Presentation on theme: "Time Period Ancient Greece was the in the time period of 1100 BC to 146 BC."— Presentation transcript:
Time Period Ancient Greece was the in the time period of 1100 BC to 146 BC.
Some tools developed by the ancient Greeks are the gear, screw, rotary mills, screw press, bronze casting techniques, water clocks, water organ, and the torsion catapult. Some of the other inventions are Antikythera mechanism, Pipe organs, driving bells, parchment, showers and cannons. The Ancient Greeks made fountains, baths, and other inventions used for water. The Greeks also invented math.
The Greeks invented many different silver mines in Laurium to help support Athens. The Greeks invented many other things like: -the crane -gears -plumbing -spiral staircases -crossbow -wheelbarrow -the lighthouse -vending machines - the fire hose
The Greeks worshipped many different gods. There are twelve main gods; Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Aphrodite, Poseidon, Hermes, Ares, Hephaestus, Hestia, and Demeter, but many other gods are known and worshipped. The Greeks used Gods to explain many things; Why the peacock has circles on its tail feathers, why there are echoes, and how spiders were created.
Zeus- The god of thunder and the sky. Husband of Hera and father of Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Persephone, Dionysus, and Hercules. Son of Cronus and Rhea and the younger brother to the eleven other main gods. Hera- The goddess of women marriage and motherhood. Zeus's wife and older sister. Poseidon- The god of the sea and earthquakes. Father of Theseus the hero and Triton the sea messenger. Demeter- The goddess of the harvest, fertility, nature and the seasons, and the mother of Persephone, the goddess of fertility. Ares- God of war, frenzy, hatred and bloodshed. Father of Eros, the god of love, and not very popular with humans or the other gods. Hermes- The god of commerce, thieves and trade. He is the messenger god, and led dead spirits to Hades. Hephaestus- The god of metalwork, volcanoes and fire. The blacksmith of the gods. His wife is Aphrodite.
Aphrodite- goddess of love and beauty. The wife of Hephaestus and mother of Eros, the love god, Phobos, the god of fear, Harmonia, the first Amazon, Priapus, and the monster Hermaphroditus (none of them are Hephaestuss children). She was the one blamed for starting the Trojan war. Hestia- The goddess of the hearth and home. The oldest of Cronus and Rheas children. She never got involved in any wars, or lived on Olympus. She never had any children, but she was a guardian to all children that are lost or orphans. Apollo- The god of the sun, medicine, music, poetry, mathematics, and prophecies. He is the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin of Artemis. He was considered Zeuss favorite son. Artemis- The goddess of the moon, hunting, and maidens. She is also called the Lady of Wild Things because animals, especially lions, bears and wolves, are sacred to her. She punished any hunter that killed more than they needed, causing them to get lost in the wild and get eaten by wolves.
Many Greek cities are ruled by kings and queens, and they enforced rules. Some of the rules are: Only men over twenty were allowed to vote. Slaves had no rights and couldnt vote. Women werent allowed to participate in sports, school, or plays (the women parts were played by men in womens clothes.) Women had to be fit so they could have strong babies.
Neolithic Period ( BC) -These people introduced pottery and animal husbandry in Greece. They may as well have traveled via the route of Black sea into Thrace, which then further leads to Macedonia, Thessaly, Boeotia etc. The second way Early Bronze Age ( BC)-The Bronze Age in Greece is divided into periods such as Helladic I, II. The information that is available today on the Bronze Age in Greece is from the architecture, burial styles and lifestyle. The colonies were made of 300 to 1000 people. Minoan Age( BC )- Bronze Age civilization, centering on the island of Crete. It was named after the legendary king Minos. Mycenaean Age ( BC)- It was named for the kingdom of Mycenae and the archaeological site where fabulous works in gold were unearthed. The Mycenaean Age was cut short by widespread destruction ushering in the Greek Dark Age The Dark Ages ( BC)- The period between the fall of the Mycenean civilizations and the readoption of writing in the eighth or seventh century BC. After the Trojan Wars the Mycenaeans went through a period of civil war, the country was weak and a tribe called the Durians took over.
