Presentation on theme: "Halloween By Paloma Díaz, José García, María Gallego & María López."— Presentation transcript:
Halloween By Paloma Díaz, José García, María Gallego & María López.
Index T he origins of Halloween (two origins) S ymbols used in Halloween T raditional songs and food in Halloween S panish All Saints' Day versus Halloween I mportant legends: the jack-o'-lantern T rick-or-treating and other rhymes G host stories: urban legends? T he origins of Halloween (two origins) S ymbols used in Halloween T raditional songs and food in Halloween S panish All Saints' Day versus Halloween I mportant legends: the jack-o'-lantern T rick-or-treating and other rhymes G host stories: urban legends?
T he origins of Halloween Halloween is a party celebrated in the United States, the north of Mexico and Canada the 31 of October. It´s originated in the Celtic fest of Samhain. It was celebrated in Canada, USA, Ireland and the UK, but the expansion of the USA culture transmitted the Halloween spirit trough all the occidental countries, like France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, and so on.
Celtic origin Halloween is originated with the Celtic fest named Samhain. Samhain celebrated the end of the harvest and was considerated the Celtic New Year. The ancient Celtics thought that the line between this and the other world became closer in Samhain, allowing the spirits to access to our world. The samhain also was an opportunity to store supplies and prepare the livestock for the winter.
Roman tradition When the roman troops conquest the Celtic territories, the fest were assimilated for those. The Romans also celebrated a fest the last days of October called the harvest fest, but they combined the both traditions.
The actual Halloween Now a days, Halloween is one of the most important dates in the holiday calendar of the United States and Canada. Some Latin Americans have their own traditions and fests at the same day, but they coincide in the meaning of the fest: the union between this world and the spirit world. Other Latin Americans countries like Argentina think that Halloween is an American fest so they dont celebrate this day.
S ymbols used in Halloween Pumpkins (also called Jack-o-Lanterns) As a fire color, orange is thought by some to bring about action and positive change for the season ahead. The candles placed inside the pumpkin can also represent a bringing of light into the darkness. Jack-o-Lantern literally means "Jack of the Lantern"; because an old Irish legend tells of a cursed man named Jack. When Jack died he was not allowed to enter heaven or hell, so he wandered aimlessly with only a candle lit in a hollowed out turnip to guide him. To keep his restless spirit from their homes, villagers would carve scary faces into the turnips and place them in their windows at night. Thus the flickering flames from the Jack-O-Lantern eventually became associated with the spirits of the dead.
Witches Witches are often thought to have the supernatural powers needed to use rituals, potions and spells to connect and manipulate the energy of the spirit realm. It was once said that the only way to meet a real witch, you had to put your clothes on the wrong side out and walk backwards at midnight, on Halloween night. Legends tell of witches gathering twice a year when the seasons changed, on April 30 - the eve of May Day and on the eve of October 31 - All Hallows Eve. According to old wives tales, the witches would arrive on broomsticks, to celebrate with the devil, transform themselves into other beings and cast evil spells on unsuspecting people.
Gravestones Gravestones are where the world of the living can meet the world of the dead. Halloween, like the Mexican Day of the Dead, celebrates visitors from the spirit world. Skull and Crossbones The skull and crossbones were once deemed to be warnings of danger, death and disease. The Skull is the seat of our wisdom and our power to think. It reminds us of our mortality and the impermanence of life.
Black Cats Black cats have long been believed to be a symbol of the supernatural. They were thought to be related to witchcraft and considered a common pet and familiar of the witch. Ghosts Since Samhain not only celebrated the end of harvest, but also those had passed into the next realm, it is called by some a festival of the dead. The idea of ghosts plays into this idea that Halloween night is the one night that the spirits of the ancestors are able to walk among the living.
T raditional s ongs and food in Halloween Old Witch, Old Witch It is a long-established American doggerel. Chicken my chicken my creamy crow, I went to the well to wash my toe, When I got there the water was low, What time is it, Old Witch, Old Witch? What time is it Old Witch? Old Witch, Old Witch, she lives in a ditch, And combs her hair with a hickory switch. She lives on nails and snails and flies And if you go near she'll wobble her eyes, Oh, she'll wobble her eyes, Oh, she'll wobble her eyes. Chicken my chicken my creamy cran, I went to the well to wash my hand, When I got there the water was sand, What time is it, Old Witch, Old Witch? What time is it Old Witch? Old Witch, Old Witch, she lives in a ditch, And combs her hair with a hickory switch. She's fat as a feather but tight in the middle And when she talks she sounds like a fiddle. Oh, she sound like a fiddle! Chicken my chicken my creamy crase, I went to the well to wash my face, But, when I got there the water was lace, What time is it, Old Witch, Old Witch? What time is it Old Witch? Old Witch, Old Witch, she lives in a ditch, And combs her hair with a hickory switch. She sleeps on a bed with straw and corn And when she snores she sounds like a horn, Oh, she sound like a horn! Chicken my chicken my creamy cregs, I went to the well to wash my legs, And when I got there the water was dregs, What time is it, Old Witch, Old Witch? What time is it Old Witch? Old Witch, Old Witch, she lives in a ditch, And combs her hair with a hickory switch. And as I said she's very fat And when she walks she jumps like a cat, Oh, she jumps like a cat!
