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Presented at the 2009 National Forum on Education Policy Nashville, Tennessee July 10, 2009 Shifting Developmental Studies into High Gear: A System Approach to Redesign in Tennessee Academic Preparation Initiative Funded by FIPSE Presented by Dr. Paula Myrick Short, Principal Investigator Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs Dr. Treva Berryman, Project Facilitator Associate Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs

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TBR - DSP History In 1984, the Tennessee Board of Regents mandated a program of remedial and developmental studies comprehensive mandatory assessment procedure mandatory placement of underprepared students by level of deficiency comprehensive support system with prescribed course with up to 24 SCH

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Colleges Spend Billions to Prep Freshmen A new report from Strong American Schools, Diploma to Nowhere, estimates the costs to bring students up to speed for college work to be between $2.3 billion and $2.9 billion annually A new report from Strong American Schools, Diploma to Nowhere, estimates the costs to bring students up to speed for college work to be between $2.3 billion and $2.9 billion annually At TBR, $25 million spent annually on remedial and developmental education At TBR, $25 million spent annually on remedial and developmental education

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First-Time Freshmen Remedial and Developmental Classes Universities 2006 -11,155 with 4,511 (40.4%) 2007-11,559 with 4,809 (41.6%) 2007-11,559 with 4,809 (41.6%) Community Colleges 2006 - 14,828 with 10,715 (72.3%) 2007 – 14,852 with 11,235 (75.6%)

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Persistence An Issue Universities Community Colleges DSP Courses ACT Fall to Fall Retention Six Year Grad Rate ACT Fall to Fall Retention Six Year Grad Rate Zero23.471.9%45.4%22.161.5%29.1% One19.765.5%31.4%19.060.5%22.2% Two18.963.2%27.2%18.155.5%19.0% Three17.558.1%21.7%16.550.2%13.1% Four16.454.6%23.2%15.645.8%9.3% Five15.668.4%25.1%15.254.0%10.7% Six15.160.7%18.3%14.548.4%7.3% Seven14.365.4%19.2%13.945.4%6.5% Eight14.144.8%17.2%13.242.0%3.8% Totals21.167.5%36.8%18.054.6%18.0% 2000 First-Time Freshman Cohort. Rates based on returning to or graduating from initial enrolling institution.

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TBR 2005-2010 Strategic Plan Objective A8 Increase speed and success of remedial/ developmental work for students requiring them to become college-ready. Increase speed and success of remedial/ developmental work for students requiring them to become college-ready. Strategy A8 Strategy A8 Establish a best practice, system-wide, community-college- based remedial/developmental program that is substantially technology driven, composed of language arts and mathematics, and allows students to identify and focus on the academic areas where they are deficient.

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The Challenge Review what we have learned in the past 25 years Consider the current research and new technologies Realize that we have different careers, different academic programs, and very different students than we had 25 years ago Design a program to meet the needs of under- prepared students with the assumption that nothing already exist

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Expectations for the DSP Redesign Initiative Replicable/Scalable model for multiple settings Replicable/Scalable model for multiple settings Improve the quality of learning and assessment Improve the quality of learning and assessment Significant cost savings Significant cost savings Increase retention Increase retention Decrease time to completion Decrease time to completion Maintain commitment to access Maintain commitment to access Sustainable program with solid fiscal outlook and enhanced public support Sustainable program with solid fiscal outlook and enhanced public support

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Timeline 2006 Initial Planning - Appointed 20 Task Force Members ( mostly faculty) - Applied for and awarded $739,000 FIPSE 3-yr grant 2007 Institutional Involvement- The NCAT Process - Two workshops (330 total participants) - Applications/Awards/Plan Pilot Interventions 2008 Pilots - 6 funded at $30,000 to $40,000 each 2009 Draft recommendations by the end of the year 2010 - Implement system wide fall semester (may require phase-in)

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Partners and their Role National Center for Academic Transformation (NCAT) www.thencat.orgwww.thencat.org Dr. Carol Twigg – monitoring process for funded pilots Education Commission of the States (ECS) www.ecs.orgwww.ecs.org Dr. Bruce Vandal – expanding research to guide public policy National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) http://www.nchems.orghttp://www.nchems.org Dr. Karen Paulson – external evaluation of the project

