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Airspace Aviation 51 Natasha Flaherty +1 650 592-7500 9 Feb 2003 Version 2.1.

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Presentation on theme: "Airspace Aviation 51 Natasha Flaherty +1 650 592-7500 9 Feb 2003 Version 2.1."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Airspace Aviation 51 Natasha Flaherty Feb 2003 Version 2.1

3 Agenda Relevant CFRs AIM Reference Airspace Classifications – The ABCs Airspace Dimensions Airspace Identification on the Chart Transition Areas Federal Airways Special Use Airspace Flight Operating Requirements by Airspace

4 Please note… This presentation focuses on airplanes for private pilots I have left out sections of the CFRs that pertain to helicopters I have left out some sections of the CFRs that pertain to large and turbine powered aircraft In some cases I have left out sections of the CFRs that pertain to flight under IFR Please review Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations and the Aeronautical Information Manual for completeness

5 CFRs Regarding Airspace and Flight Restrictions 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart B – Flight Rules General Applicability Aircraft Speed Altimeter Settings Compliance with ATC Clearances and Instructions Operating On or In the Vicinity of an Airport in Class G Airspace Operating On or In the Vicinity of an Airport in Class E Airspace Operations in Class D Airspace Operations in Class C Airspace Operations in Class B Airspace Restricted and Prohibited Areas Operations in Class A Airspace Temporary Flight Restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas Temporary Flight Restrictions in National Disaster Areas in…Hawaii Emergency Air Traffic Rules Flight Restrictions in the Proximity of the Presidential and Other Parties Flight Restrictions in the Proximity of Space Flight Operations Temporary Restriction on Flight Operations During Abnormally High Barometric Pressure Conditions Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting events Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

6 CFRs Regarding Airspace and Flight Restrictions 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart B – Visual Flight Rules Basic Weather Minimums Special VFR Weather Minimums VFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

7 CFRs Regarding Equipment Requirements 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart C – Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements Civil Aircraft: Certifications Required Powered Civil Aircraft with Standard Category U.S. Airworthiness Certificates: Instrument and Equipment Requirements Emergency Locator Transmitters Aircraft Lights Supplemental Oxygen Inoperative Instruments and Equipment ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting Equipment and Use Data Correspondence Between Automatically Reported Pressure Altitude Data and the Pilots Altitude Reference Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

8 CFRs Regarding Operations Outside USA 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart H – Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S. Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons On Board Such Aircraft Applicability Operations of Civil Aircraft of U.S. Registry Outside of the United States Flights Between Mexico or Canada and the United States Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

9 Waivers of the Rules 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart J – Waivers Policy and Procedures List of Rules Subject to Waivers Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

10 Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Chapter 3 in the AIM is all about airspace! Refer to AIM Chapter 3 in conjunction with the CFRs for full details

11 First some general terms… Reference: AIM Chapter 3

12 Airspace Categories Regulatory Class A, B, C, D, & E airspace areas Restricted areas Prohibited areas Non-regulatory Military Operations Areas (MOAs) Warning Areas Alert Areas Controlled Firing Areas Reference: AIM Chapter 3-1-1

13 Airspace Types Within each of the Regulatory and Non- regulatory categories, there are 4 types of airspace: Controlled Uncontrolled Special Use Other Airspace Reference: AIM Chapter 3-1-1

14 Nomenclature & Fine Points Ceiling The upper limit of an airspace Floor The lower limit of an airspace Altitudes of airspace ceilings and floors are marked on the chart Note carefully whether a boundary is up to and including or up to but not including

15 Abbreviations AGL Above Ground Level ATC Air Traffic Control DVFR Defense Visual Flight Rules FL Flight Level FSS Flight Service Station IFR Instrument Flight Rules MSL Mean Sea Level NOTAM Notice To Airmen SFC Surface SVFR Special VFR VFR Visual Flight Rules

16 Lets learn the ABCs… Airspace dimensions Chart notations

17 Chart Legend Sectional Chart Terminal Area Chart

18 Airspace Legend Sectional Chart Terminal Area Chart

19 Class Alpha Airspace Generally, that airspace from 18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600 Including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska Including designated international airspace beyond 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska within areas of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar coverage, and within which domestic procedures are applied Class A Airspace is not specifically charted Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-2

20 Class A Airspace wouldnt be shown on our low altitude charts anyway

21 Class Bravo Airspace Generally, that airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports in terms of IFR operations or passenger enplanements The configuration of each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers (some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down wedding cakes) The Class B airspace is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-3

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23 Class B Airspace is denoted by a thick blue line Class B airspace is charted on Sectional Charts, IFR Enroute Low Altitude, and Terminal Area Charts

24 Mode C Veil The airspace within 30 nautical miles of an airport listed in Appendix D, Section 1 of FAR Part 91 (generally primary airports within Class B airspace areas), from the surface upward to 10,000 feet MSL West Coast airports with Mode C Veils: Reference: AIM Chapter SFO LAX SAN SEA LAS HNL

25 Mode C Veil is denoted by a thin magenta line Do not confuse this with Class C airspace!

26 Class Charlie Airspace Generally, that airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that: Have an operational control tower Are serviced by a radar approach control Have a certain number of IFR operations or passenger enplanements Although the configuration of each Class C airspace area is individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of: A 5 NM radius core surface area [Inner Circle] that extends from the surface up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation A 10 NM radius shelf area [Outer Circle] that extends from 1,200 feet to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation There are 11 Class C Airspace Areas in California Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-4

27 Outer Area Surrounding Class Charlie Airspace The normal radius will be 20 NM, with some variations based on site specific requirements The outer area extends outward from the primary airport and extends from the lower limits of radar/radio coverage up to the ceiling of the approach control's delegated airspace, excluding the Class C airspace and other airspace as appropriate Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-4

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29 Class C Airspace is denoted by a thick magenta line on Sectional Charts, Enroute Charts, IFR Enroute Low Altitude, and Terminal Area Charts The Outer Area is not specifically charted

30 Class Delta Airspace Generally, that airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower The configuration of each class D airspace area is individually tailored and when instrument procedures are published, the airspace will normally be designed to contain the procedures Arrival extensions for instrument approach procedures may be Class D or Class E airspace As a general rule, if all extensions are 2 miles or less, they remain part of the Class D surface area However, if any one extension is greater than 2 miles, then all extensions become Class E. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-5

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32 Class D Airspace is denoted by a blue segmented line Ceilings of Class D (in hundreds of feet) are shown in a blue segmented box Understand the minus sign!

