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Philosophy of Science: Knowing & Knowledge Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jaafar Jantan aka DR. JJ Applied Science Education Research Applied Science, UiTM, Shah Alam.

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Presentation on theme: "Philosophy of Science: Knowing & Knowledge Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jaafar Jantan aka DR. JJ Applied Science Education Research Applied Science, UiTM, Shah Alam."— Presentation transcript:

1 Philosophy of Science: Knowing & Knowledge Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jaafar Jantan aka DR. JJ Applied Science Education Research Applied Science, UiTM, Shah Alam Voice: Website:

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3 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, BERTRAND RUSSELL: Science is what you know. Philosophy is what you don't know. Quotes Aristotle: If you ought to philosophize you ought to philosophize; and if you ought not to philosophize you ought to philosophize: therefore, in any case you ought to philosophize. For if philosophy exists, we certainly ought to philosophize, since it exists; and if it does not exist, in that case too we ought to inquire why philosophy does not exist -- and by inquiring we philosophize; for inquiry is the cause of philosophy." Contribution by AIZATUL AIDA BINTI KHAIROL ANNUAR ASB3F2

4 philosophy is the critical examination of our most fundamental ideas about ourselves and the world Such definitions have their uses, of course, what philosophy really is only discovered by studying and doing it. As a first approximation, however, it may be said that philosophy is the critical examination of our most fundamental ideas about ourselves and the world. It asks questions such as the following: Philosophy has been defined as the love of wisdom, the search for truth through reasoning, the quest for the reasons for our basic beliefs, as well as a discipline which comprises metaphysics, logic, ethics, epistemology, and aesthetics. Philosophy

5 As individuals and as a culture, we have beliefs about these questions even if we do not always talk about them. Our beliefs influence the way we live, personally and socially. Philosophy tries to make these beliefs evident and open to examination, hoping thereby to improve human life. What is the nature and purpose of human life? How should we treat each other? What kind of society is best? What is our relation to nature? Philosophy

6 WHAT IS TRUTH? BELIEFS? FACTS? INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE? EPISTEMOLOGY? Philosophy WHAT IS METAPHYSICS? LOGIC? ETHICS PROPOSITIONS? ARGUMENTS? PREMISES? FALLACIES

7 Philosophy - Truth "Truth is whatever you believe. "There is no absolute truth." "If there were such a thing as absolute truth, how could we know what it is?"

8 Philosophy - Truth

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16 TRUTH is out there?? The X-FILES

17 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy - Truth "Truth is that which conforms to reality, fact, or actuality." What is reality? What is fact? What is actuality? How does perception effect truth?

18 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy - Truth

19 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy - Truth

20 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy - Truth Relativism -All truth is relative.Ultimately, relativism is self-defeating –it cannot stand up to its own truth claim.

21 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy - Truth

22 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy - Truth In order for something to bring itself into existence, it would have to exist in order to be able to perform an action. But if it already existed, then it isn't possible to bring itself into existence since it already exists. Likewise, if it does not exist then it has no ability to perform any creative action since it doesn't exist in the first place. Therefore, "Something cannot bring itself into existence" is an absolute truth. Consider the following statement: "Something cannot bring itself into existence." Argue on the statement above truth

23 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy – Beliefs

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25 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Instrument: CSEM – Q7 Bef:61%, Aft:37% Bef:9%, Aft:10% Bef:15%, Aft:23% Bef:9%, Aft:13% Bef:6%, Aft:17% CRI=2,3

26 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Instrument: CSEM – Q8 (a) 9%, After:7% (b) 18%, After:17% (c) 21%, After:17% (d) 41%, After:37% (e) 12%, After:23% CRI=1,3

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28 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, 2006Young Researchers CAS Zaza & DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Example (Phase Change Question) Young Researchers CAS 2006, Selangor, 13 th -14 th June, 2006 CCI Item #10 Two ice cubes are floating in water: After the ice melts, will the water level be: (A) higher? (B) lower? (C) the same? Ice Water Scientific Belief is C: 27%. N=1235 Commonsense belief is A: 65%. N=1235

