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Emotional Disabilities Psychiatric Diagnosis And Practical Applications Linda Zimmerman Professor, Psychology and Student Development Oakton Community.

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Presentation on theme: "Emotional Disabilities Psychiatric Diagnosis And Practical Applications Linda Zimmerman Professor, Psychology and Student Development Oakton Community."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emotional Disabilities Psychiatric Diagnosis And Practical Applications Linda Zimmerman Professor, Psychology and Student Development Oakton Community College

2 What is Mental Illness? Mental illness is a term that describes a broad range of mental and emotional conditions. Mental illness is a term that describes a broad range of mental and emotional conditions.

3 What is Mental Illness? Mental illness also refers to one portion of the broader ADA term mental impairment, and is different from other covered mental impairments such as mental retardation, organic brain damage, and learning disabilities. Mental illness also refers to one portion of the broader ADA term mental impairment, and is different from other covered mental impairments such as mental retardation, organic brain damage, and learning disabilities.

4 Psychiatric Disability The term psychiatric disability is used when mental illness significantly interferes with the performance of major life activities, for example: The term psychiatric disability is used when mental illness significantly interferes with the performance of major life activities, for example: Learning Learning Thinking Thinking Communicating Communicating Sleeping Sleeping others others

5 Mental Illness can experience a mental illness over many years. can experience a mental illness over many years. type, intensity and duration of symptoms vary from person to person. type, intensity and duration of symptoms vary from person to person. symptoms come and go and do not always follow a regular pattern symptoms come and go and do not always follow a regular pattern difficult to predict when symptoms will worsen, even if treatment recommendations are followed difficult to predict when symptoms will worsen, even if treatment recommendations are followed

6 Mental Illness Although the symptoms of mental illness often can be controlled effectively through medication and/or psychotherapy, or may even go into remission, for some people the illness continues to cause periodic episodes that require treatment. Although the symptoms of mental illness often can be controlled effectively through medication and/or psychotherapy, or may even go into remission, for some people the illness continues to cause periodic episodes that require treatment. Support needed varies widely: Support needed varies widely: 1.none 2.occasional 3.Substantial 4.ongoing support to maintain their productivity

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8 Most Common Forms of Mental Illness Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders Depressive Disorders Depressive Disorders Schizophrenia Schizophrenia

9 Anxiety Disorders the most common group of mental illnesses the most common group of mental illnesses characterized by severe fear or anxiety associated with particular objects and situations. characterized by severe fear or anxiety associated with particular objects and situations. most people with anxiety disorders try to avoid exposure to the situation that causes anxiety most people with anxiety disorders try to avoid exposure to the situation that causes anxiety

10 Panic Disorder the sudden onset of paralyzing terror or impending doom with symptoms that closely resemble a heart attack the sudden onset of paralyzing terror or impending doom with symptoms that closely resemble a heart attack

11 Phobias Simple Phobias: excessive fear of particular objects Simple Phobias: excessive fear of particular objects Social Phobias: situations that expose a person to the possible judgment of others Social Phobias: situations that expose a person to the possible judgment of others Agoraphobia: situations where escape might be difficult Agoraphobia: situations where escape might be difficult

12 Phobias – Fear of… Acrophobia: Heights Acrophobia: Heights Ophidiophobia: Snakes Ophidiophobia: Snakes Aerophobia: Flying Aerophobia: Flying Arachnophobia: Spiders Arachnophobia: Spiders Ornithophobia: Birds Ornithophobia: Birds Agoraphobia: Open spaces Agoraphobia: Open spaces Astraphobia: Lightning Astraphobia: Lightning Mikrophobia: Germs Mikrophobia: Germs Phonophobia: Speaking aloud Phonophobia: Speaking aloud Brontophobia: Thunder Brontophobia: Thunder Trichophobia: Hair Trichophobia: Hair Anthropophobia: People Anthropophobia: People

13 Phobias – Fear of… Gephyrophobia: Bridges Gephyrophobia: Bridges Herpetophobia: Reptiles Herpetophobia: Reptiles Ailurophobia: Cats Ailurophobia: Cats Murophobia: Mice Murophobia: Mice Pyrophobia: Fire Pyrophobia: Fire Claustrophobia: Closed spaces Claustrophobia: Closed spaces Numerophobia: Numbers Numerophobia: Numbers Thanatophobia: Death Thanatophobia: Death Anthophobia: Flowers Anthophobia: Flowers Cynophobia: Dogs Cynophobia: Dogs Nyctophobia: Darkness Nyctophobia: Darkness Aquaphobia: Water Aquaphobia: Water

14 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 1. Obsessions - persistent distressing thoughts 2. Compulsions - a person attempts to alleviate the distress of certain thoughts by performing repetitive, intentional actions such as hand washing

