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Link between natural and technological risks (Scira Menoni, Politecnico di Milano) 1.Link between natural risks and technological risks looking at two.

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Presentation on theme: "Link between natural and technological risks (Scira Menoni, Politecnico di Milano) 1.Link between natural risks and technological risks looking at two."— Presentation transcript:

1 Link between natural and technological risks (Scira Menoni, Politecnico di Milano) 1.Link between natural risks and technological risks looking at two case studies 2.Why soil and water contamination may be considered in the sphere of risks we are analyzing in the course

2 The Hallandsas case in Sweden 1. Modernization of Swedish railways between Gothenburg and Malmo;

3 The Hallandsas case in Sweden 2. The Hallandsas horst: A mass of the earth's crust that lies between two faults and is higher than the surrounding land (200 mt asl) 3. Critical geological factors, the solutions

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5 The Hallandsas case in Sweden critical geological features Crumbly soil, fructured rocks, sand and porous material Escavation lower the water groundtable Water shortage for agricoltural use Figure 3. The slope of the Hallandsås ridge towards the north-west. The northern tunnel mouth is situated to the right of the photo. Photo: H-G Wallentinus, January 2000 The second EIA document

6 Figure 4. The northern tunnel mouth. Photo: H-G Wallentinus, January 2000 Figure 5. The working tunnel on the Hallandsås ridge. Photo: H-G Wallentinus, January 2000

7 The Hallandsas case in Sweden Chemical hazard: The Rhoca-gil product containing large percentage of acrylamide contaminates soil and groundwater Contaminated water: declaration of crisis area Figure 6. Work going on in the northern part of the tunnel to stop groundwater leakage. Photo: H-G Wallentinus, January 2000

8 The Hallandsas case in Sweden Chemical hazards: Agricultural crisis, impossible to sell the Hallandsas products More than ten years of project stop Why environmentalists did not react? Railways = environmentally friendly Perceived as a technical problem

9 A relevant problem of planning is that everything has to be done so quickly.… My experience is that the overall time of design and implementation is shorter if there is enough time to think to the entire project (M. Andersson, Swedish Railway Adm.)

10 The Love Canal case

11 In the 50s the Hooker Chem. discharges t toxic materials In the canal of the utopian city of William Love

12 The Love Canal case 1954: the area is sold for $1 to the school administration of the Niagara City Municipality. A school is built on the canal and around it a residential quartier develops

13 The Love Canal case 1978: disaster discovery: Lois Gibbs, consultant Beverly Paigen

14 The Love Canal case At the beginning: 1.Only pregnant women and children below 2 years are evacuated; Then: : Carter declares Love Canal the first chemical disaster in the USA : Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) 3.New York State acquires residential properties at market value

15 The Love Canal case In the meantime: 1.26 families decide to remain in the area 2.The New York State develops a revitalization master plan in the period EPA Habitability declaration for the area 4.Some works have been carried out in the lifelines systems (water particularly), basements were cleaned and houses re-sold at around $ (prices mid 90s)

16 The Love Canal case: contamination risk, controversy In light grey the 100 RP flood for the Niagara river

17 The contamination path according to residents and to Beverly Paigen The Love Canal case: contamination risk, controversy

18 The Love Canal case: the master plan

19 The Love Canal case: contamination risk, the controversy Difficulties in demonstrating the relationship between exposure and helth effects: What proof do we need? How the probability estimation is considered in courts? The concept of disaster incubator particularly relevant in this case, where there is a specific site origin of the threat (even though there is no x hour or moment)

20 Fundamental difference between epidemiology and toxicology


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