Presentation on theme: "Lecture 2: Attachment, Love, Loss,Change, and the Research Project"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lecture 2: Attachment, Love, Loss,Change, and the Research Project Today’s Agenda:a) Select Reading from Oxford Book of Deathb) Introduce Attachment Theory and its Affect on Love and Lossc) Breakd) Completing the RAQe) Movie application “Good Will Hunting”Solowoniuk 2010
3 Let’s not get ahead of ourselves... What is love?Is the book talking about love or about attachment?Are they correlated?
4 Here’s a quote that I think captures it... “Your task is not to seek for love, but merely to seek and find all the barriers within yourself that you have built against it.Rumi
5 Attachment Theory Definition of Attachment: An enduring emotional tie to a special person, characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain closeness, especially during times of stress.
6 Roots of Attachment Theory John Bowlby applied ethology to infantsInfluenced by Konrad LorenzInfant’s innate behaviours are evolved responses which promote survivalThese behaviours include: sucking, crying, smiling, clinging, and following.Behaviours are modified from inception by the behaviour of the Primary Care Figure (PCF).
9 PCF reactions...Bowlby found that temporary separations from PCF evoked distinctive type of reactions (separation anxiety) from infant, toddler, etc.More importantly, he showed how infant/toddler’s reactions upon PCF return may evoke the very behaviour the infant/toddler intended to prevent.
10 Enter: Mary Ainsworth“Is the child who clings to his mother - who is afraid of the world and the people in it, and who will not move off to explore other things or other people - more strongly attached or merely more insecure?”AinsworthMade the distinction between strength of attachment and security of attachment.The natural question that had to be asked was:
11 Development of the Strange Test Developed experiment /method to classify patterns of attachment between infants and mothers: Strange Situation Test (SST) during separation.Led to the development of 2 categories of attachment1 type being Secure and 3 types of Insecure.
13 Secure Attachment Infant / toddler uses caregiver as a secure base May show distress at separation, but the baby can be soothed at reunionParents of these children display sensitivity to infants/toddlers needsSome parents report having attachment issues of their own from the past, but have gotten over them.Interestingly, their marriages are also less likely to be conflicted than those of the parents of insecurely attached children.
14 Insecure - Anxious / ambivalent Infant/toddler(s) (IFT) found on the SST who have PCF’s who are over-anxious, insensitive to their child’s needs, and discourage exploration.(IFT)Shows great distress during separationClings and cries angrily upon returnDistress continues after reunion for much longer than securely attached infants
15 Insecure / avoidantAre infant/toddler(s) (IFT) found on the SST who have MFC’s who do not show feelings, cannot tolerate closeness, punish child’s attachment behaviour.(IFT) then learns to:Inhibit their tendency to cling and cryDuring the SST when (MFC) re-appears (IFT) appears indifferent and uncaring will even ignore (MFC). But this is not the true case as inside they are physiologically aroused.Research has showed that (MFC’s) can be responsive to (IFT’s) under low levels of stress, but under high levels become less responsive.
16 Disorganized / disoriented In this case the IFT has a MFC who often feel helpless, and are frightened by their own children.The MFC often lacks in confidence with respect to their ability to care for and control their child and they may see their child as more powerful than themselves.Ultimately, this conditions the (IFT) to develop disorganized and contradictory behaviour.(IFT’s) may cry during separation but avoid the MFT upon return or they may approach the MFT upon return then freeze/fall, hit themselves, rock back and forth, etc.This group shows the greatest distress and in adult life have the most problems in living.
17 The Disorganized / Disoriented MFC: Why? Experience of their own childhood traumaActive addictionsLoss of parent before birth of childCurrently experiencing a trauma / related problem
18 How Reliable is the SST... Is Attachment for Life The SST and attachment theories are a science - not the truth.They are based on observances, cutoff scores, etc.SST doesn’t measure strength of attachmentAll attachment patterns have a function...
