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8: Network Security8-1 Chapter 8 Network Security A note on the use of these ppt slides: Were making these slides freely available to all (faculty, students,

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1 8: Network Security8-1 Chapter 8 Network Security A note on the use of these ppt slides: Were making these slides freely available to all (faculty, students, readers). Theyre in PowerPoint form so you can add, modify, and delete slides (including this one) and slide content to suit your needs. They obviously represent a lot of work on our part. In return for use, we only ask the following: If you use these slides (e.g., in a class) in substantially unaltered form, that you mention their source (after all, wed like people to use our book!) If you post any slides in substantially unaltered form on a www site, that you note that they are adapted from (or perhaps identical to) our slides, and note our copyright of this material. Thanks and enjoy! JFK/KWR All material copyright 1996-2004 J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet, 3 rd edition. Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley, July 2004.

2 8: Network Security8-2 Chapter 8: Network Security Chapter goals: r understand principles of network security: m cryptography and its many uses beyond confidentiality m authentication m message integrity m key distribution r security in practice: m firewalls m security in application, transport, network, link layers

3 8: Network Security8-3 Chapter 8 roadmap 8.1 What is network security? 8.2 Principles of cryptography 8.3 Authentication 8.4 Integrity 8.5 Key Distribution and certification 8.6 Access control: firewalls 8.7 Attacks and counter measures 8.8 Security in many layers

4 8: Network Security8-4 What is network security? Confidentiality: only sender, intended receiver should understand message contents m sender encrypts message m receiver decrypts message Authentication: sender, receiver want to confirm identity of each other Message Integrity: sender, receiver want to ensure message not altered (in transit, or afterwards) without detection Access and Availability: services must be accessible and available to users

5 8: Network Security8-5 Friends and enemies: Alice, Bob, Trudy r well-known in network security world r Bob, Alice (lovers!) want to communicate securely r Trudy (intruder) may intercept, delete, add messages secure sender secure receiver channel data, control messages data Alice Bob Trudy

6 8: Network Security8-6 Who might Bob, Alice be? r … well, real-life Bobs and Alices! r Web browser/server for electronic transactions (e.g., on-line purchases) r on-line banking client/server r DNS servers r routers exchanging routing table updates r other examples?

7 8: Network Security8-7 There are bad guys (and girls) out there! Q: What can a bad guy do? A: a lot! m eavesdrop: intercept messages m actively insert messages into connection m impersonation: can fake (spoof) source address in packet (or any field in packet) m hijacking: take over ongoing connection by removing sender or receiver, inserting himself in place m denial of service: prevent service from being used by others (e.g., by overloading resources) more on this later ……

8 8: Network Security8-8 Chapter 8 roadmap 8.1 What is network security? 8.2 Principles of cryptography 8.3 Authentication 8.4 Integrity 8.5 Key Distribution and certification 8.6 Access control: firewalls 8.7 Attacks and counter measures 8.8 Security in many layers

9 8: Network Security8-9 The language of cryptography symmetric key crypto: sender, receiver keys identical public-key crypto: encryption key public, decryption key secret (private) plaintext ciphertext K A encryption algorithm decryption algorithm Alices encryption key Bobs decryption key K B

10 8: Network Security8-10 Symmetric key cryptography substitution cipher: substituting one thing for another m monoalphabetic cipher: substitute one letter for another plaintext: abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ciphertext: mnbvcxzasdfghjklpoiuytrewq Plaintext: bob. i love you. alice ciphertext: nkn. s gktc wky. mgsbc E.g.: Q: How hard to break this simple cipher?: brute force (how hard?) other?