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DSP REDESIGN TASK FORCE Representatives include a President, Chief Academic Officer, Student Affairs Officer, Director of Admissions, University Vice President, Developmental Studies Directors, and Faculty TASK FORCE SUB-COMMITTEES 1. 1. Math Curriculum Review 2. 2. English (reading/writing) Curriculum Review 3. 3. Assessment 4. 4. Funding/Financial

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Consensus on a New Philosophy for DSP Change of focus: from the pastto the future Instead of remediating for whatever was missed or forgotten from high school, we will prepare the student to succeed in the curriculum of their chosen field of study. If the student changes the career goal, additional remediation may be needed. Question Can remediation be provided just in time so that students can take college level courses prior to completing all developmental studies requirements?

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SHIFTING GEARS INTO REDESIGN

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A Different Approach Each redesign pilot is unique. NeSCC – Emporium Model (reading) NeSCC – Emporium Model (reading) CoSCC – Replacement Model (reading and writing) CoSCC – Replacement Model (reading and writing) APSU – Structured Learning Assistance (SLA) (math) APSU – Structured Learning Assistance (SLA) (math) ClSCC and JSCC– Emporium Model (math) ClSCC and JSCC– Emporium Model (math) ChSCC – Replacement Model (math) ChSCC – Replacement Model (math)

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Northeast State Community College Reading Emporium Diagnostic pre- and post-test; individualized plan Mandatory weekly hours in the Reading Center w/ individual assistance Online Learning Communities through D2L and Tegrity MyReadingLabWeb-based and modularized Course Notebook Multiple sets of practice and module tests Automatic tracking and grading

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Improved Learning at Northeast State Student Learning/Performance ClassPre-Test Average Post-Test Average Value Added Pilot II72.0684.7712.59 Pilot III65.2386.0520.82 Traditional72.2981.098.80

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Northeast State Community College Learning Outcomes Student success ( C of better) increased from 52% (traditional) to 58% (redesigned delivery). Students with a grade of A increased from 14% (traditional) to 30% (redesigned delivery).

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APSU - SLA Components In the Classroom Faculty teach the core course the same way it is taught for non-SLA sections. The SLA Leader models effective student behavior. In the Workshop The SLA Leader reinforces key course concepts, teaches study habits, and conducts test reviews. MyMathLab provides individualized instruction on prerequisite course competencies Weekly Faculty/ SLA Leader Coordination Meeting

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Prerequisite Competencies MATH 1010 Fractions & decimals Number & measure Proportional reasoning Signed numbers & algebraic expression Linear equations & their graphs Radicals & roots MATH 1530 Algebraic expression Equations, inequalities, & percents Graphing, functions, & linear equations Polynomials, exponents, & radicals

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APSU – SLA Results Significant increase in student success rate CourseFall 2008Spring 2009 Traditional Math 1010 70.5%62.2%23.1% Math 1530 51.9%64.15%22.5% Significant increase in student retention from 59.9% to 63.6%

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APSU - SLA Benefits For the University Decreased costs. Increased revenue. Reduced class space requirements. Increased student success. For Students Decreased costs. Decreased time required to complete core requirements. Increased opportunity for success.

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S M A R T SMART Math Center at Jackson State Community College urvive urvive chieve chieve aster aster eview eview ransfer ransfer

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Three Traditional Courses Three Traditional Courses Enrollment: 2200 Enrollment: 2200 Number Sections: 102 Number Sections: 102 Max Size per Section: 24 Max Size per Section: 24 Student had to pass course or start over next term Student had to pass course or start over next term Each instructor designed own course presentations, lectures, homework assignments, and tests Each instructor designed own course presentations, lectures, homework assignments, and tests Student class time rigid Student class time rigid Student had to successfully complete all three courses before being accepted into Allied Health or Nursing programs or taking certain college level courses Student had to successfully complete all three courses before being accepted into Allied Health or Nursing programs or taking certain college level courses Jackson State - Before Redesign

