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1 13-1 Verb + gerundVerb + gerund 13-2 Go + -ingGo + -ing 13-3 Verb + infinitiveVerb + infinitive 13-4 Verb + gerund or infinitiveVerb + gerund or infinitive.

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Presentation on theme: "1 13-1 Verb + gerundVerb + gerund 13-2 Go + -ingGo + -ing 13-3 Verb + infinitiveVerb + infinitive 13-4 Verb + gerund or infinitiveVerb + gerund or infinitive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Verb + gerundVerb + gerund 13-2 Go + -ingGo + -ing 13-3 Verb + infinitiveVerb + infinitive 13-4 Verb + gerund or infinitiveVerb + gerund or infinitive 13-5 Preposition + gerundPreposition + gerund 13-6 Using by and with to express how something is doneUsing by and with to express how something is done 13-7 Using gerunds as subjects; using it + infinitiveUsing gerunds as subjects; using it + infinitive 13-8 It + infinitive: using for (someone)It + infinitive: using for (someone) 13-9 Expressing purpose with in order to and forExpressing purpose with in order to and for Using infinitives with too and enoughUsing infinitives with too and enough CONTENTS

2 VERB + GERUND She keeps worrying about her husband.

3 VERB + GERUND (a) I like be with you. verb gerund -ing form of a verb used as a noun object of the verb ing gerund

4 VERB + GERUND (b) They enjoy eating pizza. (c) They have finished working on a big project. (d) My sister never stops talking on the phone.

5 VERB + GERUND (e) I wish they would quit arguing.

6 VERB + GERUND (f) Would you mind taking my picture?

7 VERB + GERUND (g) I usually postpone doing my taxes until the last minute. (h) Many people put off doing their taxes until the last minute.

8 VERB + GERUND (i) They have to keep (on) working until the project is finished.

9 VERB + GERUND (j) They are considering breaking up. (k) They are thinking about breaking up.

10 VERB + GERUND (l) They discussed breaking up. (m) They talked about breaking up, but they decided to stay together.

11 VERB + GERUND (n) She is considering not going to work today. not + gerund = negative form

12 LETS PRACTICE They are ____________ ______ out to play. think about go thinking aboutgoing

13 LETS PRACTICE Do you want to _________ _______ a new house? talk about buy talk about buying

14 LETS PRACTICE Would you _______ ______ us less homework this week? consider give consider giving

15 GO + -ING Its a beautiful day. Lets go canoeing.

16 GO + -ING (a) Did you go skydiving yesterday?

17 GO + -ING (a) Did you go skydiving yesterday? (b) We went camping on the beach.

18 GO + -ING (a) These guys are going skydiving soon. (b) We went camping on the beach. (c) Larry hasnt gone skiing lately.

19 19 go + gerund certain expressions about activities 13-2 GO + -ING (a) Did you go skydiving yesterday? (b) We went camping on the beach. (c) Larry hasnt gone skiing lately. INCORRECT: I like to go to dancing.

20 LETS PRACTICE Mr. Anders loves to ___ ________. go fish gofishing

21 LETS PRACTICE My parents love to ___ ________. go dance go dancing

22 VERB + INFINITIVE I expected you to be here an hour ago.

23 VERB + INFINITIVE (a) I hope to graduate this year.

24 VERB + INFINITIVE (a) I hope to graduate this year (b) He intends to study hard this year. to + simple form of verb = AN INFINITIVE

25 VERB + INFINITIVE (a) I hope to graduate this year (b) He intends to study hard this year. (c) She decided not to attend medical school. negative = not + infinitive

26 LETS PRACTICE At their wedding, they ________ ___ ____ together forever. promise stay promisedto stay

27 LETS PRACTICE I _____ _____ _____ _____ on a cruise, but I cant afford it. would love go wouldloveto go

28 LETS PRACTICE I ______ ___ ___ out of money. seem be seemtobe

29 VERB + GERUND OR INFINITIVE I love to go fishing with my dad.

30 VERB + GERUND OR INFINITIVE (a) All of a sudden, it began raining. (b) All of a sudden, it began to rain. gerund or infinitive some verbs

31 LETS PRACTICE I _____ ___ _____ in line. I _____ _______ in line. hate wait hatewaiting hate to wait

32 LETS PRACTICE I _____ _____ _____ yesterday, but I quit. I ______ __________ yesterday, but I quit. begin study began to study began studying

33 PREPOSITION + GERUND She is nervous about testifying at the trial.

34 PREPOSITION + GERUND (a) Some people are afraid of driving.

35 PREPOSITION + GERUND (a) Some people are afraid of driving. (b) Alex is responsible for leading our team project.

36 PREPOSITION + GERUND (a) Some people are afraid of driving. (b) Alex is responsible for leading our team project. (c) She apologized for being rude to her mom.

37 LETS PRACTICE Angie is good ___ (teach) ________ math. at teaching

38 LETS PRACTICE They are planning ____ (study) __________ all afternoon for the test. on studying

39 LETS PRACTICE They are excited ______ (start) _______ their new project. about starting

40 USING BY AND WITH TO EXPRESS HOW SOMETHING IS DONE It takes six hours to get from Baltimore to Seattle by air.

41 USING BY AND WITH TO EXPRESS HOW SOMETHING IS DONE (a) You turn on the microwave by selecting the number of minutes and pressing the ON button.

