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Domains, Kingdoms, and Phyla Grouping Organisms And Classification.

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Presentation on theme: "Domains, Kingdoms, and Phyla Grouping Organisms And Classification."— Presentation transcript:

1 Domains, Kingdoms, and Phyla Grouping Organisms And Classification

2 Age of Life on Earth 3.5 million years ago 1.5 million species named by classification system called taxonomy (to name and group organisms in a logical manner)

3 Domains 3 largest classification groups Archaea Eubacteria Eukarya

4 THREE Domains …Kingdoms Eubacteria Archaea Eukarya (true bacteria) (extreme (protists bacteria) fungi plants animals) (Prokaryotic) No true nucleus True Nucleus

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6 King Phillip Could Order Five Greasy Subs

7 Six Kingdoms: Get Handout

8 Two Domains: Prokaryotic Genetic material NOT in a nucleus INCLUDES: Eubacteria –true bacteria Archaea –extreme bacteria

9 Kingdom: Archaea Prokaryotic –no nucleus Cell walls with no peptidoglycan Unicellular – one celled Live in most extreme environments

10 What is peptidoglycan? A cross-linked complex of polysaccharides and peptides found in the cell walls of bacteria polysaccharides peptides cell wallsbacteria (in other words: Starch and protein)

11 Kingdom: Archaea Thermophiles –love heat Psychrophiles –cold-loving Acidophiles –love acidic environments Halophiles-love salty Barophiles-high pressure (ocean bottom)

12 Archaea Thermus aquaticus (Taq)

13 Archaea Sulfur-loving

14 Kingdom: EUBACTERIA (true bacteria) Prokaryotic – no nucleus Cell wall with peptidoglycan Unicellular –one-celled Diverse environments and metabolism

15 Eubacteria Staphyloccus Anthracis bacillus

16 Eubacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae E. coli

17 Eukarya HAVE A NUCLEUS All other organisms Protists Fungi Animals Plants

18 Kingdom: Protista Eukaryotic – DO have a nucleus Usually unicellular Amoeba nucleus Varied cell walls

19 Protista Examples EuglenaParamecium

20 Kingdom: FUNGI Eukaryotic Cell walls of chitin –stiffener Can be multicellular or unicellular

21 Fungi Yeast Can you see the budding?

22 Kingdom: Plantae Eukaryotic Cell wall made of cellulose Multicellular –more than one cell Autotrophic –photosynthetic – make their own food

23 Examples:

24 What is cellulose? Stiff, interlocking fibers in plants

25 Kingdom: Animalia Eukaryotic No cell wall Multicellular Heterotrophic –need to get food from other sources (plants and animals)

26 Animalia

27 Animalia Phyla Porifera (Sponges) Cnidaria (jellyfish) Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) Nematoda (Roundworms) Mollusca (octopus, clams) Annelida (Segmented Worms) Arthropoda (insects) Echinodermata (starfish) Chordata (mammals, fish, birds, reptiles)

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29 Phylum Porifera pore bearer Empty sac with pore cells on outside sponges Porifera Video

30 Phylum Cnidaria stinging nettle Jellyfish, coral, sea anemones Radial symmetry, tissues, prey on animals Phylum Cnidaria (Jellyfish) swimming, close-up Phylum Cnidaria (Jellyfish) swimming, close-up

31 Phylum Platyhelminthes Means flat and wide worm Live in sea and fresh water Some are parasites One opening - food/wastes Bilaterally symmetrical Planaria, tapeworms Stock Video of A planaria on plant stems

32 Phylum Nematoda Means thread One body opening for food and one for wastes Trichina worm, hookworm

33 Phylum Mollusca Means soft bodied Aquatic (gills), digestive tract Snails, octopus, clams Mollusks Video

34 Phylum Annelida Means ringed or segmented worm Digestive, nervous, circulatory systems Earthworms and leeches

35 Phylum Arthropoda Means jointed foot Have an exoskeleton (exterior) Segmented body, lungs/tracheae Insects (flies, wasps, beetles), crustaceans (lobster, shrimp), arachnids (spiders)

36 Phylum Echinodermata Means spiny skinned Starfish, sea urchin, brittle star Spiny skin and radial symmetry (5 arms coming out from center)

37 Phylum Chordata Means having a chord Have a backbone Have 9 systems (circulatory, nervous, skeletal, digestive, respiratory, etc.) Amphibians, Fish, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals

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39 Great Pictures Phyla Quiz Phyla Quiz Match organism to phylum

40 What kingdom are you?

41 Classification How do you organize all the 14 million species? Approximately 1.5 million species have so far been identified and scientifically Described.

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43 Carolus Linnaeus ( ) Father of Taxonomy His system for naming, ranking, and classifying organisms is still in wide use today

44 Classification

45 Taxons (Groups for Classification) Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

46 Humans Classification (Know) Kingdom AnimaliaKingdom Phylum ChordataPhylum Class MammaliaClass Order PrimatesOrder Family HominidaeFamily Genus HomoGenus Species sapiens

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49 How do you write a scientific name? First letter of Genus is capitalized and the rest is lower case Either underline the genus and species OR italicize the genus and species Written in Latin

50 Scientific Name Genus and species Homo sapiens

51 binomial nomenclature" Two name-name Genus and Species Acris crepitans Northern Cricket Frog repititious clicking call Acer saccharum Common Name Sugar maple

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53 Phylogeny Evolutionary Relationship among organisms

54 Derived Characters Trait that appears in older organisms, but not in recent parts of the lineage

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56 Using Classification Keys Labs 1. Make a classification key for candy –Work in lab groups of 4 –Write key on large paper –End with identification of single pieces of candy 1.Bark on trunk smooth Bark on trunk rough Bark mostly white Bark other colors

57 Cladogram Styles

58 How to Build a Cladogram onu/cladograms/Open-This-File.swfhttp://ccl.northwestern.edu/simevolution/ob onu/cladograms/Open-This-File.swf

59 Dichotomous Key organized set of couplets

60 A dichotomous key Work in couplets: pick from two choices

61 Keep dividing into two groups

62 Continue until you end with identifying each individual thing

63 Or you can do it this way

64 Cladogram A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms

65 Various Tree Keys Tree Dichotomous Key eNature: FieldGuides: Trees

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68 I've got my leaf, let's get started! I've got my leaf, let's get started! Click here

69 Ohio Tree Links What Tree Is It? HOMEWhat Tree Is It? HOME

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71 LINKS Tree of Life Web Project (includes interactive diagram)Tree of Life Web Project –First click on DOMAINS: Archaea, Bacteria, or Eukarya –Then click on KINGDOMS –Then Scroll Down and click on the PHYLUM in the reading –Click on CLASS in the reading


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