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SMART Math at JSCC Mastery Approach Mastery Approach Opportunity to Progress More Quickly (or slowly, if needed) Opportunity to Progress More Quickly (or slowly, if needed) Accommodation of Learning Styles Accommodation of Learning Styles On-demand Individual Assistance On-demand Individual Assistance Immediate Feedback on Tests and Homework Immediate Feedback on Tests and Homework Use of Customized Textbook with Study Guides and Technology Driven Instruction Use of Customized Textbook with Study Guides and Technology Driven Instruction

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JSCC Modularization 12 modules covering same competencies as traditional development courses. MODULESTRADITIONAL COURSE 1, 2, 3DSPM 0700 Basic Mathematics 4, 5, 6, 7DSPM 0800 Elementary Algebra 8, 9, 10, 11, 12DSPM 0850 Intermediate Algebra Module grades calculated as follows: Attendance 5% Notebooks10% Homework15% Post-Test (Proctored)70% To satisfy a module the overall grade must be at least 75%

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Results of JSCC Modularization 40 Courses of Study require a General Education Math Courses 40 Courses of Study require a General Education Math Courses 31 Majors allowed a Math Course with prerequisite Modules 1 – 7 31 Majors allowed a Math Course with prerequisite Modules 1 – 7 2 Required at least 8 Modules 2 Required at least 8 Modules 7 Required all 12 Modules 7 Required all 12 Modules 7 Programs of Study do not require college level Math – Allied Health & Nursing 7 Programs of Study do not require college level Math – Allied Health & Nursing 2 Require Modules 1-8 2 Require Modules 1-8 4 Require Modules 1-7 4 Require Modules 1-7 1 Requires Modules 1-6 1 Requires Modules 1-6 1 Requires Modules 1-4 1 Requires Modules 1-4

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Students Completing DSPM Requirements Students who can enroll in college level courses/programs next term Traditional Course Spring 200824% Redesign Course Spring 2008 22% Redesign Course Fall 200836% Redesign Course Spring 200942%

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Student Outcomes 41% 54% 57% 59% 74% 72% 75% 83% Student Learning = Students making ABC Course Retention = Students enrolled in the course to the end of semester

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Mean Scores on Post Test by Modules

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Cleveland State Community College 3 Developmental Math Courses 3 Developmental Math Courses Basic Math, Elementary Algebra, Intermediate Algebra Basic Math, Elementary Algebra, Intermediate Algebra 6 College Level Math Courses 6 College Level Math Courses College Algebra, Statistics, Finite Math College Algebra, Statistics, Finite Math Precalculus I, Precalculus II, Applied Calculus Precalculus I, Precalculus II, Applied Calculus 2 Computer Labs, 4 Computer Classrooms 2 Computer Labs, 4 Computer Classrooms 60 computer lab on main campus in Cleveland 60 computer lab on main campus in Cleveland 35 computer classroom/lab on campus in Athens 35 computer classroom/lab on campus in Athens Project Timeline Project Timeline Spring 2008: Elementary Algebra and Intermediate Algebra Spring 2008: Elementary Algebra and Intermediate Algebra Fall 2008: Basic Math, College Algebra, Statistics, Finite Math Fall 2008: Basic Math, College Algebra, Statistics, Finite Math Fall 2009: Precalculus I, Precalculus II, and Applied Calculus Fall 2009: Precalculus I, Precalculus II, and Applied Calculus 1000+ Students Enrolled In 9 courses Each Semester 1000+ Students Enrolled In 9 courses Each Semester

