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Unit 6 The Renaissance and Rationalism

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1 Unit 6 The Renaissance and Rationalism
Rebirth and Exploration

2 From “The Godly Feast/” by Erasmus
“Of course Sacred Scripture is the basic authority in everything; yet I sometimes run across ancient sayings or pagan writings-even the poets’-so purely and reverently expressed, and so inspired, that I can’t help believing their authors’ hearts were moved by some divine power.”

3 KWL What do you know about the Renaissance period?
What do you want to know about the Renaissance period? What have you learned about the renaissance period?

4 Historical Background
The Renaissance, which means “rebirth”, is a period that saw many changes and innovations. Among them were the rediscovery of: Classical art and literature The exploration of regions of the globe that were previously unknown in Europe The discovery that the earth revolves around the sun An upsurge in trade and invention

5 Historical Background
The rebirth lasted in Italy from the early 1300s until 1550, and gradually extended its influence northward. In England, it lasted from 1485 to 1625.

6 Cultural Movements of the Renaissance
Humanism: advocated a return to classical studies and ideals. It began in Italy in 14th century with the first famous writers were Petrarch and Boccaccio. The humanist viewed the classics as a source of moral and practical wisdom. The humanist movement influenced great Italian artists Michelangelo and Leonardo de Vinci.

7 Cultural Movements of the Renaissance
Age of Rationalism or enlightenment spanned the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Reason was accepted as the greatest authority in art, thought, and politics. Philosophers challenged folk wisdom, attempting to replace traditional lore with formal laws based on the analysis of natural phenomena. There was a renewed focus on nature throughout society, and encouraged curiosity in the sciences.

8 Cultural Movements in the Renaissance
Industrial Revolution: people employed reason not only to advance theory but also to regulate and enhance their daily existence. Improvement of the steam engine lead to industrial production Inventions such as the syringe, air pump, mercury thermometer, mainspring clock, and cotton gin provided effective new ways of solving problems.

9 Literature of the Renaissance
Literature was a branch of rhetoric, the art of spoken language for teaching, giving pleasure and persuading. During the Renaissance period, there were a lot of elaborate speeches written. The literature also was used as a form to persuade readers to do good. It was used to train the will by increasing man’s horror of evil and by strengthening his resolve to act well.

10 Literature of the Renaissance
The Machiavellian concept(crafty and deceitful) emerged based on Machiavelli’s book The Prince in which readers were taught that Rulers were saved not by their goodness, but by their strength, cunning, and ability. Many works moved from being written in the formal language of Latin, to the vernacular, or native language. Works appeared in French, Italian and Spanish.

11 Literature of the Renaissance
Many of the works from this time period were modeled after old forms, to create new meaning. Petrarch noted, “we must write just as the bees make honey, not keeping the flowers (works of the other writers) but turning them into a sweetness all our own, blending many different flavors into one, which shall be unlike them all, and better”.

12 Literature of the Renaissance
Invention also impacted the literature of the period. The creation of movable type by Gutenberg allowed for the widespread distribution of the Bible. Newspapers began to grow in popularity which led to the creation of “Public Opinion”.

13 Literature of the Renaissance
Some of the famous works of this time period: Italian or Petrarchan Sonnets Shakespearean Sonnets Miguel de Cervantes’ Don Quixote

14 Unit 6 Literary Focus: Sonnets
Sonnet: a fourteen-line lyric poem that is written in iambic pentameter. Types of Sonnets: There are two major types of sonnets. The Italian or Petrarchan sonnet is named after the Italian poet Petrarch. The English or Shakespearean sonnet is named after William Shakespeare. The main difference between the two is the rhyme scheme.

15 Characteristics of Sonnets
Common Themes: love, lost love, and the admiration of a fair-haired beauty are a few of the more common themes in early sonnets. Examples: “Love is in all the water, earth, and air,/And love possesses every living thing.”-from “Spring” by Petrarch. “Love is not love/Which alters when it alteration finds..”-from “Sonnet 116” by Shakespeare

16 Characteristics of Sonnets Literary Devices
Alliteration: the repetition of initial consonant sounds. Ex. “For the wind to toy and tangle…” Consonance: the repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables containing dissimilar vowel sounds. Ex. Let me not to the marriage of true minds/ Admit impediments…”

17 Literary Devices Continued
Personification: giving human characteristics to nonhuman subjects. Ex. “The rose/ in her beautiful youth…” Simile: using the words like or as to compare two dissimilar things. Ex. “…in love’s soft bands,/ Like captives trembling at the victor’s sight…”

18 Literary Devices Continued
Metaphor: speaking of a subject as though it were something else as a way to compare and contrast two dissimilar things. Ex. “The sky folds its wings over you, / Lifting you…” Conceit: a startling and often elaborate comparison between two apparently different things. Often, this extended metaphor forms the controlling idea of the entire sonnet. Ex. “For her who carried in her little hand/ my heart’s key to her heavenly sojourn…”

19 Sonnets continued Sonnet Sequences: a series of sonnets that allow the poet to trace the development of a relationship or examine different aspects of a single theme. Petrarch wrote a series of sonnets to a lifelong love named Laura. Shakespeare’s 154 sonnets are the most famous sonnet sequence in the English language.

20 Petrarchan Sonnet The Italian or Petrarchan sonnet consists of an octave (eight-line stanza) and a sestet (six-line stanza). The octave rhyme scheme is usually abba abba. The sestet has the rhyme scheme of cdecde, or cdedce, or cdcdcd. The octave states a theme or asks a questions that the sestet answers or resolves.

21 English or Shakespearean Sonnet
Consists of three quatrains (four-line stanzas) and a final couplet (two lines). The rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg. Each of the three quatrains explores a different aspect of the poem’s subject. The couplet presents a concluding comment.

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