33 Class Echo Airspace Generally, if the airspace is not Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D, and it is controlled airspace, it is Class E airspace Except for 18,000 feet MSL, Class E airspace has no defined vertical limit but rather it extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-6

34 Types of Class E Airspace Surface area designated for an airport When designated as a surface area for an airport, the airspace will be configured to contain all instrument procedures Extension to a surface area There are Class E airspace areas that serve as extensions to Class B, Class C, and Class D surface areas designated for an airport Such airspace provides controlled airspace to contain standard instrument approach procedures without imposing a communications requirement on pilots operating under VFR Airspace used for transition There are Class E airspace areas beginning at either 700 or 1,200 feet AGL used to transition to/from the terminal or enroute environment Enroute Domestic Areas There are Class E airspace areas that extend upward from a specified altitude and are enroute domestic airspace areas that provide controlled airspace in those areas where there is a requirement to provide IFR enroute ATC services but the Federal airway system is inadequate. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-6

35 Types of Class E Airspace Federal Airways The Federal airways are Class E airspace areas and, unless otherwise specified, extend upward from 1,200 feet up to, but not including, 18,000 feet MSL VOR airways are classified as Domestic, Alaskan, and Hawaiian Based on VOR or VORTAC navigational aids Identified by a V and the airway number Commonly called Victor Airways Colored airways are Green, Red, Amber, and Blue Only a few left, in Alaska and coastal North Carolina Based on Low/Medium Frequency navigational aids or NDBs Designated with a color and a number Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-6

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37 Types of Class E Airspace Offshore Airspace Areas There are Class E airspace areas that extend upward from a specified altitude up to, but not including, 18,000 feet MSL and are designated as offshore airspace areas These areas provide controlled airspace beyond 12 miles from the coast of the United States in those areas where there is a requirement to provide IFR enroute ATC services and within which the United States is applying domestic procedures Unless designated at a lower altitude Class E airspace begins at 14,500 feet MSL up to, but not including 18,000 feet MSL overlying: The 48 contiguous States including the waters within 12 miles from the coast of the 48 contiguous States The District of Columbia Alaska, including the waters within 12 miles from the coast of Alaska, and that airspace above FL 600 Excluding the Alaska peninsula west of longitude 160°0000"W, and the airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth unless specially so designated Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-6

38 Class E Airspace has 5 different chart symbols Class E airspace below 14,500 feet MSL is charted on Sectional, Terminal, and IFR Enroute Low Altitude charts

39 Class Golf Airspace Class G airspace (uncontrolled) is that portion of the airspace that has not been designated as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E airspace Class G airspace typically extends from the surface to the base of the overlying controlled airspace (Class E or other), which is normally 700 or 1,200 feet AGL Example: SQL, PAO, & HWD become Class G when the tower is closed In some areas Class G airspace may extend from the surface to 14,500 MSL Exception: When 14,500 MSL is lower than 1,500 feet AGL, Class G airspace continues up to 1,500 feet above the surface Reference: AIM Chapter 3-3-1; Jeppesen Private Pilot Manual Chapter 4D

40 You can find Class G airspace on the hard side of the blue that denotes Class E Airspace Check your AFD for airport terminal areas (typically Class D) that become Class G when the tower is closed

41 Overlapping Airspace Often in busy terminal areas you will find airspaces stacked on top of each other Locally we find Class C, D, & E airspace all stacked underneath Class B Study your Terminal Area Chart carefully – before flying! Pick out landmarks and VOR/DME navaids to help you identify complicated airspaces

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43 Any questions so far?

44 Special Use Airspace Prohibited Areas Restricted Areas Warning Areas Alert Areas Military Operations Areas Controlled Firing Areas Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4

45 Special use airspace consists of that airspace wherein activities must be confined because of their nature, or wherein limitations are imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a part of those activities, or both Except for Controlled Firing Areas, special use airspace areas are depicted on aeronautical charts Prohibited and Restricted Areas are regulatory special use airspace and are established in FAR Part 73 through the rule- making process Warning Areas, Military Operations Areas (MOA), Alert Areas, National Security Areas (NSA), and Controlled Firing Areas (CFA) are nonregulatory special use airspace. Special use airspace descriptions (except NSA's and CFA's) are contained in FAA Order Special use airspace (except CFA's) are charted on IFR and Visual charts and include the hours of operation, altitudes, and the controlling agency Special Use Airspace Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-1

46 Prohibited Areas Prohibited Areas contain airspace of defined dimensions identified by an area on the surface of the earth within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited Such areas are established for security or other reasons associated with the national welfare These areas are published in the Federal Register and are depicted on aeronautical charts Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-2

47 Restricted Areas Restricted Areas contain airspace identified by an area on the surface of the earth within which the flight of aircraft, while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restrictions Activities within these areas must be confined because of their nature or limitations imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a part of those activities or both Restricted Areas denote the existence of unusual, often invisible, hazards to aircraft such as artillery firing, aerial gunnery, or guided missiles Penetration of Restricted Areas without authorization from the using or controlling agency is illegal and may be extremely hazardous to the aircraft and its occupants Restricted areas are published in the Federal Register and constitute 14 CFR Part 73. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-3

48 Warning Areas A Warning Area is airspace of defined dimensions, extending from three nautical miles outward from the coast of the United States, that contains activity that may be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft The purpose of such warning areas is to warn nonparticipating pilots of the potential danger A warning area may be located over domestic or international waters or both Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-4

49 Alert Areas Alert Areas are depicted on aeronautical charts to inform nonparticipating pilots of areas that may contain a high volume of pilot training or an unusual type of aerial activity Pilots should be particularly alert when flying in these areas Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-6

50 Prohibited, Restricted, Warning, and Alert Areas are depicted as enclosed blue boxes with blue lines Look on the side of the chart for more info, including times of operations and controlling agency