15 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OCD – As Good as it Gets: Jack Nicholson OCD – As Good as it Gets: Jack Nicholson W8OcExo&NR=1 W8OcExo&NR=1 W8OcExo&NR=1 W8OcExo&NR=1 he-ocd-project-supertrailer.jhtml he-ocd-project-supertrailer.jhtml he-ocd-project-supertrailer.jhtml he-ocd-project-supertrailer.jhtml

16 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) a psychological syndrome characterized by specific symptoms that result from exposure to terrifying, life-threatening trauma such as an act of violence, war, or a natural disaster a psychological syndrome characterized by specific symptoms that result from exposure to terrifying, life-threatening trauma such as an act of violence, war, or a natural disaster

17 Anxiety Therapy Exercise Exercise Meditation Meditation Sleep Sleep Reduce caffeine Reduce caffeine Psychotherapy Psychotherapy –Behavioral therapy (extinction) –Cognitive therapy (change thinking) –Tranquilizers New drug, D-cycloserine New drug, D-cycloserine –increase learning receptors –Virtual reality sessions

18 Depressive Disorders Mood Disorders or Affective Disorders Depressive Disorders Mood Disorders or Affective Disorders Symptoms changes in mood Mania Depression Treatments Medication Psychotherapy Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Phototherapy

19 Depressive Disorders Major depression - an extreme or prolonged episode of sadness in which a person loses interest or pleasure in previously enjoyed activities Major depression - an extreme or prolonged episode of sadness in which a person loses interest or pleasure in previously enjoyed activities

20 Depressive Disorders Major depression – characteristics Depressed mood Hopeless, helpless Loss of interest, pleasure Appetite, weight changes Sleeping problems Agitation Decreased energy Guilt, worthless feelings Suicidal thoughts Delusions, hallucinations Physical aches and pains

21 Depressive Disorders Bipolar Disorder alternating episodes of mania ("highs") and depression ("lows") Bipolar Disorder alternating episodes of mania ("highs") and depression ("lows")

22 Depressive Disorders Dysthymia - continuous low-grade symptoms of major depression and anxiety Dysthymia - continuous low-grade symptoms of major depression and anxiety

23 Depressive Disorders Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) - a form of major depression that occurs in the fall or winter and may be related to shortened periods of daylight

24 Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorders conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

25 Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Identity Disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities formerly called multiple personality disorder formerly called multiple personality disorder

26 Schizophrenia Highly complex illness Highly complex illness Difficult to generalize Difficult to generalize Undetermined if it is a single disorder or a group of related illnesses Undetermined if it is a single disorder or a group of related illnesses Symptoms generally develop between the ages of 15 and 25. Symptoms generally develop between the ages of 15 and 25. Characterized by thoughts that seem fragmented and difficulty processing information. Characterized by thoughts that seem fragmented and difficulty processing information.

27 Schizophrenia Symptoms are categorized as either "negative" or "positive." Symptoms are categorized as either "negative" or "positive." -Negative symptoms include: social isolation or withdrawal, loss of motivation a flat or inappropriate affect (mood or disposition). -Positive symptoms include: hallucinations hallucinationsdelusions thought disorder

28 Schizophrenia

29 Personality Disorders Other diagnosis we will explore: Borderline Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder

30 Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD pervasive instability in mood pervasive instability in mood impaired interpersonal relationships impaired interpersonal relationships changing self-image changing self-image lack of personal boundaries lack of personal boundaries The majority of people diagnosed with this disorder appear to have been abused or traumatized during childhood Some researchers believe that BPD is a name given to a particular manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder

31 Narcissistic Personality Disorder extreme self-admiration, self-centeredness and self- regard, superiority, exhibitionism, entitlement, vanity, authority, exploitiveness. extreme self-admiration, self-centeredness and self- regard, superiority, exhibitionism, entitlement, vanity, authority, exploitiveness. overestimation of personal abilities overestimation of personal abilities excessive need for admiration and affirmation from others excessive need for admiration and affirmation from others disregard for the feelings of others, lack of empathy disregard for the feelings of others, lack of empathy erratic behavior erratic behavior well-liked at first meeting, extroverted, perform well in public well-liked at first meeting, extroverted, perform well in public mal-adaptive, rigid, persistent mal-adaptive, rigid, persistent

32 Histrionic Personality Disorder A pattern of excessive emotional expression and attention-seeking A pattern of excessive emotional expression and attention-seeking An excessive need for approval An excessive need for approval Inappropriate seductiveness Inappropriate seductiveness Lively, dramatic, enthusiastic, flirtatious Lively, dramatic, enthusiastic, flirtatious Express strong emotions, dramatic Express strong emotions, dramatic Easily influenced by others, easily bored Easily influenced by others, easily bored More frequently diagnosed in women More frequently diagnosed in women May affect social or romantic relationships May affect social or romantic relationships Great difficulty coping with loss or failure Great difficulty coping with loss or failure Crave novelty and excitement thus get into risky situations Crave novelty and excitement thus get into risky situations High risk of developing depression High risk of developing depression

