Presentation on theme: "What is a «Disaster»? An event that happens suddenly or evolves through a specific process, An event that brings physical, economical and social losses."— Presentation transcript:
What is a «Disaster»? An event that happens suddenly or evolves through a specific process, An event that brings physical, economical and social losses for people, An event that stops normal life and stops or cuts off human activity, That is caused by nature, technology or humans is called a Disaster.
Types of Disasters and Their Impact NATURAL: –Earthquakes, Tsunami –Floods –Landslides –Volcanic Eruptions –Storms –Drought –Avalanche –Fire HUMAN INFLICTED: –Technological –Teror –War –Fire
If the fire is small, put it out immediately. Pull the Fire Alarm – «Yangın Alarmı». Call out THERE IS FIRE - YANGIN VAR! and warn others. Call the Fire Department - «İTFAİYE» at Close the door of the room in which the fire started and close all the doors between you and the fire. GO OUT IMMEDIATELY! If and When You See a Fire:
An Earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earths crust, due to breaking of the Crust, that creates seismic waves that cause the areas they pass through to jolt and shake. AFTER SHOCKS The small earthquakes that happen after big earthquakes and that continue for a while are called AFTER SHOCKS. FORESHOCKS Sometimes before big earthquakes small tremors may happen. These small tremors are called FORESHOCKS.
ACCORDING TO SOURCE/ROOT: 1- Tectonic Earthquakes: Earthquakes due to the movement of tectonic plates. Most of the earthquakes that take place in Turkey are tectonic earthquakes. 2- Volcanic Earthquakes: Earthquakes that take place during volcanic eruptions. 3- Collapsing Earthquakes: Earthquakes that take place due to the collapsing of spaces/cavities under the surface of the crust of the Earth. 4- Earthquakes caused by people.
ACCORDING TO DEPTH: 1- Shallow Earthquakes: 0-70 km 2- Mid-Depth Earthquakes: km 3- Deep Focused Earthquakes: km ACCORDING TO DISTANCE: 1- Local Earthquakes: Less than 100 km 2- Close Earthquakes: : Between 100 km-1000 km 3- Regional Earthquakes:Between 1000 km-5000km 4- Distant/Far Earthquakes: : More than 5000 km
ACCORDING TO MAGNITUDE: 1- Small Earthquakes: 0.1 < M < Mid-size Earthquakes : 4.0 < M < Big Earthquakes : 6.5 > M > Very Big Earthquakes : 8.0 > M (M: MAGNITUTE (TR: MANYİTÜD) = The measurement unit of the amount of energy released during and earthquake.)
«Tsunami»s are waves that are formed after earthquakes that happen in deep seas which have a focal point in the ocean floor, that reach the sea shores and cause great damage.
Earthquake Waves and Seismograph The energy that is released during an earthquakes spreads with waves called «seismic waves» which are similar to sound or water waves. These are: "longitudinal waves", "transverse waves" and "surface waves". Longitudinal waves are called "P Waves " (primary). P waves cause particles to move in the same direction as the propagation of the waves.
Transverse waves called "S Wave"(secondary), cause particles to move in a perpendicular manner to its propagation direction. S waves that cannot propagate in liquids slow down the speed of P waves. S waves cause the damage in buildings. Longitudinal and Transverse Waves are also called "Mass/Material Waves". From the reflections of S waves (Transverse Waves) to Earths surface, surface waves, (Love and Rayleigh waves), are formed. Earthquakes are recorded by an equipment called a "seismograph".
P Waves (Longitudinal Wave) S Waves (Transverse Wave) Love ve Rayleigh dalgaları
Fethiye is an important settlement in Muğla and it is transition area between the Aegean and Mediterranean Regions. Fethiye is in the first degree seismic zone of Turkey. In the past important/big earthquakes took place in Fethiye.
MAP OF EARTHQUAKE ZONES OF TURKEY
A View from The Fethiye Earthquake in 1957
VIEWS FROM EARTHQUAKES IN TURKEY
Concrete Stack structure Wooden Cob Steel Traditional & Local Other Building Evaluation/Analysis Defining the Building Type
The Survival Percentages in Relation to The Time of Rescue from a Wreckage First 30 Minutes 93% 1st Day81% 2nd Day 36% 3rd Day 33% 4th Day 19% 5th Day 7% After the 5th Day 2%
During a disaster if an injured person/survivor of the disaster can be saved with in the first 24 hours, the survival chance is around 80%....
THE EARTHQUAKE RELATED WORK THE MUNICIPALITY OF FETHIYE HAS DONE BETWEEN AND
To inform the public about earthquakes academicians and expert professors and professionals from different universities have been invited to give conferences, seminars and to take part in symposiums. We will continue to organize similar activities: Some of the professors and professionals that we have invited: –Prof. Dr. Ahmet ERCAN, –Geomorphologist Muammer ATİKER –Prof. Dr. Fuzuli YAĞMURLU –Prof. Dr. Ergün TÜRKER –Prof. Dr. Semih TEZCANLI –Prof. Dr. Haluk EYİDOĞAN –Prof. Dr. Gülay BARBOROSOĞLU –Prof. Dr. A.Mete IŞIKARA –Prof. Dr. Yıldız ALTINOK –Assistant Prof. Dr. A.Cevdet YALÇINER –Assistant Prof. Dr. Veli KARA –Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa AYDIN –Assistant Prof. Dr. Oğuz GÜNDOĞDU –Dr. Doğan KALAFAT
WHAT CAN BE DONE BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER AN EARTHQUAKE? PRESENTATION OF THE EARTHQUAKE BAG
Structural Precautions: DO: 1. The buildings should be designed by engineers and architects (professionals). 2. Buildings should be constructed according to the Building Codes applicable to Disaster Regions. (In Turkish: «BİNA YAPI İNŞAATI İLE İLGİLİ YÖNETMELİKLE- AFET BÖLGELERİNDE YAPILACAK YAPILAR HAKKINDA YÖNETMELİK») 3. Good quality building materials should be used in the right amounts. 4. The building contractor and their workers should be controlled and inspected. DONT DO: 1. Do not change the design of your building (on your own). 2. Do not build additional floors without legal permits. 3. Do not changed the materials used in the construction. 4. Do not use the building for purposes other that what is was designed for.
Osmaniye, June 2001 (5.5 MS)
Osmaniye, June 25, 2001 (5.5 MS)
Earthquake Drills In a safe place kneel, CROUCH or LIE DOWN (Fetus Position) CLOSE YOURSELF in a manner that will protect your head and the back of the neck, HOLD ON to a stable place not to fall, Stay in your location until tremors stop, Take deep breaths to call yourself. Try again, again and again… CROUCH or LIE DOWN, CLOSE YOURSELF and HOLD ON
Remember that it is risky to go inside damaged buildings to get Personal goods, furniture etc out! Remember that after the Main Earthquake, Aftershocks will Continue for a while. Do not occupy damaged houses and buildings. Previsions/Recommendations: Life Safety First!
«EARTHQUAKE BAG» AND ITS CONTENTS
WISHING YOU DAYS WITHOUT EARTHQUAKES THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENCE BEST REGARDS SADİ ÇİDEM GEOPHISICS ENGINEER FETHİYE MUNICIPALITY HEAD OF THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT CENTER