Presentation on theme: "Relationships The formation of relationships"— Presentation transcript:
1Relationships The formation of relationships The maintenance and breakdownof relationshipsThe Social exchange theory
2Explanations of Interpersonal Attraction Physical attractivenessSimilarity in personalitySimilarity in attitude
3Physical attractiveness WomenLarge, widely separatedeyes, a small chin andwide narrow cheekbones.MenSquare jaw, small eyes,thin lips and triangularupper body.
4The hallo EffectPositive traits are associated with physical attractivenessBeautiful people aremoreSociableFriendlyHappymature
5Reward/Need TheoryWe associate people with positive and negative events/feelingClassical and operant conditioning
6Reinforcement /Affect - Byrne If someone is the source of a pleasant event we like themIf we are in a good mood when we meet someone we like themByme and Clore: state we need a balance in favour of positive events.
7Cultural Differences: In many cultures women are expected to forgo any rewards and put their husbands and children’s needs firstCate found that receiving rewards was the most predominate in determining relationshipsHowever, Cate assumes that we are hedonistic.However Hays argues that giving can be just as satisfying as receiving rewards
8Evaluation of reinforcement theory It is scientific, as most research is done in a labBiological: Dopamine levels are high at the beginning of intense relationshipsEvolutionary Aron explains that the brain chemistry would have evolved to speed up the reproductive success of early manBehavioural: covers ideas like association that is missed by the evolutionary theory.
9Similarities: Byrne and Clore Personality: Two people who are always positive about life will be more likely to hang out that one that is positive & one that is negative.Caspi and Herbener found married couples were happier if they had similar personalities
10Similarity in attitudes Attitudes: It is argued that within relationships “attitude alignments” often happen.We adapt our attitudes to fit in with our partners.
11Evaluation of Similarities: AO2 Rosenbaum found support when he discovered that participant were attracted to each other because of similarities and became less attracted the more dissimilarities they foundHowever, Yoshida points out there are more to similarities than just attitudes there is also physical attraction.Similarity is important as it validates our own views and strengthens our positive feeling about ourselves and is therefore rewarding.
12The Matching Hypothesis We don’t seek the most attractive person, but instead desire someone who matches us physically.Walster (1966) first study did not support this – At a dance he randomly put people together and discovered the most attractive were rated highest.
13The Matching Hypothesis EvaluationTowhey 1979 – people were scored on the macho scale and later asked to rate attractiveness of people from photos and biographical information. Those scoring high were more affected by physical attractiveness than others.So does Physical attractiveness only count at the beginning of a relationship? No, Murstein et al found that married people matched more closely.
14The Matching Hypothesis Repeated in 1969 Walster and Walster used the computer dance procedure. This time participants met before the dance and had more time to appraise one another.Murstein 1972 used photos of engages couples and found that independent judges did rate them as matching one another.
15Maintenance of Relationships TheoriesExchange theory – Homans 1961Equity theory – Messick, Walster and Berscheid.Interdependence theory – Thibaut & Kelley.
16Maintenance strategies – Ayres (1983) when people resist change and deny the other’s fears that something is wrongwhen a person puts more effort into the relationship.talking about the issues to maintain a status-quo.
17Comparison level for alternatives: Exchange TheoryAO1: OutlineProfit and Loss: Relationships are business transactions.We strive to get the best possible deal. Balancing sexual and companionship rewards, with time and resources used.Comparison level: A standard with which we judge possible relationships against.Using past relationships and general knowledge of what we want and expect.Comparison level for alternatives:The increase in rewards for a new partneragainst the cost of ending current relationship
18AO2: Evaluation of Exchange Profit and Loss: (Rusbult and Martz) Women have highinvestment (children),no money and no whereto live = stay in abusiverelationshipsIt does not explain why people leave relationships to be on their own or how bad a relationship needs to be for someone to leave
19AO2 Explains Individual Differences: as we all accept different levels of profit and lossas we all have differentcomparison levels.Cultural Bias: It is mainly western cultures that are Hedonistic, more collective cultures value group success over personal profit.Support for Cultural differences: Gergen et al discovered that although American students preferred equity (a constant ratio of rewards to input). European students preferred equality.