29 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, 2006Young Researchers CAS Zaza & DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Example (Conservation Question) Young Researchers CAS 2006, Selangor, 13 th -14 th June, 2006 CCI Item #12 A 1.0-gram sample of solid iodine is placed in a tube and the tube is sealed after all of the air is removed. The tube and the solid iodine together weigh 27.0 grams. The tube is then heated until all of the iodine evaporates and the tube is filled with iodine gas. Will the weight after heating be (A) less than 26.0 grams(B) 26.0 grams (C) 27.0 grams (D) 28.0 grams (E) more than 28.0 grams Iodine solid Sc; C: 32%. N=1238 CS; A: 44%. N=1238

30 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, 2006Young Researchers CAS Zaza & DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Example (Solutions Question) Young Researchers CAS 2006, Selangor, 13 th -14 th June, 2006 CCI Item #20 Salt is added to water and the mixture is stirred until no more salt dissolves. The salt that does not dissolve is allowed to settle out. What happens to the concentration of salt in solution if water evaporates until the volume of the solution is half the original volume? (Assume temperature remains constant.) evaporates Solid Salt Half of the water Solution (A) increases? (B) decreases? (C) stays the same? Sc; C: 29%. N=1238 CS; A: 60%. N=1238

31 Philosophy–Beliefs-Thaipusam Birthday of Lord Subramaniam, son of Siva Piercing is a way of asking favors from god

32 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy – Beliefs Belief is defined as mental acceptance of a premise, image, or thought as being true or real without evidence, in spite of contrary evidence, or after repeated failure. Belief, in this limited definition, is purely a function of the human mind. It enables humans to know what is demonstrably false, not knowable, and what is not known by anyone else. Two sources of beliefs are environment (primary source which includes parents & upbringing) and imagination

33 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy – Beliefs People have slaughtered each other in wars, inquisitions, and political actions for centuries and still kill each other over beliefs in religions, political ideologies, and philosophies. These belief-systems, when stated as propositions, may appear mystical, and genuine to the naive, but when confronted with a testable bases from reason and experiment, they fail miserably. I maintain that beliefs create more social problems than they solve and that beliefs, and especially those elevated to faith, produce the most destructive potential to the future of humankind. Jim Walker

34 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy – knowledge

35 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June knowledge is merely an awareness of absolute, universal Ideas or Forms, existing independent of any subject trying to apprehend to them Let us start with the Greek philosophers. In Plato's view knowledge is merely an awareness of absolute, universal Ideas or Forms, existing independent of any subject trying to apprehend to them. Though Aristotle puts more emphasis on logical and empirical methods for gathering knowledge, he still accepts the view that such knowledge is an apprehension of necessary and universal principles. Following the Renaissance, two main epistemological positions dominated philosophy: empiricism, which sees knowledge as the product of sensory perception, and rationalism which sees it as the product of rational reflection

36 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy of Science: Science Method Philosophy of science seeks to understand the nature and justification of scientific knowledge (structure, components, techniques, assumptions, limitations) and its ethical implications How?? Inductive reasoning?? Hypothetico-deductive reasoning?? systematic process Science is both a systematic process of gaining knowledge, and the organized body of knowledge gained by this process Aristotle, Bacon, Poincare, Kuhn, Popper What is a scientific method? Is there only 1 method? How to decide on what method?

37 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, What is Phil. Of Science? Seeks to explain: Nature of scientific statements & concepts How the concepts & statements are produced How science explains, predicts, & thru the use of technology harnesses nature How to determine the validity of information How was the scientific method formulated and used The many ways of reasoning used to arrive at conclusion Implications of scientific methods & models for society and sciences Studies philosophical foundations & implications of science

38 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Justification of Science Statements Observations of observable events or natural phenomena of observable events or natural phenomenaHypothesis (deductive or inductive reasoning) to explain phenomena due to ONLY natural causes. Falsifiable? Predictions (from the hypotheses), consequence of the guess (from the hypotheses), consequence of the guess Experiment – test prediction (many and must be reproducible). Note: data cannot prove hypothesis, only support or disprove The scientific method – used by scientists to build supportable evidence-based understandings of the natural world

