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DIVINE AND COURTLY LOVE IN MEDIEVAL SPAIN ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT.

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Presentation on theme: "DIVINE AND COURTLY LOVE IN MEDIEVAL SPAIN ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT."— Presentation transcript:

1 DIVINE AND COURTLY LOVE IN MEDIEVAL SPAIN ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT

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3 ORIGINS OF SPANISH LOVE POETRY First known poems: jarchas (kharjas) from Xth-XIth centuries, discovered in a Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt. First known poems: jarchas (kharjas) from Xth-XIth centuries, discovered in a Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt. They were written in Arabic or Mozarabic and consisted of the final 3 or 4 lines of Muwashshas (romantic odes). They were written in Arabic or Mozarabic and consisted of the final 3 or 4 lines of Muwashshas (romantic odes). The Mozarabic (Christian) ones mostly contain laments of lower class women about their absent lovers (Habib). The Mozarabic (Christian) ones mostly contain laments of lower class women about their absent lovers (Habib).

4 A Kharja by Yehuda Halevi Vayse neu corachon de mib Vayse neu corachon de mib Ya Rab si me tornarad? Ya Rab si me tornarad? Tan mal meu doler li-l-habib! Tan mal meu doler li-l-habib! Enfermo yed cuand sanarad? Enfermo yed cuand sanarad? Many are written in Aljemiado, Romance language in Arabic script.Some Muslim authors refer to them as songs in the Christian style. Many are written in Aljemiado, Romance language in Arabic script.Some Muslim authors refer to them as songs in the Christian style.

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6 Antecedents: The Song of Songs in the Bible. The Song of Songs in the Bible. Arabic Classical (Yemeni and Hijazi) and Andalusi poetry: Arabic Classical (Yemeni and Hijazi) and Andalusi poetry: Ibn Hazm (Abenhazam) from Cordoba (XIth century), philosopher, jurist and analyst of Ishq (hopeless, mad passion) in Tawq al Hamama (Ring of the Dove). Ibn Hazm (Abenhazam) from Cordoba (XIth century), philosopher, jurist and analyst of Ishq (hopeless, mad passion) in Tawq al Hamama (Ring of the Dove). Ibn Arabi ( ) from Murcia: towering mystic, author of many ghazals and of Tarjuman al Ashwaq (Interpreter of Desires) who gives a mystical interpretation to love verses Ibn Arabi ( ) from Murcia: towering mystic, author of many ghazals and of Tarjuman al Ashwaq (Interpreter of Desires) who gives a mystical interpretation to love verses Graeco-Roman Neo-Platonism, translated and commented by Arab authors in Sicily and Spain. Graeco-Roman Neo-Platonism, translated and commented by Arab authors in Sicily and Spain.

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8 Appearance of the Joglars and Trobadors in Southern Europe Wandering jugglers recited and sang the poems composed by Trobadores, whose name may have come from Arabic Tariba. Trobadors as such appear in the late XIIIth century. Wandering jugglers recited and sang the poems composed by Trobadores, whose name may have come from Arabic Tariba. Trobadors as such appear in the late XIIIth century. Trobar Clus: a sophisticated and obscure symbolic, coded language. Trobar Clus: a sophisticated and obscure symbolic, coded language. Trobar Leu: a lighter, more popular style. Trobar Leu: a lighter, more popular style. Many categories were invented: trova cara, oscura, sutil, delgada, cubierta o cerrada (en Argot o ars gotica), rica. Many categories were invented: trova cara, oscura, sutil, delgada, cubierta o cerrada (en Argot o ars gotica), rica. The themes were almost all related to love but in many genres: Ennuy, Placer, Salut damor, Somni, Escondit, Descort...Each one related to a specific season and time of the day. The themes were almost all related to love but in many genres: Ennuy, Placer, Salut damor, Somni, Escondit, Descort...Each one related to a specific season and time of the day. Some frequent forms were the Canso (a love ballad which begins with a celebration of spring), the Alba, the Pastorella (love story between a knight and a shepherdess) and the Serranilla, related to Galician and early Portuguese Cantigas de Amiga. Some frequent forms were the Canso (a love ballad which begins with a celebration of spring), the Alba, the Pastorella (love story between a knight and a shepherdess) and the Serranilla, related to Galician and early Portuguese Cantigas de Amiga. In Spain a favourite format was the cuaderna via consisting in 4-line stanzas. In Provencal, the most common metre is decasyllabic in 8 verse strophes. In Spain a favourite format was the cuaderna via consisting in 4-line stanzas. In Provencal, the most common metre is decasyllabic in 8 verse strophes.