11 8: Network Security8-11 Symmetric key cryptography symmetric key crypto: Bob and Alice share know same (symmetric) key: K r e.g., key is knowing substitution pattern in mono alphabetic substitution cipher r Q: how do Bob and Alice agree on key value? plaintext ciphertext K A-B encryption algorithm decryption algorithm A-B K plaintext message, m K (m) A-B K (m) A-B m = K ( ) A-B

12 8: Network Security8-12 Symmetric key crypto: DES DES: Data Encryption Standard r US encryption standard [NIST 1993] r 56-bit symmetric key, 64-bit plaintext input r How secure is DES? m DES Challenge: 56-bit-key-encrypted phrase (Strong cryptography makes the world a safer place) decrypted (brute force) in 4 months m no known backdoor decryption approach r making DES more secure: m use three keys sequentially (3-DES) on each datum m use cipher-block chaining

13 8: Network Security8-13 Symmetric key crypto: DES initial permutation 16 identical rounds of function application, each using different 48 bits of key final permutation DES operation

14 8: Network Security8-14 AES: Advanced Encryption Standard r new (Nov. 2001) symmetric-key NIST standard, replacing DES r processes data in 128 bit blocks r 128, 192, or 256 bit keys r brute force decryption (try each key) taking 1 sec on DES, takes 149 trillion years for AES

15 8: Network Security8-15 Public Key Cryptography symmetric key crypto r requires sender, receiver know shared secret key r Q: how to agree on key in first place (particularly if never met)? public key cryptography r radically different approach [Diffie- Hellman76, RSA78] r sender, receiver do not share secret key r public encryption key known to all r private decryption key known only to receiver

16 8: Network Security8-16 Public key cryptography plaintext message, m ciphertext encryption algorithm decryption algorithm Bobs public key plaintext message K (m) B + K B + Bobs private key K B - m = K ( K (m) ) B + B -

17 8: Network Security8-17 Public key encryption algorithms need K ( ) and K ( ) such that B B.. given public key K, it should be impossible to compute private key K B B Requirements: 1 2 RSA: Rivest, Shamir, Adelson algorithm + - K (K (m)) = m B B - + + -

18 8: Network Security8-18 RSA: Choosing keys 1. Choose two large prime numbers p, q. (e.g., 1024 bits each) 2. Compute n = pq, z = (p-1)(q-1) 3. Choose e (with e { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/1564823/5/slides/slide_17.jpg", "name": "8: Network Security8-18 RSA: Choosing keys 1.Choose two large prime numbers p, q.", "description": "(e.g., 1024 bits each) 2. Compute n = pq, z = (p-1)(q-1) 3. Choose e (with e

19 8: Network Security8-19 RSA: Encryption, decryption 0. Given (n,e) and (n,d) as computed above 1. To encrypt bit pattern, m, compute c = m mod n e (i.e., remainder when m is divided by n) e 2. To decrypt received bit pattern, c, compute m = c mod n d (i.e., remainder when c is divided by n) d m = (m mod n) e mod n d Magic happens! c

20 8: Network Security8-20 RSA example: Bob chooses p=5, q=7. Then n=35, z=24. e=5 (so e, z relatively prime). d=29 (so ed-1 exactly divisible by z. letter m m e c = m mod n e l 12 1524832 17 c m = c mod n d 17 481968572106750915091411825223071697 12 c d letter l encrypt: decrypt:

21 8: Network Security8-21 RSA: Why is that m = (m mod n) e mod n d (m mod n) e mod n = m mod n d ed Useful number theory result: If p,q prime and n = pq, then: x mod n = x mod n yy mod (p-1)(q-1) = m mod n ed mod (p-1)(q-1) = m mod n 1 = m (using number theory result above) (since we chose ed to be divisible by (p-1)(q-1) with remainder 1 )

22 8: Network Security8-22 RSA: another important property The following property will be very useful later: K ( K (m) ) = m B B - + K ( K (m) ) B B + - = use public key first, followed by private key use private key first, followed by public key Result is the same!

23 8: Network Security8-23 Chapter 8 roadmap 8.1 What is network security? 8.2 Principles of cryptography 8.3 Authentication 8.4 Integrity 8.5 Key Distribution and certification 8.6 Access control: firewalls 8.7 Attacks and counter measures 8.8 Security in many layers

24 8: Network Security8-24 Authentication Goal: Bob wants Alice to prove her identity to him Protocol ap1.0: Alice says I am Alice Failure scenario?? I am Alice

25 8: Network Security8-25 Authentication Goal: Bob wants Alice to prove her identity to him Protocol ap1.0: Alice says I am Alice in a network, Bob can not see Alice, so Trudy simply declares herself to be Alice I am Alice