39 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June

40 Philosophy of Science: The Quest For Knowledge

41 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM,

42 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, The principle goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things, not simply of repeating what other generations have done -- men who are creative, inventive and discoverers. Jean Piaget The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn and change. Carl Rogers Me with the Director General of UNESCO Me with the Howard Gardner Teachers are powerful people and keepers of the future. Help your students dream big! Leslie Owen Wilson

43 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Developing 3 Domains of Education-Learn Cognitive Head Knowing, the Head The KNOWLEDGE Intellectual Skills 3H Affective Heart Feeling, The Heart The CARE, Emotions Psychomotor Hand Doing, The Hand, Body The SKILLS

44 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM,

45 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM,

46 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM,

47 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June

48 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM,

49 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Example (Phase Change Question) Young Researchers CAS 2006, Selangor, 13 th -14 th June, 2006 CCI Item #10 Two ice cubes are floating in water: After the ice melts, will the water level be: (A) higher? (B) lower? (C) the same? Ice Water Scientific Belief is C: 27%. N=1235 Commonsense belief is A: 65%. N=1235

50 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Example (Conservation Question) Young Researchers CAS 2006, Selangor, 13 th -14 th June, 2006 CCI Item #12 A 1.0-gram sample of solid iodine is placed in a tube and the tube is sealed after all of the air is removed. The tube and the solid iodine together weigh 27.0 grams. The tube is then heated until all of the iodine evaporates and the tube is filled with iodine gas. Will the weight after heating be (A) less than 26.0 grams(B) 26.0 grams (C) 27.0 grams (D) 28.0 grams (E) more than 28.0 grams Iodine solid Sc; C: 32%. N=1238 CS; A: 44%. N=1238

51 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Introduction - Quote You do not really understand something unless you can explain it to your grandmother. Albert Einstein

52 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM,

53 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Knowledge Attributes : Mastery of core subjects and ability to apply that knowledge Mastery of Bahasa Malaysia and English, and at least one other global language. A continuing passion for knowledge through lifelong learning. Excellent general knowledge and interest in current events. Appreciation of the arts, culture and sports. Sound analytical and problem-solving skills. Awareness of business and management principles, and technology. Personal Attributes : Goal-oriented: proactive, self-starting, self- disciplined, confident, resilient, motivated, and fiercely competitive. Intellectually engaging: creative, innovative, and possessing critical thinking skills. Quick learner, adaptable, and flexible. Entrepreneurial. Ethically and morally upright. Spiritually grounded. Compassionate and caring (through volunteerism and social services). Interpersonal Attributes : Able communicator and effective presenter. Able to relate and be comfortable with people at all levels. Able to develop and leverage on personal and professional networks to achieve goals. Natural leader. Team player. MOHEs Attributes of Human Capital with First-Class Mentality*. Producing all rounded person & professional

54 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Knowledge (K) 2.Practical Skills (P) 3.Thinking and scientific skills (K,S) 1.Communication skills (S,A) 2.Social skills, teamwork and responsibility (A) 6.Values, ethics, moral and professionalism (A) 7.Information management and lifelong learning skills(S/A) 8.Managerial and entrepreneurial skills (K/P/A) 9.Leadership 9.Leadership skills Technical skills Professional skills

55 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June develop individuals who have advanced literacy skills in their discipline One of the most important goals of a university is to develop individuals who have advanced literacy skills in their discipline : people who can participate effectively by critiquing information and ideas and by contributing with rigour and creativity to new insights and knowledge, who are self-aware as learners, and who are rhetorically versatile, confident communicators able to adapt and contribute to the demands of employment and life in a changing society and wider world.

56 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design; Chap 4. Can explain Can explain: provide thorough, supported, and justifiable accounts of phenomena, facts, and data. Can interpret Can interpret: tell meaningful stories; offer apt translations; provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas and events; make it personal or accessible through images, anecdotes, analogies, and models. Can apply Can apply: effectively use and adapt what we know in diverse contexts. Have perspective Have perspective: see and hear points of view through critical eyes and ears; see the big picture.

57 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design; Chap 4. Can empathize Can empathize: find value in what others might find odd, alien, or implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior direct experience. Have self-knowledge Have self-knowledge: perceive the personal style, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede our own understanding; we are aware of what we do not understand and why understanding is so hard

58 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June If you were to fall in a hole through the center of the earth, how long before you land in a bowl of authentic dim sum in Beijing?