Time periods #2 Archaic Period ( BC)-The age is defined through the development of art at this time, specifically through the style of pottery and sculpture, showing the specific characteristics that would later be developed into the more naturalistic style of the Classical period. The Archaic is one of five periods that Ancient Greek history can be divided into; it was preceded by the Dark Ages and followed by the Classical period. Classical Period ( BC)- In this period Athens reached its greatest political and cultural heights: the full development of the democratic system of government under the Athenian statesman Pericles; the building of the Parthenon on the Acropolis Hellenistic Period ( BC)- period between the conquest of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great and the establishment of Roman supremacy, in which Greek culture and learning were pre- eminent in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor
Gods/ Goddesses: Orpheus was the son of Apollo and Calliope. He was the most famous musician in all of Greece. The story of Eurydice and Orpheus is a famous love story. The Muses were the 9 daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. They made such beautiful music with their singing that it brought joy to everyone who heard them. The Muses were patrons of the arts and sciences. Apollo was Zeus' son and god of the sun, light and music.
Temple Architecture: Doric-sturdy and its top is plain. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. Ionic- thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design. This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands. Corinthian- seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with *acanthus leaves. *having spiny or toothed leaves and showy, white or purplish flowers
The Temple of Athena Nike- part of the Acropolis in the city of Athens. The Greeks built this temple around 300 BC. With Ionic columns reaching 19.5 m (64 ft) high, these ruins suggest the former grandeur of the ancient temple. The Temple of Apollo at Didyma- The Greeks built this temple around 300 BC. With Ionic columns reaching 19.5 m (64 ft) high, these ruins suggest the former grandeur of the ancient temple. Erechtheum- A temple from the middle classical period of Greek art and architecture, built on the Acropolis of Athens between 421 and 405 BC. The west end of the building, with windows and engaged Ionic columns, is a modification of the original, built by the Romans when they restored the building. Parthenon- temple of Athena Parthenos, Greek goddess of wisdom, on the Acropolis in Athens. The Parthenon was built in the 5th century BC, and despite the enormous damage it has sustained over the centuries, it still communicates the ideals of order and harmony for which Greek architecture is known. Art #2
Pictures of the Temples ParthenonErechtheum The Temple of Athena NikeThe Temple of Apollo at Didyma
Food, had all sorts of religious and philosophical meaning. They never ate meat unless it had been sacrificed to a god, or had been hunted in the wild. They believed that it was wrong to kill and eat a tame, domesticated animal without sacrificing it to the gods. Even with vegetables, many Greeks believed that particular foods were cleaner or dirtier, or that certain gods liked certain foods better than others. The Greeks ate mainly the Mediterranean triad, wheat (or barley or millet), wine, and olive oil. They also grew vegetables, especially legumes* (lentils, beans, peas, chickpeas). because of their feelings about sacrificing meat, they may have eaten meat less than other people did. *A pod, such as that of a pea or bean, that splits into two valves with the seeds attached to one edge of the valves.
Shelter;; houses were built of stone, wood, and clay bricks Rainwater was collected in the atrium for household use. Pipes carrying hot air from large ovens ran underneath the floors and warmed them (traditional houses of rural Korea have a similar device known as the ondol) The workers of Rome were crowded into apartment buildings made partly of wood. These were easily damaged by fires and earthquakes. Men and women lived in different parts of the house. Women had the back and upstairs part Larger homes had a kitchen, a room for bathing, a men's dining room, and sometimes a woman's sitting area The houses had large stone walls and a large gate. The houses were centered around a courtyard. a large open space within a building
Fashion;; The Greeks wore light, loose clothes as the weather was hot for most of the year. Long pieces of colorful fabric were used to make the Greek clothes. The ancient Greeks could buy cloth and clothes in the agora, the marketplace, but that was expensive Many of the clothes were made by the women and female salves. Wealthy people had tunics made of colored cloth. The tunics of the poor were plain In cold weather cloaks were worn Most Greeks went barefoot, If they needed shoes they put on leather sandals or boots. tunic Leather sandals/boots Hair was curled, arranged in interesting and carefully designed styles, and held in place with scented waxes and lotions. Women kept their hair long, in braids, arranged on top of their head, or wore their hair in ponytails. Headbands, made of ribbon or metal, were very popular.