26 8: Network Security8-26 Authentication: another try Protocol ap2.0: Alice says I am Alice in an IP packet containing her source IP address Failure scenario?? I am Alice Alices IP address

27 8: Network Security8-27 Authentication: another try Protocol ap2.0: Alice says I am Alice in an IP packet containing her source IP address Trudy can create a packet spoofing Alices address I am Alice Alices IP address

28 8: Network Security8-28 Authentication: another try Protocol ap3.0: Alice says I am Alice and sends her secret password to prove it. Failure scenario?? Im Alice Alices IP addr Alices password OK Alices IP addr

29 8: Network Security8-29 Authentication: another try Protocol ap3.0: Alice says I am Alice and sends her secret password to prove it. playback attack: Trudy records Alices packet and later plays it back to Bob Im Alice Alices IP addr Alices password OK Alices IP addr Im Alice Alices IP addr Alices password

30 8: Network Security8-30 Authentication: yet another try Protocol ap3.1: Alice says I am Alice and sends her encrypted secret password to prove it. Failure scenario?? Im Alice Alices IP addr encrypted password OK Alices IP addr

31 8: Network Security8-31 Authentication: another try Protocol ap3.1: Alice says I am Alice and sends her encrypted secret password to prove it. record and playback still works! Im Alice Alices IP addr encrypted password OK Alices IP addr Im Alice Alices IP addr encrypted password

32 8: Network Security8-32 Authentication: yet another try Goal: avoid playback attack Failures, drawbacks? Nonce: number (R) used only once –in-a-lifetime ap4.0: to prove Alice live, Bob sends Alice nonce, R. Alice must return R, encrypted with shared secret key I am Alice R K (R) A-B Alice is live, and only Alice knows key to encrypt nonce, so it must be Alice!

33 8: Network Security8-33 Authentication: ap5.0 ap4.0 requires shared symmetric key r can we authenticate using public key techniques? ap5.0: use nonce, public key cryptography I am Alice R Bob computes K (R) A - send me your public key K A + (K (R)) = R A - K A + and knows only Alice could have the private key, that encrypted R such that (K (R)) = R A - K A +

34 8: Network Security8-34 ap5.0: security hole Man (woman) in the middle attack: Trudy poses as Alice (to Bob) and as Bob (to Alice) I am Alice R T K (R) - Send me your public key T K + A K (R) - Send me your public key A K + T K (m) + T m = K (K (m)) + T - Trudy gets sends m to Alice encrypted with Alices public key A K (m) + A m = K (K (m)) + A - R

35 8: Network Security8-35 ap5.0: security hole Man (woman) in the middle attack: Trudy poses as Alice (to Bob) and as Bob (to Alice) Difficult to detect: Bob receives everything that Alice sends, and vice versa. (e.g., so Bob, Alice can meet one week later and recall conversation) problem is that Trudy receives all messages as well!

36 8: Network Security8-36 Chapter 8 roadmap 8.1 What is network security? 8.2 Principles of cryptography 8.3 Authentication 8.4 Message integrity 8.5 Key Distribution and certification 8.6 Access control: firewalls 8.7 Attacks and counter measures 8.8 Security in many layers

37 8: Network Security8-37 Digital Signatures Cryptographic technique analogous to hand- written signatures. r sender (Bob) digitally signs document, establishing he is document owner/creator. r verifiable, nonforgeable: recipient (Alice) can prove to someone that Bob, and no one else (including Alice), must have signed document

38 8: Network Security8-38 Digital Signatures Simple digital signature for message m: r Bob signs m by encrypting with his private key K B, creating signed message, K B (m) - - Dear Alice Oh, how I have missed you. I think of you all the time! …(blah blah blah) Bob Bobs message, m Public key encryption algorithm Bobs private key K B - Bobs message, m, signed (encrypted) with his private key K B - (m)

39 8: Network Security8-39 Digital Signatures (more) r Suppose Alice receives msg m, digital signature K B (m) r Alice verifies m signed by Bob by applying Bobs public key K B to K B (m) then checks K B (K B (m) ) = m. r If K B (K B (m) ) = m, whoever signed m must have used Bobs private key. + + - - -- + Alice thus verifies that: ü Bob signed m. ü No one else signed m. ü Bob signed m and not m. Non-repudiation: Alice can take m, and signature K B (m) to court and prove that Bob signed m. -