59 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June

60 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Data Data is raw. It simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence (in and of itself). It can exist in any form, usable or not. It does not have meaning of itself. It represents a fact or statement of event without relation to other things. Ex: It is raining. Information Information is data that are processed to be useful; provides answers to "who", "what", "where", and "when" questions. It is data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection. This "meaning" can be useful, but does not have to be. Information embodies the understanding of a relationship of some sort, possibly cause and effect. Ex: The temperature dropped 15 degrees and then it started raining. Source: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony MillsGene BellingerDurval Castro Anthony Mills

61 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Knowledge Knowledge is the application of data and information; answers "how" questions. It is the appropriate collection of information, such that it's intent is to be useful. Knowledge is a deterministic process. When someone "memorizes" information (as less-aspiring test- bound students often do), then they have amassed knowledge. Knowledge represents a pattern that connects and generally provides a high level of predictability as to what is described or what will happen next. Ex: If the humidity is very high and the temperature drops substantially the atmospheres is often unlikely to be able to hold the moisture so it rains. Source: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony MillsGene BellingerDurval Castro Anthony Mills

62 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June "Knowledge consists of facts, truths, and beliefs, perspectives and concepts, judgments and expectations, methodologies and know-how. Knowledge is accumulated and integrated and held over time to handle specific situations and challenges. Depth of Knowledge: Factual, Conceptual, Procedural & Meta- cognitive Classified using Bloom Taxonomy Information consists of facts and data organized to describe a particular situation or condition

63 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Research on Knowledge Knowledge = Justified True Belief

64 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Understanding Understanding is the appreciation of "why. It is an interpolative and probabilistic process. It is cognitive and analytical. It is the process by which I can take knowledge and synthesize new knowledge from the previously held knowledge. The difference between understanding and knowledge is the difference between "learning" and "memorizing". People who have understanding can undertake useful actions because they can synthesize new knowledge, or in some cases, at least new information, from what is previously known (and understood). That is, understanding can build upon currently held information, knowledge and understanding itself. Source: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony MillsGene BellingerDurval Castro Anthony Mills

65 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Wisdom Wisdom is an extrapolative and non-deterministic, non- probabilistic process. It calls upon all the previous levels of consciousness, and specifically upon special types of human programming (moral, ethical codes, etc.). It beckons to give us understanding about which there has previously been no understanding, and in doing so, goes far beyond understanding itself. It is the essence of philosophical probing. Unlike the previous four levels, it asks questions to which there is no (easily- achievable) answer, and in some cases, to which there can be no humanly-known answer period. Wisdom is therefore, the process by which we also discern, or judge, between right and wrong, good and bad. Source: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony MillsGene BellingerDurval Castro Anthony Mills

66 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Wisdom embodies more of an understanding of fundamental principles embodied within the knowledge that are essentially the basis for the knowledge being what it is. Wisdom is essentially systemic. Ex: It rains because it rains. And this encompasses an understanding of all the interactions that happen between raining, evaporation, air currents, temperature gradients, changes, and raining. Source: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony MillsGene BellingerDurval Castro Anthony Mills

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76 Philosophy - Epistemology Epistemology is the study of our method of acquiring knowledge. It answers the question, "How do we know?" It encompasses the nature of concepts, the constructing of concepts, the validity of the senses, logical reasoning, as well as thoughts, ideas, memories, emotions, and all things mental. It is concerned with how our minds are related to reality, and whether these relationships are valid or invalid Epistemology is the explanation of how we think. It is required in order to be able to determine the true from the false, by determining a proper method of evaluation. It is needed in order to use and obtain knowledge of the world around us.