51 Military Operations Areas MOA's consist of airspace of defined vertical and lateral limits established for the purpose of separating certain military training activities from IFR traffic. Whenever a MOA is being used, nonparticipating IFR traffic may be cleared through a MOA if IFR separation can be provided by ATC. Otherwise, ATC will reroute or restrict nonparticipating IFR traffic. Most training activities necessitate acrobatic or abrupt flight maneuvers. Military pilots conducting flight in Department of Defense aircraft within a designated and active military operations area (MOA) are exempted from the provisions of FAR Part (c) and (d) which prohibit acrobatic flight within Federal airways and Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E surface areas. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-5

52 MOAs are depicted as enclosed magenta boxes with magenta lines MOA's are depicted on Sectional, VFR Terminal Area, and Enroute Low Altitude Charts

53 Controlled Firing Areas CFA's contain activities which, if not conducted in a controlled environment, could be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft The distinguishing feature of the CFA, as compared to other special use airspace, is that its activities are suspended immediately when spotter aircraft, radar, or ground lookout positions indicate an aircraft might be approaching the area There is no need to chart CFA's since they do not cause a nonparticipating aircraft to change its flight path Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-7

54 Controlled Firing Areas Hold your fire! Cessna approaching!

55 Other Airspace Areas Airport Advisory Area Military Training Routes Temporary Flight Restrictions Parachute Jump Aircraft Areas Published VFR Routes Terminal Radar Service Area National Security Areas ADIZ Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5

56 Airport Advisory Area Area within 10 statute miles of an airport where a control tower is not operating but where a FSS is located FSS provides advisory service to arriving and departing aircraft. Reference - Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers, AIM paragraph Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-1

57 Military Training Routes (MTR) Generally, MTR's are established below 10,000 feet MSL for operations at speeds in excess of 250 knots Route segments may be defined at higher altitudes for purposes of route continuity For example, route segments may be defined for descent, climbout, and mountainous terrain IFR Military Training Routes – IR Operations on these routes are conducted in accordance with IFR regardless of weather conditions VFR Military Training Routes – VR Operations on these routes are conducted in accordance with VFR except, flight visibility shall be 5 miles or more; and flights shall not be conducted below a ceiling of less than 3,000 feet AGL Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-2

58 Military Training Routes (MTR) Identification and Charting Route Identification MTRs with no segment above 1,500 feet AGL shall be identified by four number characters; e.g., IR1206, VR1207 MTRs that include one or more segments above 1,500 feet AGL shall be identified by three number characters; e.g., IR206, VR207 Alternate IR/VR routes or route segments are identified by using the basic/principal route designation followed by a letter suffix, e.g., IR008A, VR1007B, etc. Route Charting IFR Low Altitude Enroute Chart This chart will depict all IR routes and all VR routes that accommodate operations above 1,500 feet AGL. VFR Sectional Charts These charts will depict military training activities such as IR, VR, MOA, Restricted Area, Warning Area, and Alert Area information Area Planning (AP/1B) Chart (DOD Flight Information Publication- FLIP) This chart is published by the DOD primarily for military users and contains detailed information on both IR and VR routes Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-2

59 MTRs are depicted on the chart as grey lines with IR & VR designations

60 Temporary Flight Restrictions The Administrator will issue a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) designating an area within which temporary flight restrictions apply and specifying the hazard or condition requiring their imposition, whenever he determines it is necessary in order to… [next slide] : Reference: AIM 3-5-3

61 Purposes for TFRs Protect persons and property on the surface or in the air from a hazard associated with an incident on the surface (14 CFR Section (a)(1)) Provide a safe environment for the operation of disaster relief aircraft (14 CFR Section (a)(2)) Prevent an unsafe congestion of sightseeing aircraft above an incident or event which may generate a high degree of public interest (14 CFR Section (a)(3)) Protect declared national disasters for humanitarian reasons in the State of Hawaii (14 CFR Section ) Protect the President, Vice President, or other public figures (14 CFR Section ) Provide a safe environment for space agency operations (14 CFR Section ) Protect persons or property on the surface or in the air, to maintain air safety and efficiency, or to prevent the unsafe congestion of aircraft in the vicinity of an aerial demonstration or major sporting event (14 CFR Section ) Reference: AIM 3-5-3

62 The Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) will specify the hazard or condition that requires the imposition of temporary flight restrictions Restricted area dimensions can vary – read and understand the NOTAM before flying! Example: 3-5 nautical mile radius and 2,000-2,500 feet AGL for a ground event Example: 5 nautical mile radius and MSL or feet AGL for an aerial demonstration The FSS nearest the incident site is normally the "coordination facility" Temporary Flight Restrictions Reference: 14 CFR ; 14 CFR

63 Example of Common Local TFRs TFR 5nm radius around PacBell Park or Oakland Coliseum before, during, and after each game Center of the TFR specified as distance along a radial of SAU or OAK VOR Vice President Cheney came to town in 2002 Various TFRs were specified around Moffet Field and Silicon Valley off of the SJC VOR

64 Format of NOTAMs for TFRs "FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS Location of the temporary flight restrictions area Effective period The area defined in statute miles Altitudes affected FAA coordination facility and commercial telephone number The reason for the temporary flight restrictions The agency directing any relief activities and its commercial telephone number Any other information considered appropriate by the issuing authority. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-3

65 TFRs in Effect Today (4 Feb 2003) !FDC 3/0926 ZHU PART 1 OF 2 FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS HOUSTON, TEXAS, FEBRUARY 4, 2003 LOCAL. PURSUANT TO TITLE 14, SECTION OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, AIRCRAFT FLIGHT OPERATIONS ARE PROHIBITED WITHIN THE FOLLOWING AREAS UNLESS OTHERWISE AUTHORIZED BY ATC. NOTE: FIVE NASA T-38 AIRCRAFT FOR A MISSING MAN FLYBY ARE EXEMPT FROM THESE RESTRICTIONS. 3.0 NMR BLW 3000 FEET AGL OF N/950932W OR THE HUB FROM (1045 LOCAL 02/04/03) UNTIL (1055 LOCAL 02/04/03). 3.0 NM BLW 3000 FEET AGL FROM ANY POINT OF THE LINE BETWEEN N/950932W OR THE HUB TO N/950540W OR THE HUB FROM (1055 LOCAL 02/04/03) UNTIL (1110 LOCAL 02/04/03). END PART 1 OF 2 Flight restrictions in the proximity of the Presidential and other parties