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Cleveland States Approach Course Layout Course Layout Each course consists of 10 – 12 mini-modules Each course consists of 10 – 12 mini-modules 1 hour class meeting each week – students work in class 1 hour class meeting each week – students work in class 2 hours work outside class each week – at least 1 hour in lab 2 hours work outside class each week – at least 1 hour in lab Students expected to complete one module each week Students expected to complete one module each week Course Grade Course Grade 10% Attendance Grade - class & lab attendance, module finished 10% Attendance Grade - class & lab attendance, module finished 30% Homework Sets – 2 to 5 sections per module 30% Homework Sets – 2 to 5 sections per module 60% Quiz and Exam Grades – 1 quiz each module, 2 exams 60% Quiz and Exam Grades – 1 quiz each module, 2 exams Course Standards Course Standards Students must complete every homework set (70 or better) Students must complete every homework set (70 or better) Students must pass every module quiz and exam (70 or better) Students must pass every module quiz and exam (70 or better) Students must pass attendance grade (70 or better) Students must pass attendance grade (70 or better) Students may take each quiz and exam multiple times Students may take each quiz and exam multiple times

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Changing Faculty Roles Dispense information Covering material 15 hours of contact time Teaching 5 class sections Help students outside class? 7.5 office hours each week Prep time a burden Grading at home Focused on lectures Assist students with learning Tracking student progress 20 hours of contact time Teaching 10 class sections 10 lab hours each week 5 office hours each week Prep time eliminated 100% online grading Focused on student success Traditional Faculty RoleNew Faculty Role

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Attitude Adjustments Students I want my lecture! I want my lecture! Study night before exam Study night before exam What do I need to pass? What do I need to pass?Teachers I want my lecture! I want my lecture!Class Low attendance Low attendance Dont do homework Dont do homework Not engaged in class Not engaged in class Students I like this! I like this! Weekly homework, quiz Weekly homework, quiz I want an A. I want an A.Teachers This works! This works!Class Median attendance grade 88 Median attendance grade 88 Average homework grade 97 Average homework grade 97 Come to class early, stay late Come to class early, stay late Before RedesignAfter Redesign

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But Did It Help? Developmental Math Success rate in developmental math courses went from 54% to 72% Each course showed significant improvement in Fall 2008 Intermediate Algebra had a 79% success rate in Fall 2008 College Level Math Success rate in three redesigned courses increased from 72% to 75% College Algebra improved, Finite Math & Statistics stayed same 33% increase in students passing a college level math course More students passed a college level math course in Spring 2009 than were enrolled in a college level math course in Spring 2008 Developmental Students In College Level Math Before redesign 71% success for developmental students in math After redesign 76% success rate for developmental students in math Fall 2008 developmental students 79% success rate in math while college math success rate was unchanged at 72%

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Keep Them Coming Back For More Higher Success Rates In Developmental Math Higher Success Rates In Developmental Math 29% increase in students passing a developmental math course 29% increase in students passing a developmental math course 32% increase in students exiting developmental math 32% increase in students exiting developmental math 42% enrollment increase in college math courses 09S 42% enrollment increase in college math courses 09S Reduced Scheduling Roadblocks For Students Reduced Scheduling Roadblocks For Students Students cant graduate if they cant get their classes scheduled Students cant graduate if they cant get their classes scheduled Increased course offerings helps students in scheduling classes Increased course offerings helps students in scheduling classes One hours class meetings easier to schedule, reducing time conflicts One hours class meetings easier to schedule, reducing time conflicts Continuous Enrollment Plan Keeps Students Working Continuous Enrollment Plan Keeps Students Working 63 students completed multiple math courses in Fall 2008 63 students completed multiple math courses in Fall 2008 46 exited developmental math, 13 completed college math course 46 exited developmental math, 13 completed college math course These Factors Positively Impact Graduation And Retention These Factors Positively Impact Graduation And Retention College retention increased by 7% Spring 2009 College retention increased by 7% Spring 2009

