2Chapter 3: Love Introduction Quote: “Love is merely a madness; and, I tell you, deserves a dark house and a whip as madmen do: an the reason why they are not so punished and cured is that lunacy is so ordinary that the whippers are in love too.”William ShakespeareDiscussion: What is love and is it still firmly entrenched in American culture? Explain.
3Chapter 3: Love Introduction Ways of Conceptualizing LoveTheories on the Origins of LoveFalling in LoveLove as a Context for ProblemsJealousy in RelationshipsCompersion, Polyamory, and Open RelationshipsThe Future of Love Relationships
4Chapter 3: Love Introduction Food for thought…A team of researchers surveyed 14,121 adolescents and found that the romantic ideal continues regardless of gender or sexual identity…an overwhelming proportion of the respondents rated love, faithfulness, and lifelong commitment as extremely important for marriage or long term relationships.Demir (2008) emphasized that involvement in a romantic relationship moves one to a new level of happiness independent of one’s personality.Schoebi (2008) identified hard (angry) and soft (depressed) emotions and the degree to which the emotions of one spouse affected another. When one spouse was experiencing hard emotions, the partner tended to mirror those.
5Ways of Conceptualizing Love What is love? The word love is polysemous; the meanings are numerous.Hegi and Bergner (2010) defined love as an “investment in the well-being of the other for his or her own sake.”Foster (2010) described love as being “about deep, abiding feelings with a focus on the long term.”LustInfatuation
6Ways of Conceptualizing Love: Love Styles Ludic: Love as a game…Pragma: Logical and rational…Eros: Romantic love…Mania: Out-of-control love…Storge: Companionate love…Agape: Compassionate love…
7Ways of Conceptualizing Love: Romantic vs. Realistic Love Romantic Love: an intense love whereby the lover believes in love at first sight, only one true love, and that love conquers allRomantic love is said to have appeared in all human groups at all times in human history.Conjugal Love: the love between married people characterized by companionship, calmness, comfort, and security
8Ways of Conceptualizing Love: Romantic vs. Realistic Love Food for thought…Regarding the beliefs about romantic love, 21% of 2,922 undergrads reported that they had experienced love at first sight; over a quarter (27%) reported that they would marry someone they had known for only a short time if they were in love.Men were more likely than women to report having experienced love at first sight (38.3% vs. 32.7%).Another study by Dotson-Blake et al. (2008) found further evidence that males are more romantic than females in that men were significantly more likely (85% vs. 73%) than women to believe that they could solve any relationship problem as long as they were in love.
9Ways of Conceptualizing Love: Triangular View of Love Sternberg (1986) developed the “triangular” view of love, consisting of three basic elements: intimacy, passion, and commitment.The absence of these three elements creates various types of love experienced between individuals, regardless of their sexual orientation. These various types include:NonloveLikingInfatuationRomantic loveConjugal loveFatuous loveEmpty loveConsummate love
10Ways of Conceptualizing Love: Why a Love Relationship Lasts Caryl Rusbult’s investment model of commitment has been used to identify why relationships last. While love is important, there are other factors involved…People become dependent on their relationships because they:Are satisfied with the relationshipBelieve their alternatives are poorHave invested many important resources in the relationshipThe model includes both internal and external factors in maintaining relationships.
11Ways of Conceptualizing Love: Social Control of Love Parents inadvertently influence the mate choice of their children by moving to certain neighborhoods, joining certain churches, and enrolling their children in certain schools.Peers exert a similar influence on homogenous mating by approving or disapproving certain partners.Social approval of one’s partner is normally important for a love relationship to proceed on course.Arranged Marriages – parents actually select the spouse for their children.Individuals attracted to someone of the same sex quickly feel the social and cultural disapproval of this attraction.
12Theories on the Origins of Love Evolutionary TheoryLearning TheorySociological TheoryPsychosexual TheoryBiochemical TheoryAttachment Theory
13Falling in Love Social Conditions for Love Love is a social label given to an internal feeling. Our society promotes love through various forms of mass media.Body Type Condition for LoveThe probability of being involved in a love relationship is influenced by approximating the cultural ideal of physical appearance.
14Falling in Love Food for thought… Madathill and Benshoff (2008) compared the importance attributed to love of Asian and Indian couples living in the United States who had arranged marriages versus American couples who selected their own partners. The researchers found greater importance attributed to love by Asian and Indian couples than American couples. One explanation was the greater joy of Asian and Indian couples, who were experiencing freedom since they were not living in their home countries and being restricted by their culture, as compared to American couples, who took freedom to love and choice of their mate as a given.Ambawani and Strauss (2007) found that body image has an effect on sexual relations and that relationships affect their self-image. Hence, women who felt positively about their body were more likely to report having sexual relations with a partner.