Aristotle divided Greek governments into monarchies, oligarchies, tyrannies and democracies, and most historians still use these same divisions. Most city-states in the Archaic period were ruled by oligarchies, which is a group of aristocrats (rich men) who tell everyone else what to do. Then in the 600's and 500's BC a lot of city-states were taken over by tyrants. Tyrants were usually one of the aristocrats who got power over the others by getting the support of the poor people. They ruled kind of like kings, but without any legal right to rule. *a state or nation in which the supreme power is actually or nominally lodged *a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique *arbitrary or unrestrained exercise of power; despotic abuse of authority *government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them
Government #2 In 510 BC, the city-state of Athens created the first democratic government, and soon other Greek city-states imitated them. Carthage and Rome, experimented with giving the poor people more power at this time. Athenian democracy did not really give power to everyone. Most of the people in Athens couldn't vote - no women, no slaves, no foreigners (even Greeks from other city-states), and no children. Athens at this time had an empire, ruling over many other Greek city-states, and none of those people living in the other city-states could vote either. (And many Greek city-states kept oligarchic government, or tyrannies, or monarchies, through this whole time).
Marriage #1 Weddings were usually arranged by the brides parents. Marriage symbolized: * love, mutual respect, equality and sacrifice Wedding consisted of 3 parts: *pre-wedding ceremonies, actual wedding and post wedding ceremonies. This way the weddings took about 3 days. There was usually a certain time when couples decided to marry in Greece. Greeks married during the winter (January) Superstitions say that Greeks were married during the time of a full moon
#2 Average age difference between husband and wife was 15 years. Hesoid's advice was that "A man should marry at about thirty, choosing for his wife, a girl of sixteen" There were no specific age laws to marry. Girls met guys not in their family. When the guys came over they had to go to different rooms. The fathers picked who their daughter married, the girl was rich and her husband was not.
Family If the wife lived in the same house as her husband they were married, if she moved out they were divorced. Sometimes his parents would be there, if they were still alive and if they weren't living with another brother. Wealthy women rarely went out of the house alone. Women with not as much money went outside to get water or go work in the fields, or to sell veggies. If you got divorced, the man had to return the woman's dowry, so she would have some money to live on. The children stayed with their father, learning to run the farm business. The father was head of the household all the time. Girls learned to read and write at home and the boys learned at home.
Alphabet The word alphabet comes from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet
There are several theories about the origins of the Greek language. It originated with migration 2500 BC and 1700 BC Aeolic, Ionic, and Doric were the 3 main dialects of the Greek language. For many centuries Greek was the lingua franca of the Roman Empire
The Greeks took games of all kinds very seriously, mainly the physical athletic. The Greeks believed that their gods loved to see strong, fit, graceful human bodies, especially in men. The Greeks had the tendency to turn everything into a competition. The most common of the Greek games is the Greek Olympics. The best men from one city were chosen to compete against the best men from other cities, then they would all meet, at the Olympic Games or the Isthmian Games. These games also served as good training for the army, because all these men would be soldiers as well. Only men could compete in the Olympic Games. Greek boys also played games which were not part of the Olympic games, like field hockey. Greek boys usually played games without their clothes on (and so girls were not allowed to watch). Greeks also played less active games like dice and marbles, and knucklebones, and checkers.