33 Autistic Disorder and Aspergers Syndrome

34 Autistic Disorder Delays or abnormal functioning observed prior to 3 years. Delays or abnormal functioning observed prior to 3 years. Cognitive impairment Cognitive impairment Problems: Problems: social interaction language in social communication symbolic or imaginative play

35 Aspergers Syndrome No clinically significant developmental delay No clinically significant developmental delay Eccentric behavior in childhood Eccentric behavior in childhood Impairments in two-sided social interaction Impairments in two-sided social interaction Impairments in non-verbal communication Impairments in non-verbal communication Peculiar inflections and repetitions in speech Peculiar inflections and repetitions in speech Gross motor clumsiness Gross motor clumsiness Often have a circumscribed area of interest that leaves little room for more age appropriate, common interests: cars, trains, door knobs, hinges, meteorology, etc. Often have a circumscribed area of interest that leaves little room for more age appropriate, common interests: cars, trains, door knobs, hinges, meteorology, etc.

36 Aspergers Syndrome The speech of a 13 year old girl with Aspergers The speech of a 13 year old girl with Aspergers No clinically significant delay in cognitive intelligence No clinically significant delay in cognitive intelligence

37 Tourette Syndrome Inherited neurological disorder Inherited neurological disorder Genetic combined with environmental factors considered causal Genetic combined with environmental factors considered causal Onset in childhood Onset in childhood Multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic Multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic Tics wax and wane Tics wax and wane Coprolalia – exclamation of obscene or derogatory remarks – only present in a small minority. Coprolalia – exclamation of obscene or derogatory remarks – only present in a small minority.

38 Tourette Syndrome Mild in most cases Mild in most cases Often misidentified Often misidentified Incidence may be as high as one in 100 people, up to 530,000 U.S. school-age children may have it. Incidence may be as high as one in 100 people, up to 530,000 U.S. school-age children may have it. Exact causes are unknown Exact causes are unknown Most are aware of an urge when they have a tic Most are aware of an urge when they have a tic No such thing as a typical case No such thing as a typical case Often accompanied by OCD and/or ADHD. Often accompanied by OCD and/or ADHD.

39 Eating Disorders pdGC2s pdGC2s pdGC2s pdGC2s Major Eating disorders: Major Eating disorders: –Anorexia nervosa characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight and an obsessive fear of gaining weight. Anorexia nervosaAnorexia nervosa –Bulimia nervosa restraining of food intake for a period of time followed by an over intake or binging period that results in feelings of guilt and low self-esteem. Bulimia nervosaBulimia nervosa

40 ADHD six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:

41 Diagnostic criteria for Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Often: Often: fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities Celebrity ADHD

42 Diagnostic criteria for Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder does not seem to listen when spoken to directly does not seem to listen when spoken to directly does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish: school work does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish: school work chores chores duties in the workplace duties in the workplace

43 Diagnostic criteria for Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Often: has difficulty organizing tasks and activities has difficulty organizing tasks and activities avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework) avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework)

44 Diagnostic criteria for Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school assignments, pencils, books, tools, files, notes, keys, glasses) loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school assignments, pencils, books, tools, files, notes, keys, glasses) easily distracted by extraneous stimuli easily distracted by extraneous stimuli forgetful in daily activities forgetful in daily activities Often:

45 Diagnostic criteria for Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder And/or:hyperactivity-impulsivity: six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity- impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:

46 Hyperactivity Often: ( 1) fidgets or squirms (2) leaves seat in situations in which remaining seated is expected (3) moves excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness) ( 1) fidgets or squirms (2) leaves seat in situations in which remaining seated is expected (3) moves excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)

47 Hyperactivity (4) has difficulty engaging in leisure activities quietly or alone (5) "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor" (5) "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor" (6) talks excessively Often:

48 Myths About Mental Illness People choose to have mental illness. People choose to have mental illness. It reflects moral weakness. It reflects moral weakness. A person can snap out of it. A person can snap out of it. Nothing will help. Nothing will help. The person cannot succeed in work or school. The person cannot succeed in work or school.

49 Basic Statistics about Mental Illness Mental illnesses are treatable Mental illnesses are treatable Lack of treatment can lead to suicide. Lack of treatment can lead to suicide. 1 in 5 people will experience mental illness in their lifetime. 1 in 5 people will experience mental illness in their lifetime. Depressive disorders occur in 8% of the population Depressive disorders occur in 8% of the population Schizophrenia occurs in 2% of the population Schizophrenia occurs in 2% of the population

50 International Psychological Disorders

51 American Psychological Disorders, 2008

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53 Suicide Risk Factors Varies by gender, age, and marital status Varies by gender, age, and marital status –easy accessibility to firearms –mood disorders –substance abuse –feelings of loneliness and hopelessness –previous suicide attempts under age 30 under age 30 –interpersonal loss; –poor social adjustment; and –problems surrounding love relationships, dating, and friends College Undergraduates College Undergraduates –Rejection by a potential partner –loss of a romantic relationship


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