77 Philosophy - Epistemology 1.Our senses are valid, and the only way to gain information about the world. 2.Reason is our method of gaining knowledge, and acquiring understanding. 3.Logic is our method of maintaining consistency within our set of knowledge. 4.Objectivity is our means of associating knowledge with reality to determine its validity. 5.Concepts are abstracts of specific details of reality, or of other abstractions. A proper epistemology is a rational epistemology

78 Philosophy - Epistemology How do we know?? Gain info or Experience through our senses Reason to know & understand Use logic for consistency

79 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Research on Knowledge Epistemology: Study on Knowledge Old theory (static) K is absolute & permanent Intermediate K is relative & situation dependence Continuously developing & evolve Now (adaptive & active) K actively interfere with world, Objects & subjects

80 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy – Knowing vs Beliefs It is not necessary for every human to re-prove that Newton's motion formulas are accurate in macro physics, that the earth is not the center of the solar system, or that the city of Tokyo exists. The truth and accuracy of those premises have been proven and established in the body of recorded human knowledge. While most humans do not know these things are true based on personal experience, these things are knowable and known by others. It leads to faith in experts, authorities, and gurus.

81 Such definitions have their uses, of course, what philosophy really is only discovered by studying and doing it. As a first approximation, however, it may be said that philosophy is the critical examination of our most fundamental ideas about ourselves and the world. It asks questions such as the following: Philosophy has been defined as the love of wisdom, the search for truth through reasoning, the quest for the reasons for our basic beliefs, as well as a discipline which comprises metaphysics, logic, ethics, epistemology, and aesthetics. Philosophy

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83 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Philosophy – knowledge

84 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June knowledge is merely an awareness of absolute, universal Ideas or Forms, existing independent of any subject trying to apprehend to them Let us start with the Greek philosophers. In Plato's view knowledge is merely an awareness of absolute, universal Ideas or Forms, existing independent of any subject trying to apprehend to them. Though Aristotle puts more emphasis on logical and empirical methods for gathering knowledge, he still accepts the view that such knowledge is an apprehension of necessary and universal principles. Following the Renaissance, two main epistemological positions dominated philosophy: empiricism, which sees knowledge as the product of sensory perception, and rationalism which sees it as the product of rational reflection

85 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June

86 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June

87 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June develop individuals who have advanced literacy skills in their discipline One of the most important goals of a university is to develop individuals who have advanced literacy skills in their discipline : people who can participate effectively by critiquing information and ideas and by contributing with rigour and creativity to new insights and knowledge, who are self-aware as learners, and who are rhetorically versatile, confident communicators able to adapt and contribute to the demands of employment and life in a changing society and wider world.

88 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design; Chap 4. Can explain Can explain: provide thorough, supported, and justifiable accounts of phenomena, facts, and data. Can interpret Can interpret: tell meaningful stories; offer apt translations; provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas and events; make it personal or accessible through images, anecdotes, analogies, and models. Can apply Can apply: effectively use and adapt what we know in diverse contexts. Have perspective Have perspective: see and hear points of view through critical eyes and ears; see the big picture.

89 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design; Chap 4. Can empathize Can empathize: find value in what others might find odd, alien, or implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior direct experience. Have self-knowledge Have self-knowledge: perceive the personal style, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede our own understanding; we are aware of what we do not understand and why understanding is so hard

90 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Data Data is raw. It simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence (in and of itself). It can exist in any form, usable or not. It does not have meaning of itself. It represents a fact or statement of event without relation to other things. Ex: It is raining. Information Information is data that are processed to be useful; provides answers to "who", "what", "where", and "when" questions. It is data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection. This "meaning" can be useful, but does not have to be. Information embodies the understanding of a relationship of some sort, possibly cause and effect. Ex: The temperature dropped 15 degrees and then it started raining. Source: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony MillsGene BellingerDurval Castro Anthony Mills

91 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Knowledge Knowledge is the application of data and information; answers "how" questions. It is the appropriate collection of information, such that it's intent is to be useful. Knowledge is a deterministic process. When someone "memorizes" information (as less-aspiring test- bound students often do), then they have amassed knowledge. Knowledge represents a pattern that connects and generally provides a high level of predictability as to what is described or what will happen next. Ex: If the humidity is very high and the temperature drops substantially the atmospheres is often unlikely to be able to hold the moisture so it rains. Source: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony MillsGene BellingerDurval Castro Anthony Mills

