Presentation on theme: "American Life in the Roaring Twenties"— Presentation transcript:
1American Life in the Roaring Twenties Chapter 31 APUSHAmerican Life in the Roaring Twenties
2THE ROARING TWENTIES Return to normalcy US turned inward---isolationismDecade notable for obsessive interest in celebritiesSex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainmentEat, drink & be merry, for tomorrow we dieJazz Agefirst modern era in the U.S.
3Red ScareRed Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. “scared out of their wits"."Reds” as they were called, "Anarchists” or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Agitators” (Communists).Attorney General A. Mitchell PalmerAnti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution.6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S.No due process was followed
4Kept out immigrants from southeastern Europe. IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONSThe U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S.Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and Immigration Act of 1924Kept out immigrants from southeastern Europe.
6IMMIGRATION QUOTASThe U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S.Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910.Immigration Act of 1924, the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of 1890, when few southeastern Europeans lived in America.
8Cartoon from 1919: “Put them out and keep them out”
9In this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well. Sacco and VanzettiNicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass.The trial lasted Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.In this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well.Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they would be executed.
111925: Membership of 5 million 1926: Marched on Washington. K K KRise of the KKK was due to the ever changing of a traditional America.1925: Membership of 5 million1926: Marched on Washington.Attack on urban culture and defends Christian/Protestant and rural valuesAgainst immigrants from Southern Europe, European Jews, Catholics and American BlacksSought to win U.S. by persuasion and gaining control in local/state government.Violence, internal corruption result in Klan’s virtual disappearance by 1930 but will reappear in the 1950s and 1960s.
13PROHIBITIONGoal: was to reduce crime and poverty and improve the quality of life by making it impossible for people to get their hands on alcohol.This "Noble Experiment" was a failure.Midnight, January 16th, 1920, US went dry.The 18th Amendment, known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale and possession of alcohol in America. Prohibition lasted for thirteen years.So was born the industry of bootlegging, speakeasies and Bathtub Gin.
14Most support for prohibition came from religious rural white Protestants By 1917, more than half the states had passed laws restricting alcohol.
15PROHIBITIONPeople drank more than ever during Prohibition, and there were more deaths related to alcohol.No other law in America has been violated so flagrantly by so many "decent law-abiding" people.Overnight, many became criminals.Mobsters controlled liquor created a booming black market economy.Gangsters owned speakeasies and by 1925 there were over 100,000 speakeasies in New York City alone.
16Prohibition was doomed to failure because government did not have enough officers to enforce it. (Only 3,000 nationwide)People made their own alcohol illegally, or got their doctor to prescribe it as medicine.Prohibition allowed for huge smuggling operations. In 1925 government officials estimated that they stopped only 5% of all illegal alcohol entering the country.
19The Golden Age of Gangsterism ChicagoAl Capone (“Scarface”)- Public Enemy #1St. Valentine’s Day Massacre- seven members of a rival gang were murdered after their weapons were taken away from themThe Culture500 mobsters murdered in the gang wars of Chicago in the 1920sBy 1930, organized crime has an income of $12-$18 billion, more than 4 times the income of the federal government
20EDUCATION AND POPULAR CULTURE During the 1920s, developments in education had a powerful impact on the nation.Enrollment in high schools quadrupled between 1914 and 1926.Public schools met the challenge of educating millions of immigrants
21SCOPES MONKEY TRIAL1925The first major legal conflict between religion vs. science being taught in school was in 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee.
22Famous trial lawyer who represented Scopes SCOPES MONKEY TRIALJohn T. ScopesRespected high school biology teacher arrested in Dayton, Tennessee for teaching Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.Clarence DarrowFamous trial lawyer who represented ScopesWilliam J. BryanSec. of State for President Wilson, ran for president three times, turned evangelical leader. Represented theprosecution.Dayton, TennesseeSmall town in the south became protective against the encroachment of modern times and secular teachings.
23The right to teach and protect Biblical teachings in schools. SCOPES MONKEY TRIALThe right to teach and protect Biblical teachings in schools.The acceptance of science and that all species have evolved from lower forms of beings over billions of years.The trial is conducted in a carnival-like atmosphere. The people of Dayton are seen as ‘backward’ by the country.
