Presentation on theme: "Mise-en-scène (pronounced “meez-ahn-sen”)"— Presentation transcript:
1Mise-en-scène (pronounced “meez-ahn-sen”) Everything that creates the visual “world” of the movie and its overall atmosphere
2Some Key Film TermsA. Mise-en-scène-what is filmed; everything in front of the cameras.B. Cinematography--how something is filmed (photographic techniques)C. Editing--how what is filmed is put togetherD. Sound—voice, music, & sound effects; can be diegetic (part of the story) & non-diegetic (not part of the story)
3Mise-en Scene is what appears in the film frame. DefinitionMise-en Scene is what appears in the film frame.
4What is a frame?A frame defines the 3 dimensions of the image we see on screen:HeightWidthDepth (the illusion of…)
5What is Mise-en-scène?It is a physical creation and an emotional conceptFrench phrase that literally means -Staging or putting on an action or scene in theatre or cinemaIn critical analysis it generally refers to the filmmaker’s control of such staging, or how a filmmaker determines what the audience sees (and hears) with in the frame of the movie image.
6Elements of mise-en-scène Design: the LOOK of the setting, props, lighting, actors, costumes, makeup, hairstyling, and décor.Composition: the ORGANIZATION, distribution, balance of actors and objects within the frame, including kinesis (what moves within the frame).Plus: Off-screen and onscreen “space”Open-framed, closed-frame films
7Elements of mise-en-scène Setting, Décor, & PropsPerformance (Actors)Costumes, Makeup, HairstylingLighting & ColorComposition within the frame, including kinesis (movement)Plus: Off-screen and onscreen “space”Open-framed, closed-frame films
8What isn’t part of mise-en-scène? SoundMusicNarrationEditing
9What are the functions of the frame and the process known as framing? Filmmakers must decide what to include and what to excludeWhat is seen/not seen (onscreen off screen space)Control distribution, balance and spatial perspectival relations of what appears on screenIn controlling framing, filmmakers shape the from, content, and meaning of the image
10So……Mise-en-scène results from the filmmaker’s total control of what occurs with in the frame.
11Planning a shot means… Placing people, objects and elements of décor Determining their movements (if any)Setting up lightingFiguring out camera angles
12So generally speaking Mise-en-scène is… The total arrangement of settings, costumes, lighting, and acting - in other words - everything you see.Ultimately Mise-en-scène happens because the director and his/her creative team envisioned it.
13Composition and Mise-en-scène Mise-en-scène is the product of directorial vision and planning.Composition is the process of visualizing and putting those plans into practice.
14Composition Basics Organization Distribution Balance General relationship of stationary objects and figuresAs well as light, shade, line, and color with in the frame
15Composition & Mise-en-scène Cause effect relationshipCalls attention to the actual work of the director and the production teamThis helps develop a movies narrative, suggests meaning(story boards, models, sketch books)
16Shaping Mise-en-scène Two aspects of compositionFraming - what we see on the screenKinesis - what moves on the screen
17Realism Often Evaluative Standard for Film Worlds Notions of Realism VaryMore Useful to Evaluate Function
18E.g. Edward Scissorhands (1990) Contrast stylized and banal Mise-en-scèneFunctions to suggest conflict in story of conformism and creativity
19Early Cinema 1895 Lumiere Brothers First Commercial Films Mise-en-scène of Real PlacesActualities
20George Melies Former Magician Voyage to the Moon (1902) One of the First StudiosCreated/ Not ActualWorld
21Locations vs. Sets Two Main Traditions of Film Mise-en-scène Pause lecture to watch a clip of these two early cinema versions of Mise-en-scène on Learning Tasks page.
221. Setting Container, Background for Action or Dynamic; Plays Active Role in Narrative
23I. SETTING A. Setting is where the action occurs B. Three basic options:1. Soundstage- interiors & process shots2. Studio backlot--full size replicas (towns, streets, houses, shops, etc.)
24SETTING, CON’T. 3. Locations: a. May be one place, but pretend to be another ("creative geography“--see editing)b. May shoot only establishing & outside shots “on location”c. May take whole cast & crew "on location" to shoot exteriors & interiors
25SETTINGS, CON’T. C. Function of sets: 1. Provide information (e.g. time, place, character’s status, etc.).2. Create mood & guide our attention.3. May play a significant part in the action.4. Communicate themes & comment on action.5. Can create "special effects" (e.g. low tech solutions to avoid process shots).
26When the mise-en-scène in a movie creates a feeling completely in tune with the movie’s narrative and themes, we may not consciously notice it; it simply feels natural.Rear Window (1954). Alfred Hitchcock, director.
27Mise-en-scène reinforces characters and themes. Far From Heaven (2002). Todd Haynes, director.