92 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June "Knowledge consists of facts, truths, and beliefs, perspectives and concepts, judgments and expectations, methodologies and know-how. Knowledge is accumulated and integrated and held over time to handle specific situations and challenges. Depth of Knowledge: Factual, Conceptual, Procedural & Meta- cognitive Classified using Bloom Taxonomy Information consists of facts and data organized to describe a particular situation or condition

93 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Research on Knowledge Knowledge = Justified True Belief

94 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Understanding Understanding is the appreciation of "why. It is an interpolative and probabilistic process. It is cognitive and analytical. It is the process by which I can take knowledge and synthesize new knowledge from the previously held knowledge. The difference between understanding and knowledge is the difference between "learning" and "memorizing". People who have understanding can undertake useful actions because they can synthesize new knowledge, or in some cases, at least new information, from what is previously known (and understood). That is, understanding can build upon currently held information, knowledge and understanding itself. Source: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony MillsGene BellingerDurval Castro Anthony Mills

95 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Wisdom Wisdom is an extrapolative and non-deterministic, non- probabilistic process. It calls upon all the previous levels of consciousness, and specifically upon special types of human programming (moral, ethical codes, etc.). It beckons to give us understanding about which there has previously been no understanding, and in doing so, goes far beyond understanding itself. It is the essence of philosophical probing. Unlike the previous four levels, it asks questions to which there is no (easily- achievable) answer, and in some cases, to which there can be no humanly-known answer period. Wisdom is therefore, the process by which we also discern, or judge, between right and wrong, good and bad. Source: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony MillsGene BellingerDurval Castro Anthony Mills

96 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Wisdom embodies more of an understanding of fundamental principles embodied within the knowledge that are essentially the basis for the knowledge being what it is. Wisdom is essentially systemic. Ex: It rains because it rains. And this encompasses an understanding of all the interactions that happen between raining, evaporation, air currents, temperature gradients, changes, and raining. Source: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony MillsGene BellingerDurval Castro Anthony Mills

97 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Research on Knowledge Knowledge: Websters Definition: Fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through experience or association Something that is believed, true & reliable Information = data arranged in meaningful pattern Is Knowledge = Information??

98 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Knowledge Knowledge is Knowledge is What is known by perceptual experience and reasoning. "I'd better talk to the bank before I spend it because of what has happened to other people" is wisdom. For example, is data (fact); "Your bank balance has jumped 8087% to $ " is information; "Nobody owes me that much money" is knowledge;

99 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Research on Knowledge Knowledge = Justified True Belief Justified True Belief (JTB) 1.P is true (p is proposition) 2.S believes that p 3.S is justified in believing P

100 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Research on Knowledge Knowledge = Justified True Belief

101 Philosophy Research on Knowledge Propositional Knowledge: Platos conviction Knowledge Sense Perception What I know I must believe, & must be true If I know something then it is something that I believe Justified True Belief (JTB) Knowledge = True Belief

102 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, the freshmen bring a little in and the seniors take none away, and knowledge accumulates. Abbott Lowell Universities are full of knowledge,Universities are full of knowledge,

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110 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Instrument: CSEM – Q7 Bef:61%, Aft:37% Bef:9%, Aft:10% Bef:15%, Aft:23% Bef:9%, Aft:13% Bef:6%, Aft:17% CRI=2,3

111 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Instrument: CSEM – Q8 (a) 9%, After:7% (b) 18%, After:17% (c) 21%, After:17% (d) 41%, After:37% (e) 12%, After:23% CRI=1,3

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113 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, 2006Young Researchers CAS Zaza & DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Example (Phase Change Question) Young Researchers CAS 2006, Selangor, 13 th -14 th June, 2006 CCI Item #10 Two ice cubes are floating in water: After the ice melts, will the water level be: (A) higher? (B) lower? (C) the same? Ice Water Scientific Belief is C: 27%. N=1235 Commonsense belief is A: 65%. N=1235

114 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, 2006Young Researchers CAS Zaza & DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Example (Conservation Question) Young Researchers CAS 2006, Selangor, 13 th -14 th June, 2006 CCI Item #12 A 1.0-gram sample of solid iodine is placed in a tube and the tube is sealed after all of the air is removed. The tube and the solid iodine together weigh 27.0 grams. The tube is then heated until all of the iodine evaporates and the tube is filled with iodine gas. Will the weight after heating be (A) less than 26.0 grams(B) 26.0 grams (C) 27.0 grams (D) 28.0 grams (E) more than 28.0 grams Iodine solid Sc; C: 32%. N=1238 CS; A: 44%. N=1238

