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Secular Song and Instrumental Music to 1300. Latin songs Conductus serious topics eleventh to thirteenth centuries Planctus lament in praise of dead friend.

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Presentation on theme: "Secular Song and Instrumental Music to 1300. Latin songs Conductus serious topics eleventh to thirteenth centuries Planctus lament in praise of dead friend."— Presentation transcript:

1 Secular Song and Instrumental Music to 1300

2 Latin songs Conductus serious topics eleventh to thirteenth centuries Planctus lament in praise of dead friend or patron Goliard songs informal eleventh to twelfth centuries – Goliards dropouts from clerical studies – name from patron Golias (Goliath) – song topics praise of wine, women, song; political satire – Carmina Burana collection from Benediktbeuern (in Bavaria) in thirteenth century

3 Minstrels, or jongleurs from tenth century Performers, not necessarily composers variety of activities – acrobatics and juggling – singing and playing songs and dances – chansons de geste epic, historical tales in vernacular ex. Chanson de Roland late eleventh century, tells events of ninth century Depended on court or (less successfully) public donations Gathered in scolae in Netherlands at Lent to learn new repertoire

4 Feudalism and chivalry development to eleventh century Feudal hierarchy from warrior lords to serfs Chivalry formalization of feudalism as courtly culture – tournaments ritualized combat, held in conjunction with festivals – crusades supported by church, removed warlike force from Europe – spiritualization of knighthood Christian ideals of love, sacrifice, self-denial; cult of the Virgin Mary – service to women as idealized model of protecting the weak courtoisie Courtly love (fin amors) Andreas Capellanus, Tractatus de amore (ca. 1180) courts of love

5 Troubadours In southern France or Aquitaine vernacular Occitan (langue doc) or Provençal – ca. 1100 to 1250 Aquitainian secular song arises from chivalry Troubadours from trobar (to find) or trope (?) Trobairitz women composers Individuals known from vidas in song manuscripts

6 Texts in troubadour songs Numerous types based on different literary themes Canso dealt with courtly love (fin amors) Alba song by friend and lovers lookout, refrain characteristic Tenso, partimen, joc parti discussion or debate about courtly love Planh comparable to planctus, but in vernacular Sirventes political or moral subjects Dansa popular style dance song (for carole), characterized by refrain Pastorela popular knight and shepherdess story

7 Style in troubadour songs Scoring voice, probably with instruments Rhythm text-based probably more measured than chant Melody simple lines, became steadily less dependent on modal construction – wider ambitus than chant – repetitious figures – general freedom some approach major-minor forms – strophic various simple patterns of stanzas, sometimes with refrains – open and closed cadences to create continuity and finality

8 Trouvères In France (langue doïl) and England ca. 1150 to ca. 1300 Rise of power of north over south in France

9 Texts in trouvère songs Types adapted from troubadours – chanson damour (from canso) – aube (from alba) – jeu-parti (from joc-parti) – pastourelle (from pastorela) Poetry – often characterized by religious imagery, references to Virgin Mary, crusades – more organized than troubadour lyrics

10 Style of trouvère songs Rhythm more likely to be measured than in troubadour songs Melody short, clear phrasing Form more carefully patterned than troubadour songs – strophic, with envoi at end – common outline for each stanza: fronscauda pespesvolta AABAAB a b a bc d... b(?) – more patterned forms begin

11 Minnesinger Courtly composers in Germany from ca. 1170 From Minne, courtly love modeled on troubadours

12 Texts of Minnelieder Middle High German Types – Lied (from canso) – Tagelied (from alba) – Leich (from lai) multiple stanzas of text but through- composed – Wechsel (dialogue of man and woman) – Tanzlied (dance song) – Kreuzlied (crusade song) – Spruch (based on sirventes) moral adage, political statement in single stanza More sober than troubadours, often religious Often praise of nature (especially winter, summer)

13 Style in Minnelied Rhythm German based on stress rather than duration Melody less clearly major-minor oriented Form mostly strophic – structure of each stanza Bar Stollen (A) Stollen (A) | Abgesang (B) || Abgesang often rhymes musically with Stollen (i.e., balanced binary form)

14 Medieval songs in Spain Occitan influence in northern Spain until ca. 1300 (Moors in south) Cantigas de gesta modeled on French chansons de geste Troubadours in courts canciones de amor modeled on troubadour canso

15 Alfonso X (el Sabio) Cantigas de Santa María Praise miracles of Virgin Mary Form villancico estribilloestrofaestribilloestrofa... Ab b aAb b a chorussolochorussolo

16 Medieval secular songs in Italy Lauda used by lay fraternities (laudesi) in the Franciscan movement, penitents and pilgrims Influence of traveling (crusading) troubadours Popular secular dance music ballata form ripresapiedepiedevolta ripresa Abba A

17 Medieval instruments haut and bas loudness as the main classification

18 Organs Church organ built in place Positive organ placed on table, required assistant for bellows Portative organ held on lap, single player

19 Trumpets Straight design For heraldic use

20 Strings Use – favored for nobility classical tradition of ethos – accompaniment for singing troubadours and trouvères Types – bowed vielle (Fiedel, viuola) gut or silk strings rebec high range – hurdy-gurdy (organistrum) crank and keys – plucked lute played with plectrum (stiff or flexible) Psaltery harp played with finger and thumb

21 Wind instruments Horns – oliphant military, royal, status symbol – cow or deer horn Reeds – shawm (bombarde) loud, outdoors – bagpipe – capped reed, softer than shawm or modern bagpipe Flute family – cross-blown – recorder and notched flute – pipe and tabor

22 Percussion Indefinite pitch – miscellaneous drums, including tabor – nakers small drums in a pair – tambourine Pitched – bells – dulcimer

23 Uses of instruments to 1300 Instruments in the church Use limited – documentary evidence generally in context of condemnation Depictions in art often symbolic rather than realistic Organ accepted

24 Instruments and vocal music Use with singers string instruments favored (vielle; also lute and harp) – doubling (heterophonic ornamentation) – drone, accompanying rhythmic figuration – prelude, interlude, postlude Instruments could substitute for vocalists

25 Instruments in dance music Social position participatory rather than staged for an audience – aristocracy – peasants – ecclesiastical disapproval related to paganism, sensual Types of dances – line dances related to procession – circle dances carole – couples dances seem to be later

26 Forms and genres in dance music Forms like Sequence – paired puncta – often open and closed endings Types of dance music – ductia group dance quick tempo few, equal-length sections – stantipes (estampie) couples dance? several sections of different lengths

27 Scoring for dance music Indoors rebec bagpipe could be carried in processional dance Outdoors pipe and tabor useful in processions shawm(s)

28 Questions for discussion Why did it become necessary to create a new word (troubadour or trouvère) to distinguish a composer from other types of musicians at a particular point in the history of Western music? How can musicians who want to play medieval music in historically appropriate scorings attempt to discover what was done, since the written music does not specify instrumentation?

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