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Less Is More 3 Developmental Math Courses 3 Developmental Math Courses 30 Sections Offered 30 Sections Offered Average Class Size 24 Average Class Size 24 3 College Math Courses 3 College Math Courses 17 Sections Offered 17 Sections Offered Average Class Size 20 Average Class Size 20 Athens & Vonore Sites Athens & Vonore Sites 5 Developmental Math Classes 5 Developmental Math Classes 4 College Level Math Courses 4 College Level Math Courses Maximum Class Size 32 Maximum Class Size 32 Most Sections 20 - 25 Students Most Sections 20 - 25 Students 3 Developmental Math Courses 3 Developmental Math Courses 40 Sections Offered 40 Sections Offered Average Class Size 18 Average Class Size 18 3 College Math Courses 3 College Math Courses 28 Sections Offered 28 Sections Offered Average Class Size 14 Average Class Size 14 Athens & Vonore Sites Athens & Vonore Sites 9 Developmental Math Classes 9 Developmental Math Classes 8 College Level Math Sections 8 College Level Math Sections Maximum Class Size 22 Maximum Class Size 22 Most Sections 15 - 20 Students Most Sections 15 - 20 Students After RedesignBefore Redesign

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More Bang For The Buck Faculty Productivity Increased by 23% Faculty Productivity Increased by 23% Average student load increased from 106 in 07F to 130 in 08F Average student load increased from 106 in 07F to 130 in 08F FTE per faculty member went from 21.2 in 07F to 26.0 in 08F FTE per faculty member went from 21.2 in 07F to 26.0 in 08F Five of eight faculty members responsible for 150+ students Five of eight faculty members responsible for 150+ students Faculty members teach 10 or 11 sections under redesign Faculty members teach 10 or 11 sections under redesign Faculty members work in Math Lab 8 – 10 hours each week Faculty members work in Math Lab 8 – 10 hours each week Weekly contact time increased from 15 hours to 20 hours Weekly contact time increased from 15 hours to 20 hours Costs Reduced By Over $50000/Year As Of Fall 2009 Costs Reduced By Over $50000/Year As Of Fall 2009 Adjunct eliminated in math department as a result of this project Adjunct eliminated in math department as a result of this project Shift in personnel possible due to redesign Shift in personnel possible due to redesign Math Lab staffed by faculty and part time tutors Math Lab staffed by faculty and part time tutors Copying costs drastically reduced due to online testing Copying costs drastically reduced due to online testing

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Make Hay While The Sun Shines Continuous Enrollment Plan Continuous Enrollment Plan Students may start in any redesigned math course when they finish the course they are currently enrolled in, without switching classes Students may start in any redesigned math course when they finish the course they are currently enrolled in, without switching classes Students add second class to schedule if they complete it Students add second class to schedule if they complete it Students can take advantage of this option at any point Students can take advantage of this option at any point Whatever work the student completes transfers next semester Whatever work the student completes transfers next semester Students Completing Multiple Courses Students Completing Multiple Courses 63 students completed multiple math courses in 2008 - 2009 63 students completed multiple math courses in 2008 - 2009 46 of these exited developmental math in one semester 46 of these exited developmental math in one semester 13 of these completed a college level math course 13 of these completed a college level math course 2 students completed 3 courses in one semester 2 students completed 3 courses in one semester Many more students completed a course and started in 2 nd course Many more students completed a course and started in 2 nd course

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Can I Get A Witness? Students Discuss RedesignTeachers Discuss Redesign

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WHY DOES THE EMPORIUM INCREASE SUCCESS? Active learning: Students spend the bulk of their course time doing math problems. Active learning: Students spend the bulk of their course time doing math problems. On-demand help: Students get assistance when they encounter problems in doing math. On-demand help: Students get assistance when they encounter problems in doing math. Modularization: Students spend more time on things they dont understand and less time on things they have already mastered. Modularization: Students spend more time on things they dont understand and less time on things they have already mastered.

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Students learn math by doing math, not by listening to someone talk about doing math. The same is true for reading and writing. Students learn math by doing math, not by listening to someone talk about doing math. The same is true for reading and writing.

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WHAT NEEDS FURTHER STUDY? Record-keeping, tuition policy, financial aid Record-keeping, tuition policy, financial aid Whole courses vs. competencies Whole courses vs. competencies Cost structures, funding models Cost structures, funding models Approach to modularization Approach to modularization Engaging more students Engaging more students

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WHOLE COURSE VS. COMPETENCIES NEEDED Cleveland State: Whole course Austin Peay: Competencies for two specific courses Jackson State: Competencies needed for 40 programs of study 31 required 7 of 12 modules 2 required 8 of 12 modules 7 required all 12 modules What impact do these different structures have on student success and cost?