28Some movies challenge us to read their mise-en-scène. The Fallen Idol (1948). Carol Reed, director.
29Prop Abbreviation for Property Part of the setting that plays active role in action.May reoccur as a motif.
30II. Performance (Actors) A. Usually human actors1. Required to make an effective drama2. Create identification with audience, enhancing our suspension of disbelief 3. Bad acting (or outdated acting) prevents this identification.
31PERFORMANCE, CON’T. B. Various acting styles: 1. Natural vs. Stylized (realistic vs. "playing a role")a. Natural actors re-create recognizable or plausible human behavior for the camerab. Stylized or non-natural actors seem excessive, exaggerated, even overacted, may employ strange costuming, etc.1) May distance audiences from characters (e.g. Johnny Depp in Charlie & the Chocolate Factory)2) Often found in horror, fantasy, & action films2. Improvisational acting—extemporaneous acting
32A non-naturalistic performance by Johnny Depp A non-naturalistic performance by Johnny Depp. Edward Scissorhands (1990). Tim Burton, director.
33Robert DeNiro and director Martin Scorsese improvised the lines in this scene from Taxi Driver.
34PERFORMANCE, CON’T.3. Method acting (immersing oneself in the role); chameleon actors--different in every rolee.g. Robert DeNiro, Cate Blanchett4. Personality actors or actors who take their personae from role to rolee.g. John Wayne, Adam Sandler)3. Technical acting (using body movements & technique to evoke a role)4. Type casting vs. casting against typeSome actors deliberately play against our expectations of their personae (e.g. Jim Carrey)
35Cate Blanchett’s complete transformation as Bob Dylan in I’m Not There (2007) - Todd Haynes, director.
37We respond to a single character’s expressions as they are shaped by drama and camera. The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928). Carl Theodor Dreyer, director.
38Sometimes film directors expect that the audience will make connections between films spanning decades. Anna Karina in My Life to Live (1962). Jean-Luc Godard, director. In this scene she is at the movies, watching….Joan of Arc…
39PERFORMANCE, CON’T.5. Nonprofessional actors, cast to bring realism to a parte.g. the ordinary people in Winter’s BoneC. Performance categories:1. Stars2. Character actors & roles3. Major & minor roles4. Bit players and extras5. Stand-ins & stuntpersons4. Cameos (rarely credited, often famous people)
40PERFORMANCE, CON’T. 5. Styles change over time a. earlier films may seem overacted to modern audiencesb. Silent films adopted the acting style favored in the 19th-century theaterc. Exaggerated facial expressions, strained gestures, bombastic mouthing of wordsd. The 1950s featured emotional method acting, such as James Dean
41PERFORMANCE, CON’T. d. Performance challenges: 1. Importance of casting & problem of miscasting2. Challenge of shooting out of sequence (movies usually shot out of narrative order, for convenience or cost)e. Film techniques can alter or "create" a performance--skillful photography & editing can mask a poor performance.
42III. COSTUMING & MAKEUPA. Can enhance setting; must be appropriate for the time, place, etc.B. Can be realistic vs. stylized (more in fantasy)C. Can serve iconographic or symbolic functions (i.e. white hat/dark hat dichotomy for hero/villain)
43Costumes and Makeup Like Setting, Function in Story Realistic, Unobtrusive or StylizedAllusion in Breathless
44Naturalist Makeup DeNiro’s Nose, Eyes in Raging Bull (1980) Function unobtrusively to create resemblance to real person and support performance.
45Nicholson in Batman (1989) Highly Stylized, Exaggerated Costume/Makeup CharacterizeJoker astheatrical,aberrant.
46The Leopard (1963) - Luchino Visconti, director The Leopard (1963) - Luchino Visconti, director. A film whose mise-en-scène (esp. set design & costuming) perfectly complements its narrative and themes.
47IV. Lighting Allows us to see action Directs our attention Impacts how characters appear
48Light Quality Intensity Soft: diffused, less contrast Hard: defined, sharp contrastRedford in The Natural (1984)
49Three Point Lighting Key: Main Source Fill: Eliminates Shadow Back: Rim of Light =Depth
50Three Point Lighting (continued) For Each Major CharacterTime Consuming, ExpensiveCreates Clear Compositions
54Color Mostly White, Yellow Colored Light Symbolic Function Pause lecture forclip from Traffic (2000)showing the symbolicuse of color.
55Traffic (2000) Blue, Yellow Light Symbolizes Traits of Mexico/U.S. Coldness, Entitlement/Arridity, ViolenceCommon Color StylizationCultures Linked by Globalization (Drugs)
56IV. USE OF COLOR IN Mise-en-scène A. Color can refer to many things:1. Color film stock [see chapter 2]2. Use of color filters for light [see chapter 2]3. Use of color in sets, costumes, etc.B. Mise-en-scène concerned mainly with color in sets, costumes, etc.C. Color shows different types of characters, places, moods, etc.