15Falling in Love Discussion: Halpern et al. (2005) analyzed data on a nationally representative sample of 5,487 African American, white, and Hispanic adolescent females and found that, for each one-point increase in body mass index (BMI), the probability of involvement in a romantic relationship dropped by 6%.Do agree with the results of this study? Why or why not?
16Falling in Love: Psychological Conditions for Love Perception of Reciprocal LikingPersonality QualitiesSelf-Esteem: Having a high self-esteem provides the following benefits:Allows you to believe that others are capable of loving youAllows one to be open and honest about strengths and weaknesses and accepting them in oneself and othersAllows one to feel equal to othersAllows one to take responsibility of one’s own feelingsAllows one to validate oneself and not expect the partner to do thisPermits one to feel empathyAllows separateness and interdependence
17Falling in Love: Psychological Conditions for Love Self-DisclosureRoss (2008) identified eight dimensions of self-disclosure:Background and historyFeelings toward the partnerFeelings toward selfFeelings about one’s bodyAttitudes toward social issuesTastes and interestsMoney and workFeelings about friendsGratitude
18Falling in Love Physiological and Cognitive Conditions for Love Other Factors Associated with Falling in LoveAppearanceSimilarityFamiliaritySocial InfluenceMeeting one’s needsSpecific cuesIsolationMysteriousness
19Love as a Context for Problems Profound Sadness/Depression When a Love Relationship EndsUnrequited LoveLove Involving Risky, Dangerous, or Questionable BehaviorEnding the Relationship with One’s ParentsSimultaneous LovesPutting on Weight after Moving InAbusive/Stalking Relationships
20Love as a Context for Problems Food for thought…What if you fall out of love with the person you had planned to marry?In a sample of 2,922 undergrad students, exactly half agreed that, “I would divorce my spouse if I no longer loved him or her.”What if you are in love with two people at the same time?According to the text, just let the clock run. Most love relationships do not have a steady course. Time has a way of changing them. If you maintain both relationships, one is likely to emerge as more powerful and you’ll have your answer.
21Jealousy in Relationships An emotional response to a perceived or real threat to an important or valued relationshipTypes of JealousyReactive JealousyAnxious JealousyPossessive Jealousy
22Jealousy in Relationships Causes of JealousyExternal CausesInternal CausesMistrustLow Self-EsteemLack of Perceived AlternativesInsecurityPhysiology
23Jealousy in Relationships Consequences of JealousyDesirable OutcomesUndesirable OutcomesGender Differences in Coping with JealousyAnalysis of the data on women’s and men’s reactions to jealousy revealed four significant differences:Food (30.3% women vs. 22% men turn to food)Alcohol (46.9% men vs. 27.1% women turn to alcohol)Friends (37.9% women vs. 13.5% men turn to friends)Nonbelief that “Jealousy shows love” (63.2% of women vs. 42.6% of men disagreed that “jealousy shows love”)
24Compersion, Polyamory, and Open Relationships Compersion: sometimes thought of as the opposite of jealousy; the approval of a partner’s emotional and sexual involvement with another personPolyamory: a lifestyle in which two lovers embrace the idea of having multiple loversBy agreement, each partner may have numerous emotional and sexual relationships.
25Compersion, Polyamory, and Open Relationships Advantages and Disadvantages of PolyamoryRules of an Open Relationship:HonestyRecreational SexCondomApprovalNo Online Hunting
26The Future of Love Relationships Love will continue to be one of the most treasured experiences in life.Love will be sought, treasured, and when lost or ended, will be met with despair and sadness.
27Quick QuizWhich one of the following is not one of the styles of love mentioned in the text?LudicPragmaHeartStorgeANS: C
28Quick QuizA mate selection pattern whereby parents select the spouse of their offspring is known as:parochial marriagearranged marriagepatriarchal familismnon-consentual marriageANS: B
29Quick QuizWhich one of the following is not one of the eight dimensions of self-disclosure when falling in love?Feelings toward his/her ParentsFeelings toward the partnerBackground and historyMoney and workANS: A
30Quick Quiz____ is an emotional response to a perceived or real threat to an important or valued relationship.Unrequited loveAngerAmorous envyJealousyANS: D
31Quick QuizWhich of the following is true about the causes and consequences of jealousy?The way that men and women respond are different.All consequences of jealousy have undesirable outcomes.Low self-esteem is rarely a cause of jealousy.People who are insecure are rarely jealous.ANS: A