66 TFRs in Effect Today (4 Feb 2003) !FDC 3/0926 ZHU PART 2 OF 2 FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS HOUSTON, TEXAS, FEBRUARY 4, 2003 LOCAL. 3.0 NMR BLW 3000 FEET AGL OF N/950540W OR THE HUB FROM (1110 LOCAL 02/04/03) UNTIL (1300 LOCAL 02/04/03). 3.0 NM BLW 3000 FEET AGL FROM ANY POINT OF THE LINE BETWEEN N/950932W OR THE HUB TO N/950540W OR THE HUB FROM (1300 LOCAL 02/04/03) UNTIL (1320 LOCAL 02/04/03). 3.0 NMR BLW 3000 FEET AGL OF N/950932W OR THE HUB FROM (1320 LOCAL 02/04/03) UNTIL (1330 LOCAL 02/04/03). END PART 2 OF 2

67 TFRs in Effect Today (4 Feb 2003) !FDC 3/0865 ZHU FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS TEXAS AND LOUISIANA EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE. PURSUANT TO 14 CFR SECTION (A)(1) TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS ARE IN EFFECT DUE TO SEARCH AND RESCUE EFFORTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPACE SHUTTLE COLUMBIA ACCIDENT. ONLY RELIEF AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS UNDER THE DIRECTION OF SEADS (SOUTHEAST AIR DEFENSE SECTOR) ARE AUTHORIZED AT AND BELOW 3000 FEET MSL WITHIN THE AIRSPACE FROM N/961900W AND THE CEDAR CREEK /CQY/ VORTAC 343 DEGREE RADIAL AT 26.3 NAUTICAL MILES TO N/931700W AND THE POLK /FXU/ VORTAC 349 DEGREE RADIAL AT 33.4 NAUTICAL MILES TO N/933800W AND THE POLK /FXU/ VORTAC 248 DEGREE RADIAL AT 22.4 NAUTICAL MILES TO N/963600W AND THE CEDAR CREEK /CQY/ VORTAC 234 DEGREE RADIAL AT 22.4 NAUTICAL MILES TO N/961900W AND THE CEDAR CREEK /CQY/ VORTAC 343 DEGREE RADIAL AT 26.3 NAUTICAL MILES UNLESS OTHERWISE AUTHORIZED BY ATC. SEADS MCC, , IS IN CHARGE OF THE OPERATION. FORT WORTH CENTER, , IS THE FAA COORDINATION FACILITY. Protect persons and property on the surface or in the air from a hazard associated with an incident on the surface

68 Parachute Jump Aircraft Areas Procedures relating to parachute jump areas are contained in 14 CFR Part 105 Tabulations of parachute jump areas in the U.S. are contained in the Airport/Facility Directory Parachute jump areas that have been used on a frequent basis and that have been in use for one year are depicted on sectional charts Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-4

69 Chart Notation

70 Published VFR Routes Published VFR routes for transitioning around, under and through complex airspace such as Class B airspace were developed through a number of FAA and industry initiatives All of the following terms, i.e., "VFR Flyway" "VFR Corridor" and "Class B Airspace VFR Transition Route" have been used when referring to the same or different types of routes or airspace The following paragraphs identify and clarify the functionality of each type of route, and specify where and when an ATC clearance is required. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-5

71 VFR Flyways A VFR Flyway is defined as a general flight path not defined as a specific course, for use by pilots in planning flights into, out of, through or near complex terminal airspace to avoid Class B airspace VFR Flyways are depicted on the reverse side of some of the VFR Terminal Area Charts (TAC) These are only suggestions for flying around Class B May be crowded! Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-5

72 VFR Corridors A VFR corridor is defined as airspace through Class B airspace, with defined vertical and lateral boundaries, in which aircraft may operate without an ATC clearance or communication with air traffic control. Essentially a "hole" through Class B airspace A classic example would be the corridor through the Los Angeles Class B airspace, which has been subsequently changed to Special Flight Rules airspace (SFR) A corridor is surrounded on all sides by Class B airspace and does not extend down to the surface like a VFR Flyway. Because of their finite lateral and vertical limits, and the volume of VFR traffic using a corridor, extreme caution and vigilance must be exercised. Because of the heavy traffic volume and the procedures necessary to efficiently manage the flow of traffic, it has not been possible to incorporate VFR corridors in the development or modifications of Class B airspace in recent years. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-5

73 Class B Airspace VFR Transition Routes A Class B airspace VFR Transition Route is defined as a specific flight course depicted on a Terminal Area Chart (TAC) for transiting a specific Class B airspace Routes are designed to show the pilot where to position the aircraft outside of, or clear of, the Class B airspace where an ATC clearance can normally be expected with minimal or no delay Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-5

74 Terminal Radar Service Area A relic from the past of ARSAs & TRSAs Not controlled airspace Not part of current airspace classifications The primary airport(s) within the TRSA become Class D airspace. The remaining portion of the TRSA overlies other controlled airspace which is normally Class E airspace beginning at 700 or 1,200 feet and established to transition to/from the enroute/terminal environment. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-6

75 TRSAs are depicted on VFR sectional and terminal area charts with a solid black line and altitudes for each segment The Class D portion is charted with a blue segmented line

76 National Security Areas National Security Areas consist of airspace of defined vertical and lateral dimensions established at locations where there is a requirement for increased security and safety of ground facilities Pilots are requested to voluntarily avoid flying through the depicted NSA When it is necessary to provide a greater level of security and safety, flight in NSA's may be temporarily prohibited by regulation under the provisions of FAR Part Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-7

77 NSA are depicted on VFR sectional and terminal area charts with a thick segmented magenta line Regulatory prohibitions will be disseminated by NOTAM