115 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, 2006Young Researchers CAS Zaza & DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Example (Solutions Question) Young Researchers CAS 2006, Selangor, 13 th -14 th June, 2006 CCI Item #20 Salt is added to water and the mixture is stirred until no more salt dissolves. The salt that does not dissolve is allowed to settle out. What happens to the concentration of salt in solution if water evaporates until the volume of the solution is half the original volume? (Assume temperature remains constant.) evaporates Solid Salt Half of the water Solution (A) increases? (B) decreases? (C) stays the same? Sc; C: 29%. N=1238 CS; A: 60%. N=1238

116 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, But what is Knowledge??. Wiens Displacement Law Human body shielded by clothing: T body = 301K, T surr = 305K,emissivity =1, Area = 2 m 2 Total Power emitted by a black body Planck;s Law of blackbody radiation

117 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, Reflection

118 Philosophy - Metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy responsible for the study of existence. It is the foundation of a worldview. It answers the question "What is?" It encompasses everything that exists, as well as the nature of existence itself. It says whether the world is real, or merely an illusion. It is a fundamental view of the world around us

119 Metaphysics is the foundation of philosophy. Without an explanation or an interpretation of the world around us, we would be helpless to deal with reality. We could not feed ourselves, or act to preserve our lives. The degree to which our metaphysical worldview is correct is the degree to which we are able to comprehend the world, and act accordingly. Without this firm foundation, all knowledge becomes suspect. Any flaw in our view of reality will make it more difficult to live Philosophy - Metaphysics

120 Reality is absolute. It has a specific nature independent of our thoughts or feelings. The world around us is real. It has a specific nature and it must be consistent to that nature. A proper metaphysical worldview must aim to understand reality correctly. The physical world exists, and every entity has a specific nature The physical world exists, and every entity has a specific nature. It acts according to that nature. When different entities interact, they do so according to the nature of both. Every action has a cause and an effect. Causality is the means by which change occurs, but the change occurs via a specific nature. Philosophy - Metaphysics

121 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, On a sheet of paper, write the following: ILSComposition To me knowledge is…………………….

122 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, ILS Midterm paper Title: I believe that science is the only way to know the truth about why and how natural events are happening. Title: I believe that science is the only way to know the truth about why and how natural events are happening. Length: Body of text must be no less that 500 words & not to exceed 550 words.Length: Body of text must be no less that 500 words & not to exceed 550 words. Font: Arial size 11. Paragraph spacing 1.5.Font: Arial size 11. Paragraph spacing 1.5. Margins: Body of text is 1-inch all around on A4 paper. It must contain an Introduction. The body of the text must have at least 4 arguments followed by a conclusion. Use the usual APA or science format when citing your sources in the body of the text.Margins: Body of text is 1-inch all around on A4 paper. It must contain an Introduction. The body of the text must have at least 4 arguments followed by a conclusion. Use the usual APA or science format when citing your sources in the body of the text.

123 Copyright DRJJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM, ILS Midterm paper First page must contain the title, your name, KP UiTM, your picture, Program, group, handphone number & address.First page must contain the title, your name, KP UiTM, your picture, Program, group, handphone number & address. The references (bibliography) page must be attached at the end as appendix 1.The references (bibliography) page must be attached at the end as appendix 1. Hard copies are due in my box, room 516, no later than September 4 th To send a digital copy, your word file to with a message title FSG500 midterm your name & your group (example FSG500 midterm Asmah Saim ASB3F2).Hard copies are due in my box, room 516, no later than September 4 th To send a digital copy, your word file to with a message title FSG500 midterm your name & your group (example FSG500 midterm Asmah Saim DO NOT ASK A FRIEND TO SEND IT FOR YOU!!! *Note that proof of sent is NOT proof of receipt. Date for Debate have been moved to after Hari Raya break

124 Closing Quotes Knowledge is power True Knowledge is an instrument for survival End


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