40 8: Network Security8-40 Message Digests Computationally expensive to public-key-encrypt long messages Goal: fixed-length, easy- to-compute digital fingerprint r apply hash function H to m, get fixed size message digest, H(m). Hash function properties: r many-to-1 r produces fixed-size msg digest (fingerprint) r given message digest x, computationally infeasible to find m such that x = H(m) large message m H: Hash Function H(m)

41 8: Network Security8-41 Internet checksum: poor crypto hash function Internet checksum has some properties of hash function: ü produces fixed length digest (16-bit sum) of message ü is many-to-one But given message with given hash value, it is easy to find another message with same hash value: I O U 1 0 0. 9 9 B O B 49 4F 55 31 30 30 2E 39 39 42 D2 42 message ASCII format B2 C1 D2 AC I O U 9 0 0. 1 9 B O B 49 4F 55 39 30 30 2E 31 39 42 D2 42 message ASCII format B2 C1 D2 AC different messages but identical checksums!

42 8: Network Security8-42 large message m H: Hash function H(m) digital signature (encrypt) Bobs private key K B - + Bob sends digitally signed message: Alice verifies signature and integrity of digitally signed message: K B (H(m)) - encrypted msg digest K B (H(m)) - encrypted msg digest large message m H: Hash function H(m) digital signature (decrypt) H(m) Bobs public key K B + equal ? Digital signature = signed message digest

43 8: Network Security8-43 Hash Function Algorithms r MD5 hash function widely used (RFC 1321) m computes 128-bit message digest in 4-step process. m arbitrary 128-bit string x, appears difficult to construct msg m whose MD5 hash is equal to x. r SHA-1 is also used. m US standard [ NIST, FIPS PUB 180-1] m 160-bit message digest

44 8: Network Security8-44 Chapter 8 roadmap 8.1 What is network security? 8.2 Principles of cryptography 8.3 Authentication 8.4 Integrity 8.5 Key distribution and certification 8.6 Access control: firewalls 8.7 Attacks and counter measures 8.8 Security in many layers

45 8: Network Security8-45 Trusted Intermediaries Symmetric key problem: r How do two entities establish shared secret key over network? Solution: r trusted key distribution center (KDC) acting as intermediary between entities Public key problem: r When Alice obtains Bobs public key (from web site, e-mail, diskette), how does she know it is Bobs public key, not Trudys? Solution: r trusted certification authority (CA)

46 8: Network Security8-46 Key Distribution Center (KDC) r Alice, Bob need shared symmetric key. r KDC: server shares different secret key with each registered user (many users) r Alice, Bob know own symmetric keys, K A-KDC K B-KDC, for communicating with KDC. K B-KDC K X-KDC K Y-KDC K Z-KDC K P-KDC K B-KDC K A-KDC K P-KDC KDC

47 8: Network Security8-47 Key Distribution Center (KDC) Alice knows R1 Bob knows to use R1 to communicate with Alice Alice and Bob communicate: using R1 as session key for shared symmetric encryption Q: How does KDC allow Bob, Alice to determine shared symmetric secret key to communicate with each other? KDC generates R1 K B-KDC (A,R1) K A-KDC (A,B) K A-KDC (R1, K B-KDC (A,R1) )

48 8: Network Security8-48 Certification Authorities r Certification authority (CA): binds public key to particular entity, E. r E (person, router) registers its public key with CA. m E provides proof of identity to CA. m CA creates certificate binding E to its public key. m certificate containing Es public key digitally signed by CA – CA says this is Es public key Bobs public key K B + Bobs identifying information digital signature (encrypt) CA private key K CA - K B + certificate for Bobs public key, signed by CA

49 8: Network Security8-49 Certification Authorities r When Alice wants Bobs public key: m gets Bobs certificate (Bob or elsewhere). m apply CAs public key to Bobs certificate, get Bobs public key Bobs public key K B + digital signature (decrypt) CA public key K CA + K B +