78 Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) ADIZs facilitate early identification of aircraft in the vicinity of U.S. international airspace boundaries prior to entering US domestic airspace 14 CFR Part 99 governs national security in the control of air traffic Authorizations to deviate from the requirements of Part 99 may also be granted by the ARTCC, on a local basis, for some operations associated with an ADIZ An Airfiled VFR Flight Plan makes an aircraft subject to interception for positive identification when entering an ADIZ. Pilots are therefore urged to file the required DVFR flight plan either in person or by telephone prior to departure. Reference: AIM Chapter 5-6-1

79 ADIZ Exceptions Except when applicable under 14 CFR Part 99.7, 14 CFR Part 99 does not apply to aircraft operations Within the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia, or within the State of Alaska, and remains within 10 miles of the point of departure Over any island, or within three nautical miles of the coastline of any island, in the Hawaii ADIZ Associated with any ADIZ other than the Contiguous U.S. ADIZ, when the aircraft true airspeed is less than 180 knots.

80 SCATANA Plan During defense emergency or air defense emergency conditions, additional special security instructions may be issued in accordance with the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA) Plan The military will direct the action to be taken in regard to landing, grounding, diversion, or dispersal of aircraft and the control of air navigation aids in the defense of the U.S. during emergency conditions.

81 Questions?

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83 Question 1 What airspace is at the surface of Half Moon Bay (HAF)?

84 Question 2 Imagine you are 200,000 feet above the runways of Hayward Executive Airport (HWD). Looking straight down, what airspaces do you see at what levels?

85 Question 3 What are the dimensions of the airspace surrounding Buchanan Field (CCR)? (The airport is near the Concord VOR.)

86 Question 4 From the surface up to but not including FL 180, what airspace is at and above Byron (C83)? Please state the heights of each airspace.

87 Question 5 Where is the Class B airspace above San Carlos (SQL)?

88 Airspace Aviation 51 Natasha Flaherty

89 Flight Operations and Requirements with Regards to Airspaces Now that we have learned how to identify the various types of airspaces, lets take a look at what we must comply with while in (or not in) those airspaces.

90 Flight Requirements by Airspace CFRs Equipment Requirements Pilot Certification Requirements Weather Minimums Cloud Clearance Requirements Operating Rules Special VFR Speed Limits

91 Recall the CFRs we highlighted in the beginning…

92 CFRs Regarding Airspace and Flight Restrictions 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart B – Flight Rules General Applicability Aircraft Speed Altimeter Settings Compliance with ATC Clearances and Instructions Operating On or In the Vicinity of an Airport in Class G Airspace Operating On or In the Vicinity of an Airport in Class E Airspace Operations in Class D Airspace Operations in Class C Airspace Operations in Class B Airspace Restricted and Prohibited Areas Operations in Class A Airspace Temporary Flight Restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas Temporary Flight Restrictions in National Disaster Areas in…Hawaii Emergency Air Traffic Rules Flight Restrictions in the Proximity of the Presidential and Other Parties Flight Restrictions in the Proximity of Space Flight Operations Temporary Restriction on Flight Operations During Abnormally High Barometric Pressure Conditions Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting events Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

93 CFRs Regarding Airspace and Flight Restrictions 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart B – Visual Flight Rules Basic Weather Minimums Special VFR Weather Minimums VFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

94 CFRs Regarding Equipment Requirements 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart C – Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements Civil Aircraft: Certifications Required Powered Civil Aircraft with Standard Category U.S. Airworthiness Certificates: Instrument and Equipment Requirements Emergency Locator Transmitters Aircraft Lights Supplemental Oxygen Inoperative Instruments and Equipment ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting Equipment and Use Data Correspondence Between Automatically Reported Pressure Altitude Data and the Pilots Altitude Reference Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

95 CFRs Regarding Operations Outside USA 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart H – Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S. Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons On Board Such Aircraft Applicability Operations of Civil Aircraft of U.S. Registry Outside of the United States Flights Between Mexico or Canada and the United States Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

96 Waivers of the Rules 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart J – Waivers Policy and Procedures List of Rules Subject to Waivers Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

97 Hierarchy of Overlapping Airspace Designations When overlapping airspace designations apply to the same airspace, the operating rules associated with the more restrictive airspace designation apply. Class A is more restrictive than Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E, or Class G airspace Class B is more restrictive than Class C, Class D, Class E, or Class G airspace Class C is more restrictive than Class D, Class E, or Class G airspace Class D is more restrictive than Class E or Class G airspace Class E airspace is more restrictive than Class G airspace Reference: AIM Chapter 3-1-3

98 Overlapping Airspace Study your Terminal Area Chart carefully – before flying! Pick out landmarks and VOR/DME navaids to help you navigate correctly through complicated airspaces Plot your course on both your TAC and Sectional chart, and use both in flight

99 The ABCs again… Operating Requirements by Airspace Weather Minimums SVFR Weather Minimums Aircraft Speed

100 CFR References 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart B – Flight Rules General Operating On or In the Vicinity of an Airport in Class G Airspace Operating On or In the Vicinity of an Airport in Class E Airspace Operations in Class D Airspace Operations in Class C Airspace Operations in Class B Airspace Operations in Class A Airspace Basic Weather Minimums Special VFR Weather Minimums Aircraft Speed

101 Class Golf Direction of turns. When approaching to land at an airport without an operating control tower in Class G airspace (1) Each pilot of an airplane must make all turns of that airplane to the left unless the airport displays approved light signals or visual markings indicating that turns should be made to the right, in which case the pilot must make all turns to the right; and (2) Each pilot of a helicopter must avoid the flow of fixed-wing aircraft. Flap settings. Except when necessary for training or certification, the pilot in command of a civil turbojet-powered aircraft must use, as a final flap setting, the minimum certificated landing flap setting set forth in the approved performance information in the Airplane Flight Manual for the applicable conditions. However, each pilot in command has the final authority and responsibility for the safe operation of the pilot's airplane, and may use a different flap setting for that airplane if the pilot determines that it is necessary in the interest of safety. Communications with control towers. Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft to, from, through, or on an airport having an operational control tower unless two-way radio communications are maintained between that aircraft and the control tower. Communications must be established prior to 4 nautical miles from the airport, up to and including 2,500 feet AGL. However, if the aircraft radio fails in flight, the pilot in command may operate that aircraft and land if weather conditions are at or above basic VFR weather minimums, visual contact with the tower is maintained, and a clearance to land is received. If the aircraft radio fails while in flight under IFR, the pilot must comply with § Reference: 14 CFR Part