20Limitations Are we really that selfish? It ignores fairness of exchange andfocuses on seeking a profit.Focuses too much on theindividual’s perspectiveand not the social aspectof relationships.
21AO1: Equity theory This theory suggests that we will continue with a relationship if we perceive it as fair.A fair relationship is astable one because it isbalanced.People strive forfairness ratherthan what they can getout of the relationship.
22AO1: Ratio of Input and Output The equation: One person’sBenefits minus theircosts equals theirpartner’s benefits minusTheir costs.Restoring Balance:We change our1/ demands from the relationship2/ input behaviour3/ compare our relationshipto that of others to see if it isWorth continuing
23AO2: Exchange theory Clark and Mills (1979): We are motivated by the needs of others.Friendships aswell as lovers believeand trust that Thingswill in the end balanceout.Contrived Methodology:Brandau-Brown (2007) Too reductionist, they argue there is more to marriage. Especially in todays society where there are so many different forms of relationships. It is argued that many of the studies have low ecological validity.
24AO2: Exchange theoryDeMaris (2007): Found that it was only women’s feeling of inequality that resulted in correlating with divorce.Gender differences: no equalityWeltman found men earning more than their wives had more important careersHowever, women earning more than men did not.This was rated by both husband and wife
25Relationship Breakdown Activity: List as many reasons as you can for why a relationship might fail.
26Typical reasons for relationships ending ConflictBreaking rulesBoredomLack of noveltyFalling out of loveSaving faceProblems of abusePerceived changesChange in self or otherAn attractive alternativeCosts outweighing rewardsInterference from other relationships
27Main Reasons (Duck)Lack of Skills: Poor social skills can lead to misunderstanding. People lacking social skill are seen as boring or unrewarding.Lack of stimulation: People expect relationships to grow and if they feel there is no stimulation they move on.Maintenance difficulties: Lack of time due to commitment or location difficulties
28AO1: Duck’s Four-Phase Model The intra-psychic PhaseInternal thoughts that the relationship is going wrong. Brooding on partners faultsThe Dyadic PhaseDiscussions, anger, anxiety, reassessment of the relationshipThe Social PhaseGoing public. Seeking support from othersThe grave-dressing PhaseTell the world the relationship was not their fault
29AO2: Evaluation of Duck Support: Social Skills: Cina et al found couples relationships improved after they had Coping Enhancement TrainingSupport: Marital affairs:Boekhout Correlated lack of skills and/ or stimulation with affairsCritisism: Maintenance: Rohlfing argued that long distance relationship were fairly common and didn’t affect breakdowns.
30AO2: Evaluation of DuckSupport for The grave-dressing Phase was found by Tashiro and Frazier (2003) students said they grew in self awareness during relationship breakdowns and were able to move on.Ethical Issues: As divorce and break ups can be a sensitive subject, especially in women experiencing abuse, the experimenter has to be very sensitive.
31Three essay titles1: A local dating agency is conducting research into the formation of relationships. Explain (using psychological research) why some relationships form. [8 marks + 16 marks]2: Outline and evaluate theories of relationship maintenance. [ marks]3: Discuss research into the breakdown of romantic relationships. [ marks]
32The Evolutionary Perspective Reproductive Success.This is when an organism reproduces successfully. Any feature that evolves to aid reproduction in a competitive environment helps increases reproductive success.
33Evolutionary explanation of relationship breakdown If men can not offer good resources women may look elsewhere.If women refuse to produce children or are no longer able to reproduce men will look elsewhere.
34Evolutionary explanation of relationship breakdown Cost related to emotional investment: Need the commitment to share resourcesIncreasing commitment: Men threatened with breakdown in relationship more likely to give added commitmentInfidelity: Sexual variety is something men like, it may also help them to secure another mate if the relationship looks like it is about to break up.
35SupportIn many hunter-gatherer societies, the !Kung San or the Ache in Paraguay, people have many romantic relationships before settling downBuss: Found there are various differences in the cost perceived and they way to deal with relationship breakdowns between the sexes. Women often go shopping while men look for another women.However; questionnaires = Social desirability
36Sexual Selection: Darwin Males often develop colourful ways of attracting a mate
37Intrasexual selection Males compete with other malesWinner gets the mateIntersexual selectionFemales get to choose what trait is selected as these are the traits that will be passed on and males have to compete for.