50 8: Network Security8-50 A certificate contains: r Serial number (unique to issuer) r info about certificate owner, including algorithm and key value itself (not shown) r info about certificate issuer r valid dates r digital signature by issuer

51 8: Network Security8-51 Chapter 8 roadmap 8.1 What is network security? 8.2 Principles of cryptography 8.3 Authentication 8.4 Integrity 8.5 Key Distribution and certification 8.6 Access control: firewalls 8.7 Attacks and counter measures 8.8 Security in many layers

52 8: Network Security8-52 Firewalls isolates organizations internal net from larger Internet, allowing some packets to pass, blocking others. firewall

53 8: Network Security8-53 Firewalls: Why prevent denial of service attacks: m SYN flooding: attacker establishes many bogus TCP connections, no resources left for real connections. prevent illegal modification/access of internal data. m e.g., attacker replaces CIAs homepage with something else allow only authorized access to inside network (set of authenticated users/hosts) two types of firewalls: m application-level m packet-filtering

54 8: Network Security8-54 Packet Filtering r internal network connected to Internet via router firewall r router filters packet-by-packet, decision to forward/drop packet based on: m source IP address, destination IP address m TCP/UDP source and destination port numbers m ICMP message type m TCP SYN and ACK bits Should arriving packet be allowed in? Departing packet let out?

55 8: Network Security8-55 Packet Filtering r Example 1: block incoming and outgoing datagrams with IP protocol field = 17 and with either source or dest port = 23. m All incoming and outgoing UDP flows and telnet connections are blocked. r Example 2: Block inbound TCP segments with ACK=0. m Prevents external clients from making TCP connections with internal clients, but allows internal clients to connect to outside.

56 8: Network Security8-56 Application gateways r Filters packets on application data as well as on IP/TCP/UDP fields. r Example: allow select internal users to telnet outside. host-to-gateway telnet session gateway-to-remote host telnet session application gateway router and filter 1. Require all telnet users to telnet through gateway. 2. For authorized users, gateway sets up telnet connection to dest host. Gateway relays data between 2 connections 3. Router filter blocks all telnet connections not originating from gateway.

57 8: Network Security8-57 Limitations of firewalls and gateways r IP spoofing: router cant know if data really comes from claimed source r if multiple apps. need special treatment, each has own app. gateway. r client software must know how to contact gateway. m e.g., must set IP address of proxy in Web browser r filters often use all or nothing policy for UDP. r tradeoff: degree of communication with outside world, level of security r many highly protected sites still suffer from attacks.

58 8: Network Security8-58 Chapter 8 roadmap 8.1 What is network security? 8.2 Principles of cryptography 8.3 Authentication 8.4 Integrity 8.5 Key Distribution and certification 8.6 Access control: firewalls 8.7 Attacks and counter measures 8.8 Security in many layers

59 8: Network Security8-59 Internet security threats Mapping: m before attacking: case the joint – find out what services are implemented on network Use ping to determine what hosts have addresses on network m Port-scanning: try to establish TCP connection to each port in sequence (see what happens) m nmap (http://www.insecure.org/nmap/) mapper: network exploration and security auditing Countermeasures?

60 8: Network Security8-60 Internet security threats Mapping: countermeasures m record traffic entering network m look for suspicious activity (IP addresses, pots being scanned sequentially)

61 8: Network Security8-61 Internet security threats Packet sniffing: m broadcast media m promiscuous NIC reads all packets passing by m can read all unencrypted data (e.g. passwords) m e.g.: C sniffs Bs packets A B C src:B dest:A payload Countermeasures?

62 8: Network Security8-62 Internet security threats Packet sniffing: countermeasures m all hosts in organization run software that checks periodically if host interface in promiscuous mode. m one host per segment of broadcast media (switched Ethernet at hub) A B C src:B dest:A payload

63 8: Network Security8-63 Internet security threats IP Spoofing: m can generate raw IP packets directly from application, putting any value into IP source address field m receiver cant tell if source is spoofed m e.g.: C pretends to be B A B C src:B dest:A payload Countermeasures?