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CLEVELAND STATE COST REDUCTION Before Section size = 24 Section size = 24 55 sections (Fall/Spring) 55 sections (Fall/Spring) 45 by FT faculty 45 by FT faculty 10 by adjuncts 10 by adjuncts Faculty load = 10 sections Faculty load = 10 sections Faculty cost = $256,275 Faculty cost = $256,275 Adjunct cost = $14,400 Adjunct cost = $14,400 Total cost = $270,625 Total cost = $270,625 After Section size = 18 77 sections (Fall/Spring) 77 by FT faculty 0 by adjuncts Faculty load = 20 sections Faculty cost = $219,258 Adjunct cost = $0 Total cost = $219,258 Savings = $51,418 or 19%

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JACKSON STATE COST REDUCTION Before Section size = 20 Section size = 20 102 sections (Annual) 102 sections (Annual) 80 by FT faculty 80 by FT faculty 22 by adjuncts 22 by adjuncts Faculty load = 5 sections Faculty load = 5 sections Faculty cost = $386,000 Faculty cost = $386,000 Adjunct cost = $31,966 Adjunct cost = $31,966 Other personnel = $4,885 Other personnel = $4,885 Total cost = $422,851 Total cost = $422,851 After Section size = 30 73 sections (Annual) 42 by FT faculty 31 by adjuncts Faculty load = 5 sections Faculty cost = $202,650 Adjunct cost = $45,043 Other personnel = $12,856 Total cost = $260,549 Savings = $162,302 or 38%

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NORTHEAST STATE COST REDUCTION Before Section size = 17 Section size = 17 24 sections (Fall/Spring) 24 sections (Fall/Spring) 12 by FT faculty 12 by FT faculty 12 by adjuncts 12 by adjuncts Faculty load = 3 sections Faculty cost = $61,428 Faculty load = 3 sections Faculty cost = $61,428 Adjunct cost = $19,404 Adjunct cost = $19,404 Other personnel = $0 Other personnel = $0 Total cost = $80,832 Total cost = $80,832 After Section size = 275 & 137 2 sections (Fall/Spring) 2 by FT faculty 0 by adjuncts Faculty load =.5 section Faculty cost = $30,714 Adjunct cost = $0 Other personnel = $8,925 Total cost = $39,639 Savings = $41,193 or 51%

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ENGAGING MORE STUDENTS Students who do the work succeed. That leads to a big difference in learning outcome averages and improvement in completion rates. This means a higher percentages of As & Bs. CSCC Elementary Algebra – 34% (T) vs. 66% (R) CSCC Intermediate Algebra – 38% (T) vs. 69% (R) The issue is, how to engage those who dont engage. CSCC = 26% JSCC = 41% There are still too many students not engaged.

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WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED? The Emporium Model works and the Linked Workshop Model works. The Emporium Model works and the Linked Workshop Model works. Modularization works. Modularization works. Its possible to improve quality while radically reducing costs in developmental studies. Its possible to improve quality while radically reducing costs in developmental studies. Developmental studies students will flourish by using technology appropriatelyboth traditional and non-traditional students. Developmental studies students will flourish by using technology appropriatelyboth traditional and non-traditional students. Students who previously feared math can love math! Students who previously feared math can love math!

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Final Thoughts Re-design (not redesign) Re-design (not redesign) Tweaking lectures will give you tweaked results Tweaking lectures will give you tweaked results Significant change can give you significantly different results Significant change can give you significantly different results Move Forward and Dont Look Back Move Forward and Dont Look Back If you redesign, spend your energy making it work If you redesign, spend your energy making it work Dont hang on to the way it has always been done (i.e. lecture) Dont hang on to the way it has always been done (i.e. lecture) Ask the right questions: How do we...? not Why cant we....? Ask the right questions: How do we...? not Why cant we....? Goal: Transformation Goal: Transformation Lakeisha before redesign and after Lakeisha before redesign and after

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