38Short-term matingMen want sex early = low long term costs + more opportunity to impregnate more womenMen are less choosy and less committed after sex.Women can only produce one baby so are more selective.
39Long term matingBoth women and men are coming together to reproduce and therefore both must be more choosyMen are looking for a woman who is healthy, young and show signs of fertility.Older men always prefer younger women
40Long term relationships Women want men whoInvest in resources for her and the childrenWho can protect themShow good parenting skillsAre not too demanding
41AO2: Evaluation of Evolution Support: Buss et al found men were more stressed at the thought of women’s sexual infidelityWaynforth and Dunbar found womenadvertiseattractivenessand menadvertise theireconomic status
42Evaluation of Evolution Animals Reproduction. Humans are more cognitive than animals and more conscious of their behaviour.Post Hoc: Look back over time to give explanations for our behaviour.No empirical evidence to support the theory.
43Parental Investment Men invest in gaining a mate Women invest in keeping a mateBabies brains are very big. In order for mother to give birth must be born when brain is still growing.Baby needs feeding andProtection until fully grown
44Maternal Investment Women stay to breastfeed. Men give very little investment after conceptionWomen need to be careful about mate choice
45Parental InvestmentWomen only have a few offspring and need men who will provide resources to help offspring surviveLook for menwith money whoare humorouskind and generous
46Paternal InvestmentCuckoldry: Women can trick men into investing in another man’s childrenSexual JealousyMen are more jealous of sexual infidelityWomen are more jealous of emotional infidelity
47AO1:Parental Investment Men can have as many children as they can find women to procreate with. Quantity rather than QualityTheir womenmust be fit andfaithful (so theirNot bringing upsomeone else'schild).
48AO2: EvaluationGeher et al looked at University students and asked them how ready they were for children.Both male and females answered the same.When the ANS was measured in response to parenting conditions male arousal was always higher, therefore men has a higher stress response to parenting
49AO2: EvaluationIt is argued that evolutionary theory along with social disrespect may help to undermine family values.Gove argues its important for both partners to feel responsible for the upbringing of their children
50AO2: Cross Cultural Studies Margaret Mead: Wahibafound a society where themen shared the work equallywith the women.The Tchambuli tribe tradedTheir children as hostages toAnother tribe for peaceInvestigator Bias: Margaret was too close to the tribes,living with them often asking leading questions.
51AO2: Criticism Historical Validity: Doesn’t take into account today’s societyState BenefitsChildcareWorking womenGay marriagesSocial Psychological reasons for staying together: Some people choose not to have children. Evolutionary theory too reductionist.
52AO1: Parent-offspring conflict Conflict before birth: Foetus secretes a hormone that damages the mother to gain more nutrition.Conflict after birth: Parents often need to take their attention from older children when they have a new offspring.Sibling rivalry: This then leads to fighting between siblings for access to parents.
53Decreased InvestmentTrivers: states children use temper tantrums to obtain parental investmentYoung Oranguans often whine at their mothers when being weanedAuche tribe in South America’s children also through tantrums during weaning
54AO2: EvaluationSupport: Mothers with higher blood pressure have fewer miscarriages and larger babies at birthSalmon and Daly: Young children learn to co-operate with non-relatives to get extra resources, rather than fighting with siblings.Parent strategies: Encourage offspring to develop their own talents and to allow them to have different interests and friends.
55AO1: Childhood experiences Attachment:Internal working ModelThe Caregiving System:Primary care-giverbecomes the model forhow to care for othersThe Sexuality System: Securely attached people look for sex with love, however avoidance insecure adults may prefer sex without love.
56AO1: Attachment Disorders Children who find it difficult to become close to others.Happens from abuse or neglectLack of support during stressThey either have a lack of responsiveness or over familiarity
57AO1: Interaction with peers Quinn and Munn believe children also develop from interacting with other childrenGood friends during childhood gives you a sense of trust, support and being understood and accepted.