102 Reference: 14 CFR Part

103 Class Echo Comply with the operating rules for Class G airspace Departures. Each pilot of an aircraft must comply with any traffic patterns established for that airport in Part 93 of this chapter. Communications with control towers. Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft to, from, through, or on an airport having an operational control tower unless two-way radio communications are maintained between that aircraft and the control tower. Communications must be established prior to 4 nautical miles from the airport, up to and including 2,500 feet AGL. However, if the aircraft radio fails in flight, the pilot in command may operate that aircraft and land if weather conditions are at or above basic VFR weather minimums, visual contact with the tower is maintained, and a clearance to land is received. If the aircraft radio fails while in flight under IFR, the pilot must comply with 14 CFR Reference: 14 CFR Part

104 Reference: 14 CFR Part

105 Class Delta Comply with the operating rules for Class G and Class E airspace Must establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services: Prior to entering Class D airspace On departure from an airport with a control tower, establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in the Class D airspace area On departure from a satellite airport without an operating control tower, establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class D airspace area as soon as practicable after departing If the aircraft radio fails in flight under VFR, the pilot in command may operate that aircraft and land if: Weather conditions are at or above basic VFR weather minimums Visual contact with the tower is maintained A clearance to land is received Minimum altitudes. When operating to an airport in Class D airspace, each pilot of…an airplane approaching to land on a runway served by a visual approach slope indicator shall maintain an altitude at or above the glide slope until a lower altitude is necessary for a safe landing. This does not prohibit normal bracketing maneuvers above or below the glide slope that are conducted for the purpose of remaining on the glide slope Reference: 14 CFR Part

106 Class Delta Approaches. Except when conducting a circling approach under Part 97 of this chapter or unless otherwise required by ATC, each pilot must: Circle the airport to the left, if operating an airplane Avoid the flow of fixed-wing aircraft, if operating a helicopter. Departures. No person may operate an aircraft departing from an airport except in compliance with the following: Each pilot must comply with any departure procedures established for that airport by the FAA. Takeoff, landing, taxi clearance. No person may, at any airport with an operating control tower, operate an aircraft on a runway or taxiway, or take off or land an aircraft, unless an appropriate clearance is received from ATC. A clearance to "taxi to" the takeoff runway assigned to the aircraft is not a clearance to cross that assigned takeoff runway, or to taxi on that runway at any point, but is a clearance to cross other runways that intersect the taxi route to that assigned takeoff runway. A clearance to "taxi to" any point other than an assigned takeoff runway is clearance to cross all runways that intersect the taxi route to that point. Reference: 14 CFR Part

107 Reference: 14 CFR Part

108 Class Charlie Comply with the operating rules for Class G, E, and D airspace No person may take off or land an aircraft at a satellite airport within a Class C airspace area except in compliance with FAA arrival and departure traffic patterns Must establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services: Prior to entering Class C airspace On departure from an airport with a control tower, establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in the Class C airspace area On departure from a satellite airport without an operating control tower, establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class C airspace area as soon as practicable after departing Operate a Mode 3/A 4096 or Mode S transponder with Mode C altitude reporting capability Reference: 14 CFR Part ; 14 CFR Part

109 Reference: 14 CFR Part

110 Class Bravo Comply with the operating rules for Class G, E, and D airspace An ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the Class B airspace All aircraft that are so cleared receive separation services within the airspace … pilot training operations at an airport within a Class B airspace area must comply with any procedures established by ATC for such operations in that area No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at an airport within a Class B airspace area or operate a civil aircraft within a Class B airspace area unless The pilot in command holds at least a private pilot certificate; or The aircraft is operated by a student pilot or recreational pilot who seeks private pilot certification and has met the requirements of §61.95 of this chapter. Dont land at SFO unless it is an emergency! Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, no person may take off or land a civil aircraft at those airports listed in Section 4 of Appendix D of this part unless the pilot in command holds at least a private pilot certificate. Dont land at SFO unless it is an emergency! Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft within a Class B airspace area unless that aircraft is equipped with: An operable two-way radio capable of communications with ATC on appropriate frequencies for that Class B airspace area. A Mode 3/A 4096 or Mode S transponder with Mode C altitude reporting capability Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-3; 14 CFR Part

111 Reference: 14 CFR Part

112 Mode C Veil Unless otherwise authorized by air traffic control, aircraft operating within this airspace must be equipped with automatic pressure altitude reporting equipment having Mode C capability. However, aircraft that was not originally certificated with an engine-driven electrical system or which has not subsequently been certified with a system installed, may conduct operations within a Mode C veil provided: The aircraft remains outside Class A, B or C airspace; and below the altitude of the ceiling of a Class B or Class C airspace area designated for an airport or 10,000 feet MSL, whichever is lower Reference: AIM Chapter 3-2-3; 14 CFR

113 Class Alpha Except for ATC authorized deviations, each person operating an aircraft in Class A airspace must conduct that operation under IFR and in compliance with the following: Operations may be conducted only under an ATC clearance received prior to entering the airspace. Must maintain two-way radio communications with ATC while operating in Class A airspace. Operate a Mode 3/A 4096 or Mode S transponder with Mode C altitude reporting capability Reference: 14 CFR Part

114 Reference: 14 CFR Part

115 How can I remember all the VFR airspace details? It is tricky…try to remember whats most similar, and then remember the exceptions Note carefully up to vs. at and above 3sm / 500 / 1000 / 2000 Exceptions: No VFR in Class A Class B is clear of clouds Class E at or above 10,000 Usually bigger, faster aircraft flying there that need more room 5sm /1000/1000 Glass G is less crowded and approach speeds are slow: 1200AGL or less, Day: 1sm and clear of clouds More than 1200 AGL but less than 10,000 MSL, Day: Vis. 1sm More than 1200 AGL and at or above 10,000 MSL, Day & Night: Usually bigger, faster aircraft flying there that need more room 5sm /1000/1000/1sm