9 The Rules of Courtly Love Those rules developed gradually and were recorded by Mesters of Jogleria and in compendia such as the Breviari dAmor, the Cantigas de Santa Maria of King Alfonso El Sabio and the Libro del Buen Amor of Juan Ruiz. Those rules developed gradually and were recorded by Mesters of Jogleria and in compendia such as the Breviari dAmor, the Cantigas de Santa Maria of King Alfonso El Sabio and the Libro del Buen Amor of Juan Ruiz. In parallel were the Mesters of Clerecia who codified religious, mystical poetry. In parallel were the Mesters of Clerecia who codified religious, mystical poetry. The source was Southern France, the cradle of Occitanian or Provencal literature which inspired the Iberic and Northern Italian Romance poets all the way to the Renaissance, from Fray Luis de Leon to Dante and Petrarch. The source was Southern France, the cradle of Occitanian or Provencal literature which inspired the Iberic and Northern Italian Romance poets all the way to the Renaissance, from Fray Luis de Leon to Dante and Petrarch. The pole star of the courtly trobador was Midons (my Lady), an idealized woman endowed with all perfections and generally married to a powerful lord. The pole star of the courtly trobador was Midons (my Lady), an idealized woman endowed with all perfections and generally married to a powerful lord. The womans identity must be protected so that she is only alluded to by a Senhal or Sign which only she and poet know, at the end of the strophe: Tornada. The womans identity must be protected so that she is only alluded to by a Senhal or Sign which only she and poet know, at the end of the strophe: Tornada. The is at once a feudal mistress and a mystical, sacred icon, The is at once a feudal mistress and a mystical, sacred icon, Her husband, the gilos is ritually warned by lausengiers (accusers) that she has a secret admirer. Her husband, the gilos is ritually warned by lausengiers (accusers) that she has a secret admirer. The lover is possessed by this foll amor which often remains virginal and idealized (Platonic). It is for him a devotional religion which ennobles him and for which he consents to all sacrifices. The lover is possessed by this foll amor which often remains virginal and idealized (Platonic). It is for him a devotional religion which ennobles him and for which he consents to all sacrifices. Trobadors were in general scholarly. They had studied the seven sciences of Medieval learning: the Trivium (grammar, logic, rhetoric) and Quadrivium (arthmetics, geometry, music, astronomy) related to the seven theologal and cardinal virtues. Trobadors were in general scholarly. They had studied the seven sciences of Medieval learning: the Trivium (grammar, logic, rhetoric) and Quadrivium (arthmetics, geometry, music, astronomy) related to the seven theologal and cardinal virtues.

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11 The Stages in Amorous Progres The poet is first a supplicant (fenhedor). The poet is first a supplicant (fenhedor). When he is noticed by the Lady he becomes a precador. When he is noticed by the Lady he becomes a precador. Then, when accepted by her, he is Entendedor, as he becomes privy to her thoughts and feelings. Then, when accepted by her, he is Entendedor, as he becomes privy to her thoughts and feelings..The last stage is that of lover (drut) which may or may not lead to physical union..The last stage is that of lover (drut) which may or may not lead to physical union. Throughout, the poet must observe mesura, discretion or secrecy as he can never compromise his ladys reputation or sully her name. Throughout, the poet must observe mesura, discretion or secrecy as he can never compromise his ladys reputation or sully her name. That love is seen as a state of grace, akin to religious bliss. That love is seen as a state of grace, akin to religious bliss.

