained glass, pottery, windows, lights, and wainscoting.William MorrisGreen Dining Room1867
37William Morris and Charles Rennie and Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh. The Scottish artists who practice the ideas of the Arts and Crafts movement:William Morris and Charles Rennie and Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh.Two adjectives that describe the designs of husband and wife:Precisely geometricRhythmicalCharles Rennie MackintoshIngram Street Tea RoomGlasgow, Scotland
38Art NouveauThe style that developed out of the ideals of the Arts and Crafts movement was given different names in different countries:in France, Belgium, Holland, England and the United States:L’Art Nouveauin Germany:Jugendstilin Spain:Modernismoin Italy:Floreale or Liberty
39Four sources from which Art Nouveau artists drew inspiration: The Arts and Crafts movementJapanese printsSymbolismPost-Impressionists such as Van Gogh and GauguinVictor Hortastaircase in the Van Eetvelde HouseBrussels, Belgium1896
40The sort of forms were preferred by Art Nouveau artists included the twining plant form, tendrils, and delicate tracery.The English Graphic artist who worked at the intersection of Art Nouveau and symbolism was Aubrey BeardsleyAubrey BeardsleyThe Peacock Skirt for Oscar Wilde’s Salome1894 pen-and-ink illustration
41Gaudi’s architectural style: Sculpturally modeled, imaginative, free-form masses with an emphasis on surface.Antonio GaudiCasa MiláBarcelona, Spain1907
42Gustav KlimtThe Kissoil on canvas 5 ft. 10 3/4 in. x 5 ft. 10 3/4 in.
43Gustav KlimtJudith II1909 oil on canvas 178 x 46 cm
44Gustav KlimtDeath and Lifeoil on canvas70 1/8 x 78 in.
45Louis Comfort Tiffany Lotus Table Lamp ca leaded favrile glass, mosaic and bronze 2 ft. 10 1/2 in. high
46Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel Eiffel Tower Paris, France 1889 wrought iron 984 ft. high
47Alexandre- Gustave Eiffel Eiffel TowerParis, France1889 wrought iron 984 ft. high
48Henry Hobson Richardson Marshall Field wholesale store Chicago, Illinois
49Louis Henry SullivanGuaranty BuildingBuffalo, New York
50Carson, Pirie Scott Building Louis Henry SullivanCarson, Pirie Scott BuildingChicago, Illinois
51Slide concept by William V Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.