58Adolescent experiences The child combines experiences with parents with experiences with other people and evaluates objectively if their needs are being met.Child dating helps children separate from parents and develop independent intimate relationships. Some dating is good between however too much can become maladaptive
59AO2: Support The Love Quiz Hazan and Shaver printed a questionnaire in a newspaper asking about early childhood and attitudes to romanceCorrelation, so no causal statements.Volunteer samplingQuestionnaires, social desirabilityAttachment typeSecureInsecure avoidanceInsecure resistanceCurrent loveRelationships are positiveFearful of closenessPreoccupied by loveAttitudes to loveTrust others and believe in loveLove is not necessary or lastingFall easily but it never lasts
60AO2: Further SupportSimpson et al, longitudinal study where they discovered securely attached children developed better friendships and later better romantic relationshipsMethodological problems: attrition, participants lost over time
61Synopticity: Gender Differences Girls often developcloser relationshipswhile boys are morecompetitive.Low Population validity: Manystudies have been done in smallgroups from certain school, inparticularly areas.
62AO2: AdolescentConnectedness: It is better for the child if the parent remains closely involved with their child’s life, while they are developing relationships with others.Support was found by Larson when he discovered that adolescent relationships compliment parent relationships rather than replacing them
63AO2: Peer relationships in Adolescence Although some relationship in adolescence are beneficial it is argued that too many are detrimental; loss of academic successHowever, Roisman found no effect from romantic experiences at age 20 on romantic relationships at 30
64Synoptic tool kitDeterminism: This theory seems to suggest if we have insecure relationships with our parents we will have negative/difficult romantic relationshipsResearch has shown that lots of people who have had difficult childhood relationships with their caregivers are able to go on and develop health adult relationships
65Categorizing Cultures Individualistic: Where the Individual is always more important than the group. People are encouraged to be IndependentCollectivism: People are encouraged to be Inter-dependent in relationships as the group/ family is more important than the individual
66Voluntary or Non Voluntary Western Societies: Have Mobility, thus lots of opportunities to meet lots of different peopleNon western cultures: Have less mobility and less opportunity to meet lots of different people
67Arranged MarriagesThe Planned type: Parents choose the family and bride and groom don’t meet until the weddingChaperoned interaction: Male tells his family he wants a wife and they find one.The joint venture type: Everyone has some say, where dating is allowed
68Marring for Love Moore and Leung found that in Australia Chinese students were as romanticas Anglo-Australians.Jankowiak and Fischer arguethat all humans crave romanticlove regardless of cultureHowever Allgeiert and Wiedman found that while Japanese and American were less likely to marry without love in collectivist cultures like Thailand, Indian and Pakistan student were more likley to compromise.
69DivorceWestern Societies: Change is something that is celebrated, divorce is acceptable more now than it was 50 years agoCollectivist Cultures: Divorce is frowned upon as the extended family unit will be split. Although today things are changing
70AO2: Arranged Marriages Epstein found around half ofarranged marriages had fallen in loveMyers found no difference inmarital satisfaction betweenlove and arranged marriages.However, in China in %of people had arranged marriagestoday only 10%In Chengdu women who hadmarried for love felt better abouttheir marriages
71AO2:It is argued Parents are older wiser and not blinded by love and therefore may be in a better position to choose your partnerHowever Xiaohe and Whyte found freedom of choice promoted marital stability
72AO2: DivorceIn 1960 divorce was very low in Europe, divorce has risen as we shifted from an non-urban to urban culture. = more mobilityMay not be love or arranged marriages that correlate with divorce but opportunities for meeting more people.
73Methodology In the West we are fixed with doing scientific research in a lab andtherefore miss researchrich in ecological validity.It is argued that psychologists must get out and visit other cultures in their natural settingHowever, Western psychologists bring their own ideology with them and superimpose their ideas on the new culture
74Evolutionary adaptation Lower Mortality: a happyrelationship decreases stressImprove survival if we werein loveJankowiak and Fischer foundlove in over 90% of the 166 cultures studiedBartel and Zeki claim to have discovered areas of the brain (MRI scan) that light up if person is in love