116 Reference: 14 CFR Part

117

118 Special VFR Weather Minimums 14 CFR [Except around SFO] special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of this section, instead of those contained in §91.155, below 10,000 feet MSL within the airspace contained by the upward extension of the lateral boundaries of the controlled airspace designated to the surface for an airport. Special VFR operations may only be conducted With an ATC clearance Clear of clouds Except for helicopters, when flight visibility is at least 1 statute mile Except for helicopters, between sunrise and sunset (or in Alaska, when the sun is 6° or more below the horizon) unless The pilot and the aircraft meet the applicable requirements for IFR flight No person may take off or land an aircraft (other than a helicopter) under special VFR Unless ground visibility is at least 1 statute mile If ground visibility is not reported, unless flight visibility is at least 1 statute mile. Reference: 14 CFR Part 91 Appendix D, Section 3

119 Aircraft Speed – 14 CFR (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10,000 feet MSL at an indicated airspeed of more than 250 knots (288 m.p.h.). (b) Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of a Class C or Class D airspace area at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph.). This paragraph (b) does not apply to any operations within a Class B airspace area. Such operations shall comply with paragraph (a) of this section. (c) No person may operate an aircraft in the airspace underlying a Class B airspace area designated for an airport or in a VFR corridor designated through such a Class B airspace area, at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph.). (d) If the minimum safe airspeed for any particular operation is greater than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed.

120 Altimeter Settings – 14 CFR (a) Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of that aircraft, as the case may be, by reference to an altimeter that is set, when operating (1) Below 18,000 feet MSL, to (i) The current reported altimeter setting of a station along the route and within 100 nautical miles of the aircraft; (ii) If there is no station within the area prescribed in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, the current reported altimeter setting of an appropriate available station; or (iii) In the case of an aircraft not equipped with a radio, the elevation of the departure airport or an appropriate altimeter setting available before departure; or (2) At or above 18,000 feet MSL, to 29.92" Hg.

121 Compliance with ATC Clearances and Instructions – 14 CFR Part (a) When an ATC clearance has been obtained, no pilot in command may deviate from that clearance unless an amended clearance is obtained, an emergency exists, or the deviation is in response to a traffic alert and collision avoidance system resolution advisory. However, except in Class A airspace, a pilot may cancel an IFR flight plan if the operation is being conducted in VFR weather conditions. When a pilot is uncertain of an ATC clearance, that pilot shall immediately request clarification from ATC. (b) Except in an emergency, no person may operate an aircraft contrary to an ATC instruction in an area in which air traffic control is exercised. (c) Each pilot in command who, in an emergency, or in response to a traffic alert and collision avoidance system resolution advisory, deviates from an ATC clearance or instruction shall notify ATC of that deviation as soon as possible. (d) Each pilot in command who (though not deviating from a rule of this subpart) is given priority by ATC in an emergency, shall submit a detailed report of that emergency within 48 hours to the manager of that ATC facility, if requested by ATC. (e) Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person operating an aircraft may operate that aircraft according to any clearance or instruction that has been issued to the pilot of another aircraft for radar air traffic control purposes.

122 14 CFR Part 91 Subpart J – Waivers Policy and Procedures (a)The Administrator may issue a certificate of waiver authorizing the operation of aircraft in deviation from any rule listed in this subpart if the Administrator finds that the proposed operation can be safely conducted under the terms of that certificate of waiver. (b) An application for a certificate of waiver under this part is made on a form and in a manner prescribed by the Administrator and may be submitted to any FAA office. (c) A certificate of waiver is effective as specified in that certificate of waiver List of Rules Subject to Waivers Look for the symbol in previous slides: this denotes which of the rules we reviewed can be waived as per See for the complete list of rules which the Administrator may waive. Waivers of the Rules Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.

123 Special Use Airspace Prohibited Areas Restricted Areas Warning Areas Alert Areas Military Operations Areas Controlled Firing Areas Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4

124 Restricted & Prohibited Areas 14 CFR No person may operate an aircraft within a restricted area (designated in Part 73) contrary to the restrictions imposed, or within a prohibited area, unless that person has the permission of the using or controlling agency, as appropriate. Each person conducting, within a restricted area, an aircraft operation (approved by the using agency) that creates the same hazards as the operations for which the restricted area was designated may deviate from the rules of this subpart that are not compatible with his operation of the aircraft.

125 Warning Areas Warning Areas are 3nm offshore Pilots should be particularly alert when flying in these areas Pilots should contact the controlling agency for information and current status of the Warning Area Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-6

126 Alert Areas Pilots should be particularly alert when flying in these areas All activity within an Alert Area shall be conducted in accordance with CFRs, without waiver, and pilots of participating aircraft as well as pilots transiting the area shall be equally responsible for collision avoidance Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-6

127 Military Operations Areas Pilots operating under VFR should exercise extreme caution while flying within a MOA when military activity is being conducted. The activity status (active/inactive) of MOA's may change frequently. Therefore, pilots should contact any FSS within 100 miles of the area to obtain accurate real-time information concerning the MOA hours of operation. Prior to entering an active MOA, pilots should contact the controlling agency for advisories. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-5

128 Controlled Firing Areas Although firing activities should cease when spotters see your plane, visually or on radar, pilots should be particularly alert when flying in these areas Prior to entering an active CFA, pilots should contact the controlling agency for advisories. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-4-6

129 Controlled Firing Areas Hold your fire! Cessna approaching!

130 Other Airspace Areas Airport Advisory Area Military Training Routes Temporary Flight Restrictions Parachute Jump Aircraft Areas Published VFR Routes Terminal Radar Service Area National Security Areas ADIZ Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5

131 Airport Advisory Area FSS provides advisory service to arriving and departing aircraft. Reference - Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers, AIM paragraph It is not mandatory that pilots participate in the Local Airport Advisory (LAA) program, but it is strongly recommended that they do Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-1