12 Some examples The philosophy of Courtly Love, inspired by the mystical experience, turns upside down the social order in which the woman is subservient to the man and must accept her designated husband. She becomes the embodiment of Divinity in the secular sphere. The philosophy of Courtly Love, inspired by the mystical experience, turns upside down the social order in which the woman is subservient to the man and must accept her designated husband. She becomes the embodiment of Divinity in the secular sphere. There are two sorts of Albas: in the erotic genre, the poet dreads and deplores the return of the day which puts an end to a night of love. In the religious alba, the dawn is hailed as a bearer of the divine light which spells an end to the darkness, confusion, fears and temptations of the night. There is an ascetic rejection of carnal desires and sinful indulgence which breed misery. That conclusion is expressed by many trobadors, echoing Ibn Hazms own admonitions at the end of the Ring of the Dove. There are two sorts of Albas: in the erotic genre, the poet dreads and deplores the return of the day which puts an end to a night of love. In the religious alba, the dawn is hailed as a bearer of the divine light which spells an end to the darkness, confusion, fears and temptations of the night. There is an ascetic rejection of carnal desires and sinful indulgence which breed misery. That conclusion is expressed by many trobadors, echoing Ibn Hazms own admonitions at the end of the Ring of the Dove.

13 A secular Alba (the lovers have been protected by their chosen guaita (watcher) in their clandestine night-long dalliance Here is an example of an amorous Alba. The guaita is the watcher who protects the clandestine dalliance from intruders. Quan lo rosinhols escria ab sa part le rueg e-l dia, Yeu suy ab ma bellamia jos la flor Fro la gaita de la tor escria: Drutz, al levar! Quieu vey lalba e-l jorn clar. v

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15 The Pastorella, a kind of idyll The pastorella is about a knight seeking to seduce a shepherdess in a very polite and poetic language. The usual response from the girl is a reasoned refusal, even when she has initially accepted. The moral message is that a woman stands to lose too much if she succumbs to the advances of a man of higher birth and station. The man must accept her rejection: e femnas leu cambiada. The pastorella is about a knight seeking to seduce a shepherdess in a very polite and poetic language. The usual response from the girl is a reasoned refusal, even when she has initially accepted. The moral message is that a woman stands to lose too much if she succumbs to the advances of a man of higher birth and station. The man must accept her rejection: e femnas leu cambiada.

16 Excerpt from a Pastorella by Cerveri de Gerona Na toza, joys no magrada Na toza, joys no magrada N jazers de femna irade. N jazers de femna irade. Sagues joy, e vos marrimen, Sagues joy, e vos marrimen, Na fora cauza davinen Na fora cauza davinen Mas era.m deu esser dada. Mas era.m deu esser dada. Pastora: Seyner, causes desquiada Pastora: Seyner, causes desquiada Per forcab, cutxautreyada. Per forcab, cutxautreyada. No-s deu far, per queu men repen; No-s deu far, per queu men repen; -Pero vuyll mauzir jutyamen -Pero vuyll mauzir jutyamen De lEnfan, on pretz sagrada. De lEnfan, on pretz sagrada. A la Vezcomtesa plazen, A la Vezcomtesa plazen, Na toza, de Cardona us ren, Na toza, de Cardona us ren, Camor note pro, forcada. Camor note pro, forcada.

17 Legacy of Trobador Poetry The amorous and mystical poetry of the Trobadors and the Northern European Minstrels and Minnesingers inspired and shaped the literature of the Renaissance, in its secular and religious dimensions. The amorous and mystical poetry of the Trobadors and the Northern European Minstrels and Minnesingers inspired and shaped the literature of the Renaissance, in its secular and religious dimensions. In Spain, Ausias March, Inigo Lopez de Mendoza, Jorge Manrique and Garcilaso de la Vega were among its most eminent successors and Cervantes was both a follower and a satirist of that tradition. In Spain, Ausias March, Inigo Lopez de Mendoza, Jorge Manrique and Garcilaso de la Vega were among its most eminent successors and Cervantes was both a follower and a satirist of that tradition. We find many references to Medieval Loci and themes in Shakespeares works as in many other great writers of the Classical Age of Europe. The Romantics rediscovered Troubadour literature and revived it in a quaint, often pre_Raphaelite style. We find many references to Medieval Loci and themes in Shakespeares works as in many other great writers of the Classical Age of Europe. The Romantics rediscovered Troubadour literature and revived it in a quaint, often pre_Raphaelite style.


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