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Love and Marriage? Pseudo-Demosthenes Against Neaera.

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Presentation on theme: "Love and Marriage? Pseudo-Demosthenes Against Neaera."— Presentation transcript:

1 Love and Marriage? Pseudo-Demosthenes Against Neaera

2 Agenda Academic Honesty Angelique Jenks-Brown, BU Libraries Butler or Foucault? Womens eros in Sappho fr. 31 Athenian Women A Quote Dissected… Apollodorus Against Neaera Charges, Ideologies, Rhetoric, Realities Will the Real Neaera Please Stand up? Against Neaera2

3 Butler or Foucault? Womens eros in Sappho fr. 31

4 The man seems to me strong as a god, the man who sits across from you and listens to your sweet talk nearby and your lovely laughter which, when I hear it, strikes fear in the heart in my breast. For whenever I glance at you, it seems that I can say nothing at all but my tongue is broken in silence, and that instant a light fire rushes beneath my skin, I can no longer see anything in my eyes and my ears are thundering, and cold sweat pours down me, and shuddering grasps me all over, and I am greener than grass, and I seem to myself to be little short of death But all is endurable, since even a poor man... (Sappho fr. 31) Butler or Foucault?

5 Sexual-Social Isomorphism male~female masculine~feminine penetrator~penetrated active~passive dominant~submissive senior (in status)~junior (in status) moderate (sōphrōn)~immoderate (akolastos) free~slave aka asymmetry hypothesis

6 Butler on Social Construction To publish ones act in language is in some sense the completion of the act (Butler AC) "... gender [but maybe sexuality too?] is an act which has been rehearsed, much as a script … requires individual actors (Performative Acts, in Performing Feminisms 1990) Against Neaera6

7 Discussion Butler? sappho seems to be performing feminine gender the how of her reactions seeming performed anti-butler s born that way Foucault? fs asymmetry man and strength sappho exhibits passivity poem a speech restricted by dichotomy laid out by fouc, thereby confining her sex etc. in the fictive reality self-control Against Neaera7

8 Biblio Note: Theory Butler, Judith. Antigones Claim: Kinship between Life & Death. New York: Columbia University Press, Print Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Thinking Gender. New York: Routledge, Print The Judith Butler Reader. Ed. Sara Salih. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., Print. Felluga, Dino. Introduction to Theories of Gender and Sex. Purdue University. 2 October 2013 (2002): Web site. Foxhall, Lin. Pandora Unbound: A Feminist Critique of Foucaults History of Sexuality. Rethinking Sexuality: Foucault and Classical Antiquity. Eds. David H. J. Larmour, Paul Allen Miller, and Charles Platter. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, –37. Print Against Neaera8

9 Biblio Note: Women, Neaera Blundell, Sue. Women in Ancient Greece. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Women in Classical Athens. London: Bristol Classical Press, Cohen, David. Law, Sexuality and Society: The Enforcement of Morals in Classical Athens. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991 Hamel, Debra. Trying Neaira: The True Story of a Courtesans Scandalous Life in Ancient Greece. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, Against Neaera9

10 Biblio Note: Gender (& masculinity) Bassi, Karen. Acting like Men: Gender, Drama, and Nostalgia in Ancient Greece. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, Print. Foxhall, Lin. Studying Gender in Classical Antiquity. Key Themes in Ancient History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Print. Foxhall, Lin and J. B. Salmon, eds. When Men were Men: Masculinity, Power and Identity in Classical Antiquity. London and New York: Routledge, Print Against Neaera10

11 Athenian Women A Quote Dissected…

12 We [Athenian men] have prostitutes for the sake of pleasure, concubines for meeting our bodily needs day-to-day, but wives for having legitimate children (Against Neaera p. 191)

13 Do They Jive? 1. We [Athenian men] have prostitutes (hetairai) for the sake of pleasure, concubines (pallakai) for meeting our bodily needs day-to-day, but wives (gunaikes) for having legitimate children (Against Neaera p. 191) 2. This Candaules, then, fell in love with (erasthe) his own wife, so much so that he believed her to be by far the most beautiful woman in the world; and believing this, he praised her beauty beyond measure to Gyges son of Dascylus (Herodotus 1.8) 3. Niceratus too, so I am told, is in love with (erai) his wife and finds his love reciprocated (she anterai him) (Xenophon Symposium 8.3) Against Neaera13

14 Apollodorus Against Neaera Charges, Ideologies, Rhetoric, Realities

15 Charges, Ideologies, Rhetoric Fraudulent… citizen-marriage citizen-offspring Impiety Cheapened enfranchisement Jury shaming Bread-making, phallus-bird, c. 500 BCE. Athenian Against Neaera15

16 Realities: Athenian Wives et al. Marriage Adultery (moikheia) Divorce Seclusion? ideology v. actuality oikia, andronitis, gunaikonitis oikia, andronitis, gunaikonitis Guardianship kurios and oikos court representation Property dowry inheritance epikleros, ankhisteia Against Neaera16

17 Greek House (oikia), Olynthus, 4th cent. BCE (reconstruction) andron (mens rumpus room)

18 Realities: Prostitutes, Concubines Hetaira (plur. hetairai) expense relationship Porne (plur. pornai) publicity commodification Pallake (plur. pallakai) kept slave woman Old man & hetaira. Athenian, c (Inscription reads Panaitios kalos, Panaetius [mans name] is beautiful.) Against Neaera18

19 Will the Real Neaera Please Stand up? Whore? Courtesan? Concubine? Wife?

20 We [Athenian men] have prostitutes for the sake of pleasure, concubines for meeting our bodily needs day-to-day, but wives for having legitimate children (Against Neaera p. 191) Was Neaera a… - porne? - - hetaira? - - pallake? - - citizen wife? - Was Neaera a… - porne? - - hetaira? - - pallake? - - citizen wife? -

21 Discussion Against Neaera21


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