42 USING BY AND WITH TO EXPRESS HOW SOMETHING IS DONE (a) You turn on the microwave by selecting the number of minutes and pressing the ON button. how something is done By + a gerund

43 USING BY AND WITH TO EXPRESS HOW SOMETHING IS DONE (b) I love travelling by train.

44 USING BY AND WITH TO EXPRESS HOW SOMETHING IS DONE (b) I love travelling by train. (c) Many people eat with chopsticks.

45 USING BY AND WITH TO EXPRESS HOW SOMETHING IS DONE (b) I love travelling by train. (c) Many people eat with chopsticks. by OR with + noun how something is done

46 LETS PRACTICE Some people in London get around ___ double-decker bus. by with

47 LETS PRACTICE Most students dont write their reports _____ hand anymore. by with by

48 LETS PRACTICE Floors can be cleaned _____ a mop.with by with

49 USING GERUNDS AS SUBJECTS; USING IT + INFINITIVE Riding a motorcycle can be exciting.

50 50 (a) Riding motorcycles is dangerous. (b) It is dangerous to ride motorcycles USING GERUNDS AS SUBJECTS; USING IT + INFINITIVE same meaning

51 51 (c) Visiting other countries is fun USING GERUNDS AS SUBJECTS; USING IT + INFINITIVE gerund subject a gerund is singular verb is singular it subject it to visit other countries (d) It is fun to visit other countries.

52 LETS PRACTICE Gerund as subject It is important to do well in school. ________________ is important. Doing well in school

53 LETS PRACTICE Gerund as subject It can be helpful to study with a friend. _____________________________. Studying with a friend can be helpful

54 LETS PRACTICE Gerund as subject Is it scary to climb mountains? Yes, _______________________. climbing mountains is scary

55 IT + INFINITIVE: USING FOR (SOMEONE) It is a good idea for everyone to get a flu shot.

56 IT + INFINITIVE: USING FOR (SOMEONE) (a) You should get a flu shot. (b) It is necessary for you to get a flu shot. similar meaning

57 IT + INFINITIVE: USING FOR (SOMEONE) (a) You should get a flu shot. (b) It is necessary for you to get a flu shot. (c) He should be careful. (d) It is important for him to be careful. it is + adjective + for (someone) + infinitive phrase

58 IT + INFINITIVE: USING FOR (SOMEONE) (e) We dont have to go to work today. (f) It isnt necessary for us to go to work today.

59 IT + INFINITIVE: USING FOR (SOMEONE) (e) We dont have to go to work today. (f) It isnt necessary for us to go to work today. (g) A dog cant drive a car. (h) It is impossible for a dog to drive a car.

60 LETS PRACTICE World leaders should be honest. It is important ________________________. for world leaders to be honest

61 LETS PRACTICE In some cultures, brides wear red. In some cultures, it is appropriate ___________________. for brides to wear red

62 LETS PRACTICE Snakes cant run. It is impossible _______________. for snakes to run

63 EXPRESSING PURPOSE WITH IN ORDER TO AND FOR I am going to college in order to get a good education.

64 64 In order to purpose 13-9 EXPRESSING PURPOSE WITH IN ORDER TO AND FOR - Why are you going to college? (a) I am going to college because I want a good education. (b) I am going to college in order to get a good education. (c) I am going to college to get a good education. same meaning in order frequently omitted

65 EXPRESSING PURPOSE WITH IN ORDER TO AND FOR (d) I am going to college for an education. for purpose preposition noun

66 EXPRESSING PURPOSE WITH IN ORDER TO AND FOR (d) I am going to college for an education. (e) I am going to college to get an education. INCORRECT: I am going to college for to get an education. INCORRECT: I am going to college for getting an education.

67 LETS PRACTICE I went to the ATM in order to withdraw money. CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR

68 LETS PRACTICE I went to the ATM for to withdraw money. CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR

69 LETS PRACTICE I went to the ATM for withdrawing money. CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR

70 USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH This dessert is too delicious to resist.

71 USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH (a) Hang gliding is too scary to try. (b) Hang gliding is too scary for me to try. (c) Hang gliding is too scary for Sue to try. TOO + ADJECTIVE + (FOR SOMEONE) + INFINITIVE

72 USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH Hang gliding is too scary to try. Dont even think of trying it. too + adjective negative result

73 USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH Hang gliding is too scary. I cant do it. Flying is very scary, but I can do it. COMPARE

74 USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH (d) I dont have enough time to mop the floor. ENOUGH + NOUN + INFINITIVE (e) Do you have enough time to do it?

75 USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH Im not strong enough to mop the floor. ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH + INFINITIVE (g) Are you strong enough to do it? (f)

76 LETS PRACTICE I am too clumsy. I cant be a waitress. I am ______________________. too clumsy to be a waitress

77 LETS PRACTICE These shoes are too small for me. These shoes arent ________________. big enough for me

78 LETS PRACTICE Hang gliding takes a lot of courage. I dont have ______________ to try it. enough courage

79 79 PHOTO CREDITS Images used under license from: Shutterstock, Inc. Clipart, Inc. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education and its licensors. All rights reserved.


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