64 8: Network Security8-64 Internet security threats IP Spoofing: ingress filtering m routers should not forward outgoing packets with invalid source addresses (e.g., datagram source address not in routers network) m great, but ingress filtering can not be mandated for all networks A B C src:B dest:A payload

65 8: Network Security8-65 Internet security threats Denial of service (DOS): m flood of maliciously generated packets swamp receiver m Distributed DOS (DDOS): multiple coordinated sources swamp receiver m e.g., C and remote host SYN-attack A A B C SYN Countermeasures?

66 8: Network Security8-66 Internet security threats Denial of service (DOS): countermeasures m filter out flooded packets (e.g., SYN) before reaching host: throw out good with bad m traceback to source of floods (most likely an innocent, compromised machine) A B C SYN

67 8: Network Security8-67 Chapter 8 roadmap 8.1 What is network security? 8.2 Principles of cryptography 8.3 Authentication 8.4 Integrity 8.5 Key Distribution and certification 8.6 Access control: firewalls 8.7 Attacks and counter measures 8.8 Security in many layers 8.8.1. Secure email 8.8.2. Secure sockets 8.8.3. IPsec 8.8.4. Security in 802.11

68 8: Network Security8-68 Secure e-mail Alice: generates random symmetric private key, K S. encrypts message with K S (for efficiency) also encrypts K S with Bobs public key. sends both K S (m) and K B (K S ) to Bob. Alice wants to send confidential e-mail, m, to Bob. K S ( ). K B ( ). + + - K S (m ) K B (K S ) + m KSKS KSKS KBKB + Internet K S ( ). K B ( ). - KBKB - KSKS m K S (m ) K B (K S ) +

69 8: Network Security8-69 Secure e-mail Bob: uses his private key to decrypt and recover K S uses K S to decrypt K S (m) to recover m Alice wants to send confidential e-mail, m, to Bob. K S ( ). K B ( ). + + - K S (m ) K B (K S ) + m KSKS KSKS KBKB + Internet K S ( ). K B ( ). - KBKB - KSKS m K S (m ) K B (K S ) +

70 8: Network Security8-70 Secure e-mail (continued) Alice wants to provide sender authentication message integrity. Alice digitally signs message. sends both message (in the clear) and digital signature. H( ). K A ( ). - + - H(m ) K A (H(m)) - m KAKA - Internet m K A ( ). + KAKA + K A (H(m)) - m H( ). H(m ) compare

71 8: Network Security8-71 Secure e-mail (continued) Alice wants to provide secrecy, sender authentication, message integrity. Alice uses three keys: her private key, Bobs public key, newly created symmetric key H( ). K A ( ). - + K A (H(m)) - m KAKA - m K S ( ). K B ( ). + + K B (K S ) + KSKS KBKB + Internet KSKS

72 8: Network Security8-72 Pretty good privacy (PGP) r Internet e-mail encryption scheme, de-facto standard. r uses symmetric key cryptography, public key cryptography, hash function, and digital signature as described. r provides secrecy, sender authentication, integrity. r inventor, Phil Zimmerman, was target of 3-year federal investigation. ---BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE--- Hash: SHA1 Bob:My husband is out of town tonight.Passionately yours, Alice ---BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE--- Version: PGP 5.0 Charset: noconv yhHJRHhGJGhgg/12EpJ+lo8gE4vB3mqJ hFEvZP9t6n7G6m5Gw2 ---END PGP SIGNATURE--- A PGP signed message:

73 8: Network Security8-73 Secure sockets layer (SSL) r transport layer security to any TCP- based app using SSL services. r used between Web browsers, servers for e-commerce (shttp). r security services: m server authentication m data encryption m client authentication (optional) r server authentication: m SSL-enabled browser includes public keys for trusted CAs. m Browser requests server certificate, issued by trusted CA. m Browser uses CAs public key to extract servers public key from certificate. r check your browsers security menu to see its trusted CAs.

74 8: Network Security8-74 SSL (continued) Encrypted SSL session: r Browser generates symmetric session key, encrypts it with servers public key, sends encrypted key to server. r Using private key, server decrypts session key. r Browser, server know session key m All data sent into TCP socket (by client or server) encrypted with session key. r SSL: basis of IETF Transport Layer Security (TLS). r SSL can be used for non-Web applications, e.g., IMAP. r Client authentication can be done with client certificates.