571. Saturated—intense & vivid 2. Desaturated—muted, dull, & pale USE OF COLOR, CON’T.C. Types of color (in both Mise-en-scène & cinematography; see pp.66-70):1. Saturated—intense & vivid2. Desaturated—muted, dull, & pale3. Warm colors4. Cool colors
58Gone with the Wind (1939). Victor Fleming, director Gone with the Wind (1939). Victor Fleming, director. A turning point in Hollywood film production’s use of color.
59The Court Jester (1955). Melvin Frank & Norman Panama, directors The Court Jester (1955). Melvin Frank & Norman Panama, directors. Use of saturated Technicolor - verisimilitude is a factor, but authenticity is not always ensured regarding costumes, makeup, or hairstyle, particularly in historical films.
60Sleepy Hollow (1999). Tim Burton, director Sleepy Hollow (1999). Tim Burton, director. Desaturated color; all the elements of mise-en-scène creates this unified look (composition, costuming, set design, etc.).
61USE OF COLOR, CON’T.D. Expressive uses of color (varies from culture to culture & context):1. Color motifs or patterns (a motif is a recurring element in a film)2. Specific symbolic meanings of color—e.g. Black, White, Red, Yellow, etc.3. Alternating or contrasting use of colors
62American Beauty (1999). Sam Mendes, director American Beauty (1999). Sam Mendes, director. The use of color for symbolic emphasis.
64V. SPACE & COMPOSITION A. Spatial aspects of setting & composition: 1. Depth cues--illusion of 3-D space in 2-D medium:a. Overlapping objectsb. Obstruction shotsc. Deep focus (see cinematography)d. Forced perspective (illusion of depth & distance with smaller rear sets, etc.)2. Frontality cues--cue attention to figures in the foreground (instead of background)3. Rack focus [see cinematography on web site…]Forced perspective is also a function of cinematography, from the types of camera angles & focal lengths used, to the use of process shots to blend backgrounds and foregrounds together (see chapter 2)
65Gosford Park (2001). Robert Altman, director Gosford Park (2001). Robert Altman, director. Note the depth cues (foreground & background; in addition the British “upstairs/downstairs” theme is reflected in the design of the setting and decor.
66SPACE & COMPOSITION, CON’T. B. Composition--arrangement of subjects in frame (also known as framing):1. Balance--taking sides; symmetrical to asymmetrical2. Rule of thirds (horizontal & vertical)3. Diagonals, triangles, or other groupings4. Contrastsa. Can be of tone & color, light & dark, etc.b. Also of shape & size
67Spartacus (1960). Stanley Kubrick, director Spartacus (1960). Stanley Kubrick, director. The rule of thirds directs our eyes to obvious areas of interest within a cinematic composition.
68Citizen Kane (1941). Orson Welles, director Citizen Kane (1941). Orson Welles, director. Deep framing, slightly off-balance.
69The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920). Robert Wiene, director The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920). Robert Wiene, director. Asymmetrical, stylized set composition (combined with the painted sets) reflected the anxiety, terror, and madness of the film’s characters.
70Citizen Kane (1941). Orson Welles, director Citizen Kane (1941). Orson Welles, director. Note the triangular composition, along with the deep focus (through the window).
71The Bicycle Thieves (1948). Vittorio De Sica, director The Bicycle Thieves (1948). Vittorio De Sica, director. Italian neorealism. A more balanced & natural composition--the rainstorm was real, and the scene was filmed on location.
72The Best of Our Lives William Wyler What does the composition of picture 1 suggest?What does the composition of picture 2 suggest?
73The Best Years of Our Lives (1946). William Wyler, director The Best Years of Our Lives (1946). William Wyler, director. The relationship between composition and mise-en-scène: Another triangular composition.
75Late Spring (1949). Yasujiro Ozu, director Late Spring (1949). Yasujiro Ozu, director. Japanese directors Akira Kurosawa, Kenji Mizoguchi, and Yasujiro Ozu have consistent visual styles and beautifully balanced compositions; here we have triangle composition.