24Outcome of the Scopes Trial Scopes found guilty and fined $100- the fine was later revoked by the Tennessee Supreme Court on a technicality in the procedure of the trialThe Butler Act would not be formally repealed until 1967WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS?
25The Second Industrial Revolution U.S. develops the highest standard of living in the worldThe twenties and the second revolutionelectricity replaces steamHenry Ford’s modern assembly line introducedRise of the airline industryModern appliances and conveniences begin to change American society
26The Automobile Industry Auto makers stimulate sales through model changes, advertisingAuto industry fostered the growth of other businessesAutos encourage movement and more individual freedom.
31“Pink Collar” Jobs Gave women a taste of the work world. Low paying service occupations.Made less money than men did doing the same jobs.Examples of jobs:SecretariesTeachersTelephone operatorsNurses
32THE FLAPPER These women challenged traditional American values. Characteristics of a Flapper:Short, bobbed hairShort hems on their skirtsListened to Jazz musicWore makeupDrank hard liquorSmoked cigarettesTreated sex in a more casual mannerWere opposed to the conventional social and sexual norms
33MODERN FAMILY EMERGES Marriage was based on romantic love. Women managed the household and finances.Children were not considered laborers/ wage earners anymore.Seen as developing children who needed nurturing and education
35Mass Media Increases in Mass media during the 1920s Print and broadcast methods of communication.Examples:NewspapersMagazinesRadioMoviesNewspapers:27 million to 39 millionIncrease of 42%Motion Pictures:40 million to 80 millionIncrease of 100%Radios:60,000 to 10.2 millionIncrease of 16,983%
36RADIOWestinghouse Radio Station KDKA was a world pioneer of commercial radio broadcasting.Transmitted 100 watts on a wavelength of 360 meters.KDKA first broadcast was the Harding-Cox Presidential election returns on November 2, 1920.220 stations eighteen months after KDKA started.$50 to $150 for first radios3,000,000 homes had them by 1922.
37RADIORadio sets, parts and accessories brought in $60 million in 1922…$136 million in 1923$852 million in 1929Radio reached into every third home in its first decade.Listening audience was 50,000,000 by 1925
39ENTERTAINMENT AND ARTS Even before sound, movies offered a means of escape through romance and comedyFirst sound movies: Jazz Singer (1927)First animated with sound: Steamboat Willie (1928)By 1930 millions of Americans went to the movies each week.Walt Disney's animated Steamboat Willie marked the debut of Mickey Mouse. It was a seven minute long black and white cartoon.
40AMERICAN HEROES OF THE 20s In 1929, Americans spent $4.5 billion on entertainment. (includes sports)People crowded into baseball games to see their heroes.Babe Ruth was a larger than life American hero who played for YankeesHe hit 60 homers in 1927.
41WRITERS OF THE 1920sWriter F. Scott Fitzgerald coined the phrase “Jazz Age” to describe the 1920sFitzgerald wrote Paradise Lost and The Great GatsbyThe Great Gatsby reflected the emptiness of New York elite society
42It wasn’t call the “Jazz Age” for nothin’. Jazz moved up from New Orleans to Northern cities during the Great Migration.Early pioneers: W. C. Handy- “St. Louis Blues”, King Oliver’s Creole Jazz BandLouis Armstrong, Duke Ellington would steal the show.
43“If I had to choose between Harlem and heaven, oh-ho-ho, Harlem would win every time.” Harlem Renaissance:Cultural renaissance of African American art, literature, music, and pride.The “New Negro”- proud, a full citizen, and EQUAL to whites!Song of the Towers- Aaron Douglas
44Contributors to African American Culture in the 1920s AuthorsLangston Hughes- poems with tempos that echoed jazz and blues. “Strange”Claude McKay- Cane one of first full-length publications of Harlem RenaissanceZora Neale Hurston- portrayed lives of poor, Southern blacks. “The greatest cultural wealth of the continent.”The poet laureate of Harlem
45African American political leaders Marcus GarveyCreated the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)Promoted resettlement of AfricaKeep black dollars in black communities