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1. 2 ن ي أرلنغتو س ف ة تكسا ي جامع م ف لا بك و سه لا أه Arlinqtondakı Texas Universitetinə xoş gəlmisiniz! Selamat datang di Universitas Texas di Arlington!

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 ن ي أرلنغتو س ف ة تكسا ي جامع م ف لا بك و سه لا أه Arlinqtondakı Texas Universitetinə xoş gəlmisiniz! Selamat datang di Universitas Texas di Arlington!"— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 ن ي أرلنغتو س ف ة تكسا ي جامع م ف لا بك و سه لا أه Arlinqtondakı Texas Universitetinə xoş gəlmisiniz! Selamat datang di Universitas Texas di Arlington! Добре дошли в Университета на Тексас в Арлингтън! Welkom bij de Universiteit van Texas in Arlington! Welcome to The University of Texas at Arlington! Bienvenue à lUniversité du Texas à Arlington! Willkommen zur Universität von Texas in Arlington! Benvenuti all'Università di Texas a Arlington! ! Tal ɩ ɖ éu Árl ɩ ́ŋt ɔ n ɩ t ɛ ́ Un ɩ v ɛɖɩ sitée taá g ɛ ́ T ɛ ksás ɩ taá! ! Добредојдовте во Универзитетот на Тексас од Арлингтон! ! Abrtzlvz-ngrgr nzvz-krmamu mz Yunzvrszti ngr Tekszs mrkc Arlingtzn! Bem-vindos à Universidade do Texas em Arlington! Добро пожаловать в Университет Техаса в Арлингтоне! ¡Bienvenidos a la Universidad de Texas en Arlington! Välkomna till Texas Universitetet i Arlington! Ласкаво просимо до Університету Техаса в Арлінгтоні! Chào mng quí khách đn thăm Đi Hc Texas Arlington!

3 Communities Divided, Communities Connected How Emigration Creates New Ways of Speaking David J. Silva Vice Provost for Academic Affairs Professor of Linguistics / Distinguished Teaching Professor 2008-09 Conversations Brown Bag – Friday, October 10, 2008

4 Overview Language defines and connects people. When speakers of different languages come into contact, there are several strategies than might be adopted to allow for communication. Changes in language use often correlate with changes in identity, and vice-versa. The focus: emigration / immigration. 4

5 Language Defines People What makes a person… –an American? an American vs. a Canadian? –a Texan? a Texan vs. an Okie? –educated? –female vs. male? –gay vs. straight? –white, black, Native American, East Asian, South Asian … ? Language is like a flag – it is emblematic 5

6 Language Connects People Imagine your life without language … Language links minds. Language links lives. 6

7 New Identity New Language PygmalionBoratYou To have another language is to possess a second soul. –Attributed to King Charlemagne 7

8 Travel Propagates Language England and America are two countries separated by a common language. –George Bernard Shaw 8

9 Languages in Contact The desire to communicate is axiomatic to being human. Language differences impede communication. When impeded, what do we do? 9

10 1. Lingua Franca Vehicular language An already-existing third language used to connect different parties Historical Lingue Franche –Greek (Koine) –French –Chinese –English 10

11 English as Modern Lingua Franca In a Norwegian cocktail lounge: Ladies are requested not to have children in the bar. In the Petting Zoo of the Beijing Zoo: Small Careful Animals Club. From a brochure of a Tokyo car rental firm:When passenger of foot heave in sight, tootle the horn. Trumpet him melodiously at first, but if he still obstacles your passage then tootle him with vigor. 11

12 2. Mutual [In]Attention Mutual Respect –Speakers of each community learn the language of the other community Mutual Indifference –Separate spaces –No communication –We are not the same 12

13 Respect? Indifference? Neither scenario is likely in practice. POWER They presume equal (or at last similar) levels of POWER political social, economic, cultural… 13

14 3. Capitulation The subordinate group learns the language of the superordinate group while either… – maintaining their home language –or– – abandoning their home language What is happening in the USA? –Lets check some census data… 14

15 Census Data -1980, 1990, 2000 1980 (millions) % of total 1990 (millions) % of total 2000 (millions) % of total US Population – All speakers, age 5+ 210.4100230.4100262.4100 English only187.189198.686215.482 Language other than English 23.01131.81446.918 Speaks English very well Speaks English w/some difficulty 10.14.814. 15