75 8: Network Security8-75 IPsec: Network Layer Security r Network-layer secrecy: m sending host encrypts the data in IP datagram m TCP and UDP segments; ICMP and SNMP messages. r Network-layer authentication m destination host can authenticate source IP address r Two principle protocols: m authentication header (AH) protocol m encapsulation security payload (ESP) protocol r For both AH and ESP, source, destination handshake: m create network-layer logical channel called a security association (SA) r Each SA unidirectional. r Uniquely determined by: m security protocol (AH or ESP) m source IP address m 32-bit connection ID

76 8: Network Security8-76 Authentication Header (AH) Protocol r provides source authentication, data integrity, no confidentiality r AH header inserted between IP header, data field. r protocol field: 51 r intermediate routers process datagrams as usual AH header includes: r connection identifier r authentication data: source- signed message digest calculated over original IP datagram. r next header field: specifies type of data (e.g., TCP, UDP, ICMP) IP headerdata (e.g., TCP, UDP segment) AH header

77 8: Network Security8-77 ESP Protocol r provides secrecy, host authentication, data integrity. r data, ESP trailer encrypted. r next header field is in ESP trailer. r ESP authentication field is similar to AH authentication field. r Protocol = 50. IP header TCP/UDP segment ESP header ESP trailer ESP authent. encrypted authenticated

78 8: Network Security8-78 IEEE 802.11 security r War-driving: drive around Bay area, see what 802.11 networks available? m More than 9000 accessible from public roadways m 85% use no encryption/authentication m packet-sniffing and various attacks easy! r Securing 802.11 m encryption, authentication m first attempt at 802.11 security: Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP): a failure m current attempt: 802.11i

79 8: Network Security8-79 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP): r authentication as in protocol ap4.0 m host requests authentication from access point m access point sends 128 bit nonce m host encrypts nonce using shared symmetric key m access point decrypts nonce, authenticates host r no key distribution mechanism r authentication: knowing the shared key is enough

80 8: Network Security8-80 WEP data encryption r Host/AP share 40 bit symmetric key (semi- permanent) r Host appends 24-bit initialization vector (IV) to create 64-bit key r 64 bit key used to generate stream of keys, k i IV r k i IV used to encrypt ith byte, d i, in frame: c i = d i XOR k i IV r IV and encrypted bytes, c i sent in frame

81 8: Network Security8-81 802.11 WEP encryption Sender-side WEP encryption

82 8: Network Security8-82 Breaking 802.11 WEP encryption Security hole: r 24-bit IV, one IV per frame, -> IVs eventually reused r IV transmitted in plaintext -> IV reuse detected r Attack: m Trudy causes Alice to encrypt known plaintext d 1 d 2 d 3 d 4 … m Trudy sees: c i = d i XOR k i IV m Trudy knows c i d i, so can compute k i IV m Trudy knows encrypting key sequence k 1 IV k 2 IV k 3 IV … m Next time IV is used, Trudy can decrypt!

83 8: Network Security8-83 802.11i: improved security r numerous (stronger) forms of encryption possible r provides key distribution r uses authentication server separate from access point

84 8: Network Security8-84 AP: access point AS: Authentication server wired network STA: client station 1 Discovery of security capabilities 3 STA and AS mutually authenticate, together generate Master Key (MK). AP servers as pass through 2 3 STA derives Pairwise Master Key (PMK) AS derives same PMK, sends to AP 4 STA, AP use PMK to derive Temporal Key (TK) used for message encryption, integrity 802.11i: four phases of operation

85 8: Network Security8-85 wired network EAP TLS EAP EAP over LAN (EAPoL) IEEE 802.11 RADIUS UDP/IP EAP: extensible authentication protocol r EAP: end-end client (mobile) to authentication server protocol r EAP sent over separate links m mobile-to-AP (EAP over LAN) m AP to authentication server (RADIUS over UDP)

86 8: Network Security8-86 Network Security (summary) Basic techniques…... m cryptography (symmetric and public) m authentication m message integrity m key distribution …. used in many different security scenarios m secure email m secure transport (SSL) m IP sec m 802.11


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