19 Function of Insecure Attachments WHY WOULD CHILDREN CONTINUE TO ACT APPARENTLY INSECURELY ?ANXIOUSNESS / AMBIVALENCE (Cling / Stay close / Protest)AVOIDANT (Stands of own two feet / seek dependence / inhibit feelings)DISORGANIZED / DISORIENTED (Stands of own two feet / seek dependence / inhibit feelings / act inconspicuous / withdraw / freeze / )Thoughts folks?
20 Attachments in later childhood Major theme in the book and partly the course - how does attachment predispose one to chronic or complicated grief?This will be the topic of study for about weeks.But, first let’s look at how attachment patterns show up in adult life. Some of this is theoretical some of this has been validated through studies.
21 Attachments in later childhood what do we think we know? Attachments patterns that have been established by two years of age appear to remain stable and predict quality of relationships in later childhoodAnxious / ambivalent school children seem to lack confidence and assertiveness necessary for interaction with peers.Avoidant children show more aggression to other children and teachers rate them as more hostile, impulsive, and withdrawn.Meanwhile, disorganized children appear to be a risk for psychiatric problems in later childhood (12 and beyond).Further research has demonstrated that attachment patterns are indeed hard to break and that the assumptive world that the child experienced between is the lens in which they view world as older children.This is important because ...It’s all about building trust!
22 Trust in Self and Others The goal of the parent is to?According to Parkes:“The principle function of parenting is to provide a secure base from which developing children will learn the extent to which they can rely on themselves and the extent to which that can rely on others” (pg. 17)
23 Four Categories of Basic Trust Self TrustOther TrustSecure AttachmentHighHighInsecureAnxious / AmbivalentLowHighAvoidantHighLowDisorganizedLowLow
24 A word about TrustProblems can arise from a lack of trust, but trusting too much can also lead to similar problems.For instance, self doubts of anxious / ambivalent children will make them more willing to seek help when help is needed, but they also may open themselves to exploitation.Similarly, the securely attached may be too willingly to trust society and never question it’s rules or leaders.
26 Why Grief?Love = attachmentWho does well?Who doesn’t ?LossGrief
27 Determinants of Outcome after Bereavement: Research says... Risks factors for complicated / chronic bereavementPersonal vulnerability of the bereavedAttachment to the deceasedEvents / circumstances lead up to and including deathSocial supports and other circumstances taking place after deathDependent relationshipsAmbivalent relationships
28 ALL IN ALL EMPIRICAL STUDIES... SHOW A VARIETY OF FACTORS INFLUENCE THE EXPRESSION of Grief... BUT THEY DON’T EXPLAIN WHY?
29 Grief as a process of change early research and theory building never meant to denote that normal grieving had stagesTow
30 Thus he posits a definition of grief: According to parkes the study of grief, loss, and bereavement is often muddled because it appears at times that we are not studying the same phenomena.Thus he posits a definition of grief:Grief involves a serious loss and a reaction of intense pining or yearning for the object lost (separation anxiety).He thens says if these components are missing the person can be said to not be grieving...
31 BereavementBereavement means: the state or fact of being bereaved due to the death of a loved one.it denotes a period of time.During this period of time we are grieving but often their are other reactions due to the fact of bereavement:threats to our securitymajor changes to our livesMajor changes in our familyhorrific memories of terrifying eventsblame toward other s for deathshame and/or guilt for our own complicity or neglectNone of these is part of grief though they may complicate grief and cause lasting problems!
32 Complicated Grief (Prigerson et al. 1995) Seven symptoms constitute complicated grief:SearchingYearningPreoccupation with thoughts of the deceasedCryingDisbelief regarding the deathFeeling stunned by the deathLack of acceptance of the death.All of these symptoms significantly impair global functioning (i.e., mood, sleep, occupation, self-esteem, relationships, etc)
33 Other Grief Theories: Trying to Answer the why? Psychosocial transition theoryOur Assumptive WorldReauthorizing NarrativesMeaning makingShattered AssumptionsIllusions are unveiledDual Process Model of GrievingLoss orientation and Restoration copingContinuing BondsDeceased are carried within
34 The Research ProjectTest clinical impressions/hypothesis which suggest that:Love and loss are intertwinedChildhood attachments patterns / separation from parents / relationships in later life influence how we cope with stress and loss, and;Understand the problems/dynamics which cause people to seek help after bereavement in adult life.And ultimately, to understand the chains of causation and to clarify the reasons why some people come through the pain of bereavement and emerge stronger and wiser than before while others suffer lasting damage to their mental health.