16 4. Language Mixing 4A - Lexical Borrowing –A community borrows words from another –The least complex type of mixing –Examples from The History of Love kishkes (10); pischer (15); knedelach (16) kishkes (10); pischer (15); knedelach (16) –English borrowings include… skunk (Abenaki or Cree) marmalade (Portuguese) robot (Russian) 16

17 4. Language Mixing 4B - Code Switching –Speakers move back and forth between two languages during a single episode –More complex than borrowing –The two languages maintain some degree of internal integrity An example, please 17

18 Nelly Furtado – Força Com uma força que ninguém pode parar With a force that nobody can stop Com uma fome que ninguém pode matar With a hunger that nobody can kill Mais perto do céu … Closer to the sky … Whats the meaning? –I belong to both communities – and to a third. 18

19 4. Language Mixing 4C - Pidginization (vs. pigeon) –Speakers create a new system with elements of both languages –Most complex form of mixing –At first, a pidgin is… nobodys first language nobodys first language limited contexts (usually trade / business) –Later, the pidgin might become a creole acquired by children acquired by children expands into a full range of contexts expands into a full range of contexts 19

20 Tok Pisin – Papua New Guinea Tok Pisin –bikpela man –tupela i bam –nogut –bikpela su –Hamas bilong baim tiket i go long Briten? English –adult –accident –bad –boot –How much is a ticket to Britain? FYI: ~100,000 native speakers, 4+ million second language speakers 20

21 A Special Case The Lost Boys of Sudan Diaspora –Ethiopia –Kenya –USA NebraskaCaliforniaTexas ~27,000 men They Poured Fire on Us From the Sky, edited by Judy A. Bernstein (2005) 21

22 Dental Extraction Male (& Female) 6 lower teeth removed At or near permanent eruption Pattern documented in 19 th- 20 th century travelogues, ethnographies Associated with –Identity – Jackals –Diet –Speech 22

23 University of Nebraska Project PI: Dr. Mary Willis, Dept of Anthropology The Jacob & Valeria Langeloth Foundation Design from refugees All remarked upon how missing teeth influenced speecheatingself-image 23

24 The Dinka Study 13 Lost Boys Each missing 6 lower teeth Age Range: 21-30 Primary settlement to Lincoln 2000-01 Image Credit: Wall Street Journal 2002 24

25 More on the Dinka Study The Question. Does replacing these teeth change speech production? The Methodology. Record speech three times: prior to having the teeth replacedprior to having the teeth replaced ~ one month after the teeth have been replaced~ one month after the teeth have been replaced ~ one year after the teeth have been replaced~ one year after the teeth have been replaced Controls. Compare these patterns against : those who never had teeth extractedthose who never had teeth extracted those who were not selected for dental replacementthose who were not selected for dental replacement 25

26 Results of the Dinka Study Focus on the Palatal Stops –similar to English j and ch Without the lower front teeth –j is pronounced more like zh –ch is pronounced more like sh (fricatives) After teeth are replaced –j and ch tend toward a repaired state –speech patterns match those of younger Dinka boys who never underwent dental extraction 26

27 Why is that Last Point Important? Observation #1 If the lower teeth are missing, then j zh and ch sh Observation #2 If everybody has their lower teeth extracted, then j and ch are never produced by adults Hypothesis #1 With no exposure to j or ch, children will not acquire these sounds Hypothesis #2 After one or two generations, j / ch disappear Hypotheses 1 and 2 appear to have been refuted. Although the hardware for producing j and ch may be damaged / missing, the software that encodes j and ch – i.e., the grammar of the language – remains intact. If we replace the dental hardware, we can recover the original speech patterns. 27

28 Beyond the Mechanics… DietSelf-ImageChallenges –maintaining good dental health –continuing emotional recovery Emigration to the United States literally results in a new way of speaking Changes in Sudan – the demise of extraction 28

29 Points to Take Away You are – in part – what you speak. –When you change, your language changes. –When your language changes, you change. When people connect, they often find creative ways to communicate. –Adaptability is a hallmark of human existence, language included. –We need to distinguish between the physical realities of speech and consider both social and cognitive aspects, too. 29

30 When it Comes to Language… PhysiologyCognitionIdentityAffiliationPhysics Its all connected. 30

31 Communities Divided, Communities Connected How Emigration Creates New Ways of Speaking David J. Silva Subliminal Message: TAKE LING 2301 this spring!

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