76SPACE & COMPOSITION, CON’T. C. Functions of effective composition1. Physical relation of actors to each other & to the overall frame can significantly affect how we see & interpret a shot.2. The long take & deep-focus cinematography provide opportunities to create scenes of greater-than-usual length & broader, deeper fields of composition.3. Long takes also encourage ensemble acting
77SPACE & COMPOSITION, CON’T. D. Proxemics--close or far distances between characters & objects:a. Tight--people & objects close togetherb. Loose--people & objects far apartc. Objects used as barriers (e.g. screen doors, bead curtains, etc.)d. See camera distance
78Juno (2007). Jason Reitman, director. Loose framing Juno (2007). Jason Reitman, director. Loose framing. The intent is to convey setting & time of day, but the long shot with balanced composition (& desaturated colors) reflects additional meanings. For one thing, Juno is unbalanced with the rest of the frame, small, almost unnoticeable, reflecting her feelings.
79SPACE & COMPOSITION, CON’T. E. Other uses of space: 1. Matte (painted) backdrops2. Camera angles [see cinematography]3. Looking into windows, mirrors, etc.4. Use of empty space5. Use of offscreen space
80Hamlet (2000). Michael Almereyda, director Hamlet (2000). Michael Almereyda, director. Mirrors and self-confrontation.
81VI. OTHER ASPECTS OF Mise-en-scène A. Movements of actors & objects [also see cinematography & editing]:1. Lateral movements (side to side)2. In-depth movements (away from or up to the camera)3. Symbolic movements (e.g. specific gestures such camera tilting from feet upwards to convey suspense, power; etc.).Movement speed is altered by camera focal length (see chapter 2).
82Royal Wedding (1951). Stanley Donen, director Royal Wedding (1951). Stanley Donen, director. Movies can make anything and anyone move in any way the story calls for.
83OTHER ASPECTS, CON’T.B. Passage of time through Mise-en-scène: 1. Title cards 2. Close ups on calendars & clocks 3. Character make-up 4. Changes in the set (e.g. winter to summer scenes, etc.) 5. Length of shot [Time also indicated through various editing techniques – see web site]One creative way to do time changes was in the film “Notting Hill” when Hugh Grant’s character walks through a street market and the backgrounds, weather, etc. changes from summer to fall to winter and back to spring.
84OTHER ASPECTS, CON’T. C. References to the outside world 1. Product placements--ads justified under the name of "reality.“2. Allusions --references to something elsea. To real world things or eventsb. To other texts (called Intertextuality)c. Can be homages or parodiesWe’ll return to some of these concepts throughout the course…
85Framing: What we see on Screen Cinematic seeing = framingThe frame of the camera’s viewfinder indicates the boundaries of the camera’s point of view.The frame offers filmmaker’s complete control over 2 kinds of cinematic spaceOnscreen spaceOffscreen space
86Onscreen Space Inside the frame Includes the people and objects the filmmakers want us to seeCreates relationships between people and objects and focuses our concentration on what we see by excluding the rest of the world from the frame
87Off Screen The spaces beyond the 4 borders of the frame The spaces beyond the movie settings which call attention to the entrances to and exits from the world of the frameSpace behind the camera
88Off Screen Space in Stagecoach (1939), directed by John Ford
95Ikiru (1952). Akira Kurosawa, director Ikiru (1952). Akira Kurosawa, director. Some movies develop their narratives within both open and closed frames. Note the characteristics of the closed framing in this shot.
96Ikiru (1952). Akira Kurosawa, director Ikiru (1952). Akira Kurosawa, director. A movie can begin in a closed frame, suggesting entrapment, and end in an open one, suggesting the character’s ability to determine his own fate.
97Kinesis: What Moves on the Screen Perception of motion in filmCan be accomplished in many waysMusic in an otherwise static sceneMovement of objects and characters with in the frame an by the apparent movement of the camera (moving frame)How the elements of cinematic form are handled determines how we will interpret all movement in a movie.
98Kinesis Continued All movies move – some move differently than others Kinetic quality of many movies is determined by their genresWar stories, cartoons, and comedies include more and faster movement than love stories or biographical films
99Movement in the Frame: Crouching Tiger (2000) directed by Ang Lee
100Movement of figures within the frame Most important figure – the actorHow do all the actors move with in the space created to tell the storyWhere and how a figure moves may dictate the width, depth and height of the setting in which the movement occurs
102ReviewA. Planning a film’s Mise-en-scène means making advance decisions about the placement of people, objects, & elements1. Setting up the lighting2. Figuring out camera angles & determining the initial framing of the shot3. Choreographing the movement of the camera during the shot4. Creating sounds that emanate from the shotB. Effective Mise-en-scène creates a convincing sense of time, space, & moods1. Suggests a character’s state of mind2. Relates to developing themes
103Sources:Looking at Movies by Richard BarsamFilm Art: An Introduction by David Bordwell and Kristin ThompsonDr. Barbara L. Baker, U of Central MissouriProfessor Aaron Baker, Arizona State UniversityProfessor Lisa Jadwin Ph.D. – St. John Fisher College, Rochester, NYMaccray High School, Raymond Minnesota