35 Bereaved participants 181 patients who attended Royal London Hospital43 men138 women74% had been bereaved for over a year before entering into the studyaverage age 41
36 Relationship of the dead person to the respondent Spouse or partnerMotherFatherChildStillbirthMiscarriageSiblingOtherMultiplen = 34n = 31n = 9n = 25n = 1n = 3n = 12n = 33
37 FINDING YOUR ATTACHMENT TYPE: INSECURE / SECURE Section 1: ParentingSection 11: Childhood Vulnerability11, 15, 16, 2817, 18, 19, 207, 8, 9a, 9b, 121, 3, 4, 5, 146, 410, 13, 25, 26, 27Corresponding numbersCorresponding numbersParental distant controlParental over protectionParental depression / psychParental separationParental unusual closenessParental rejection / violenceChildhood illnessChildhood timidityChildhood aggressive distrustChildhood Dresden vaseChildhood unhappinessChildhood care givingParental violent aggression5, 67, 10, 12, 15,16, 24, 2520, 26, 27, 28,29, 30, 318, 14, 17,18,199, 32, 3311, 23If “yes” is chosen for any indicated number give 1 point, if “no” zero point
38 Scoring Exceptions Most Yes/No questions are scored Yes = 1 No = 0 Except for: Section 1 question (1) No = 1 Section 1 question (2a) No = 1 Section 1 question (29) No = 1 Section IIi question (6) No = 1 Section iii question (9B) NO = 1
39 FINDING YOUR ATTACHMENT TYPE: INSECURE / SECURE If you score 11 or less attachment style = insecureMore than 21 attachment style = insecureAverage score from bereaved study participants was 17Other subcategories scoring to follow
40 SCORING YOUR ANXIOUS / AMBIVALENT SCORE SUM THESE CATEGORIESPARENTAL UNUSAL CLOSENESS SI - 6, 4PARENTAL OVERPROTECTIVENESS SI - 17, 18, 19, 20CHILDHOOD TIMIDITY SII - 7, 10, 12, 15, 16, 24, 25DRESDEN VASE SII - 8, 14, 17,18, 1910 MORE = INDICATES ANXIOUS AMBIVALENT ATTACHMENTSCORE = 7 WAS AVERAGE SCORE FOR BEREAVED PARTICIPANTS
41 SCORING AVOIDANT ATTACHMENTS SUM THESE CATEGORIESPARENTS INTOLERANT OF CLOSENESS SI - 28CHILD INTOLERANT OF CLOSENESS SII - 26CHILDHOOD AGGRESSIVENESS / DISTRUST SII 20, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31SCORE OF 6 OR MORE INDICATES AVOIDANT ATTACHMENTSCORE 3.8 WAS AVERAGE SCORE FOR BEREAVED PARTICIPANTS
42 SCORING DISORGANIZED ATTACHMENTS SUM THESE CATEGORIESFAMILY EXPERIENCE DANGER / PERSECUTION SII - 4PARENTAL REJECTION / VIOLENCE SI - 10, 13, 25, 26, 27PARENTAL DEPRESSION / PSYCH SI - 7, 8, 9a, 9b, 12CHILDHOOD UNHAPPINESS SII - 9, 32, 33COMPULSIVE CAREGIVING SII - 11, 23SCORE OF 6 OR MORE INDICATES DISORGANIZED ATTACHMENTSCORE 4.5 WAS AVERAGE SCORE FOR BEREAVED PARTICIPANTS
44 Group Task and Questions Form Group’s of 5 / 6Select Captain / SpokespersonTaskGroup is watch movie and provide evidence of attachment / grief details related to movie and characters.Be as analytical as possibleVideo will be watched over 2 classes / group who wins will be given a prize...
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