132 Nonparticipating aircraft are not prohibited from flying within an MTR; however, extreme vigilance should be exercised when conducting flight through or near these routes Pilots should contact FSS's within 100 NM of a particular MTR to obtain current information or route usage in their vicinity Information available includes times of scheduled activity, altitudes in use on each route segment, and actual route width Route width varies for each MTR and can extend several miles on either side of the charted MTR centerline Route width information for IR and VR MTR's is also available in the FLIP AP/1B along with additional MTR (SR/AR) information When requesting MTR information, pilots should give the FSS their position, route of flight, and destination in order to reduce frequency congestion and permit the FSS specialist to identify the MTR which could be a factor. Military Training Routes (MTR) Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-2

133 Temporary Flight Restrictions Pilots are responsible to comply with 14 CFR Sections , , , , and when conducting flight in an area where a temporary flight restrictions area is in effect, and should check appropriate NOTAMs during flight planning +1 (800) WX-BRIEF Reference: AIM 3-5-3

134 Parachute Jump Aircraft Areas Pilots must be alert for other traffic, make appropriate broadcasts on the designated Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF), and monitor that CTAF until all parachute activity has terminated or the aircraft has left the area. Pilots should avoid releasing parachutes while in an airport traffic pattern when there are other aircraft in that pattern. Prior to commencing a jump operation, the pilot should broadcast the aircraft's altitude and position in relation to the airport, the approximate relative time when the jump will commence and terminate, and listen to the position reports of other aircraft in the area. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-4

135 VFR Flyways An ATC clearance is NOT required to fly these routes. When operating beneath Class B airspace, communications must be established and maintained between your aircraft and any control tower while transiting the Class B, C, and D surface areas of those airports under the Class B airspace. May be crowded! Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-5

136 Class B Airspace VFR Transition Routes Routes include specific ATC - assigned altitudes, and pilots must obtain an ATC clearance prior to entering the Class B airspace on the route. Until ATC authorization is received, pilots must remain clear of Class B airspace On initial contact, pilots should advise ATC of their position, altitude, route name desired, and direction of flight After a clearance is received, pilot must fly the route as depicted and, most importantly, adhere to ATC instructions Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-5

137 Terminal Radar Service Area Pilots operating under VFR are encouraged to contact the radar approach control and avail themselves of the TRSA Services. However, participation is voluntary on the part of the pilot. See AIM Chapter 4 for details and procedures. Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-6

138 National Security Areas Pilots are requested to voluntarily avoid flying through the depicted NSA When it is necessary to provide a greater level of security and safety, flight in NSA's may be temporarily prohibited by regulation under the provisions of FAR Part Reference: AIM Chapter 3-5-7

139 Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) Operating Requirements IFR or DVFR flight plan must be filed before departure Except in the Alaskan ADIZ – file ASAP after departure Two-way Radio Altitude Reporting (Mode C) Transponder Position Reporting Specific tolerances apply Study 14 CFR Part 99 thoroughly before you penetrate an ADIZ! Reference: AIM Chapter 5-6-1; 14 CFR Part 99

140 SCATANA Plan At the time a portion or all of SCATANA is implemented (during a defense emergency), ATC facilities will broadcast appropriate instructions received from the military over available ATC frequencies. Depending on instructions received from the military, VFR flights may be directed to land at the nearest available airport, and IFR flights will be expected to proceed as directed by ATC. Pilots on the ground may be required to file a flight plan and obtain an approval (through FAA) prior to conducting flight operation. In view of the above, all pilots should guard an ATC or FSS frequency at all times while conducting flight operations. VHF OR UHF 243.0

141 Other Areas to Note Although not considered particular airspace, I wanted to note areas where your altitude is important Congested Areas Other than Congested Areas Wildlife Refuges

142 Minimum Safe Altitudes: General 14 CFR Part Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, no person may operate an aircraft below the following altitudes: (a) Anywhere. An altitude allowing, if a power unit fails, an emergency landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface. (b) Over congested areas. Over any congested area of a city, town, or settlement, or over any open air assembly of persons, an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal radius of 2,000 feet of the aircraft. (c) Over other than congested areas. An altitude of 500 feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure These are only bare minimums as per the regulations! In general it is safer to fly higher!

143 Flights over Charted U.S. Wildlife Refuges, Parks, and Forest Service Areas The landing of aircraft is prohibited on lands or waters administered by the National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or U.S. Forest Service without authorization from the respective agency. Exceptions include: when forced to land due to an emergency beyond the control of the operator, at officially designated landing sites, or an approved official business of the Federal Government. Pilots are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the surface of the following: National Parks, Monuments, Seashores, Lakeshores, Recreation Areas and Scenic Riverways administered by the National Park Service, National Wildlife Refuges, Big Game Refuges, Game Ranges and Wildlife Ranges administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Wilderness and Primitive areas administered by the U.S. Forest Service. NOTE: FAA Advisory Circular 91-36, Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Flight Near Noise-Sensitive Areas, defines the surface of a National Park Area (including Parks, Forests, Primitive Areas, Wilderness Areas, Recreational Areas, National Seashores, National Monuments, National Lakeshores, and National Wildlife Refuge and Range Areas) as: the highest terrain within 2,000 feet laterally of the route of flight, or the upper-most rim of a canyon or valley. Reference: AIM Chapter 7-4-6; FAA Advisory Circular 91-36

144 Flights over Charted U.S. Wildlife Refuges, Parks, and Forest Service Areas Federal statutes prohibit certain types of flight activity and/or provide altitude restrictions over designated U.S. Wildlife Refuges, Parks, and Forest Service Areas. These designated areas, for example: Boundary Waters Canoe Wilderness Areas, Minnesota; Haleakala National Park, Hawaii; Yosemite National Park, California; and Grand Canyon National park Arizona are charted on Sectional Charts. Federal regulations also prohibit airdrops by parachute or other means of persons, cargo, or objects from aircraft on lands administered by the three agencies without authorization from the respective agency. Exceptions include: emergencies involving the safety of human life, or threat of serious property loss Reference: AIM Chapter 7-4-6; FAA Advisory Circular 91-36

145 Example: Año Nuevo, CA Reference: San Francisco Terminal Area Chart

146 Airspace Aviation 51 Natasha Flaherty


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