Soul-Cakers Song watch?v=VSeqS6H-eLw watch?v=VSeqS6H-eLw Soul-caking is a long- running tradition in the British isles. Soul-cakers go to every house, singing either a begging song or a plea for prayers for the dead. They also perform what is known as a mummer's play for the residents. It's also known for appear in Sting's album "On A Winter's Night". A soul cake, a soul cake, I pray, good missus, a soul cake. Apple or pear, a plum or a cherry, Any good thing to make us all merry. There was an old witch Peks It's a common song which kids usually learn at school. There was an old witch Believe it if you can She tapped on the windows and she ran, ran, ran. She ran helter-skelter With her toes in the air Cornstalks flying From the old witches hair. "Swish" goes the broomstick "Meow" goes the cat "Plop" goes the hoptoad Sitting on her hat "Whee!" chuckled I, "What fun, what fun" Halloween night When the witches run.
This is Halloween
Traditional food Barmbrack Halloween Cakes Barmbrack is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins. It is one of those traditional Halloween recipes that's both a dessert and a Halloween game. Traditionally, a ring is baked into the cake, and the person who finds the ring in their slice of barmbrack is guaranteed to be married before the year is out.
Candy apple Candy apples, also known as toffee apples outside of North America, are whole apples covered in a hard sugar candy coating. They are almost always served with a stick of sorts in the middle making them easier to eat. Toffee apples are a common treat at autumn festivals in Western culture in the Northern Hemisphere, such as Halloween and Guy Fawkes Night because these festivals fall in the wake of the annual apple harvest.
Colcannon Colcannon is a traditional Irish dish mainly consisting of mashed potatoes with kale or cabbage. It's traditionally eaten on Halloween Night.
Soul cakes Soul cakes are large spiced cake-like cookies that were traditionally handed out in Britain instead of candy during the time of All Hallows Eve. Each cookie represented a soul that had died in the past year and as the cookie was eaten, it was believed that if the soul had gone to Purgatory, it was then released. Originally, soul cakes were used as a sacrificial food in the Celtic festival of Samhain.
Halloween vs. All Saints Day Halloween is a combination of holidays, some pagan, some Christian. The Romans celebrated the occasion as the festival of Pomona, goddess of gardens. The ancient Celts called the holiday Samhain, or end of summer, and observed the day as the end of the food-growing season. The Celts believed that ghosts of people visited the earth on Samhain (October 31st), and they lit bonfires atop hills to scare the ghosts away. When the Celts became Christians, they, and other Christian groups, appropriated the holiday as a festive prelude to the day on which to remember those Christians who have left this world and live with Jesus. According to the New Testament these people are referred to as saints. All Saints Day was known then as All Hallows Day (All Holy Day), so inevitably the evening before was called All Hallows Een, or All Holy Evening. Eventually the term was shortened to Halloween.
The customs of Halloween are throwbacks to this early festival. It became customary to begin festival days by inviting guests and by being a guest. Such hospitality is the original intent of trick-or-treat. In some countries Catholics wear scary masks and travel door to doorand then grave to graveall the while serenading those they visit. The purpose is to help the dead feel more comfortable in the company of the living. Among some central European countries on All Hallows Eve, fat, white turnips are hollowed out and carved into the shape of grinning skulls. Candles illuminate them from within. These customs serve as reminders that Christians do not fear physical death because they have eternal life. The feast of All Saints Day is focused on those that are deceased brothers and sisters in the Lord. They are remembered as beacons that help light the path in this world. As St. Paul said, Be imitators of me, as I am of Christ (I Corinthians 11:1).
Realizing he now had a new lease on life, at least for a year, Jack decided to mend his ways. For a time Jack was good to his wife and children and began to attend church and give charity. Eventually Jack slipped back into his evil ways. The next All Hallows Eve as Jack was heading home, the Devil appeared and demanded that Jack accompany him. Once again Jack, not too eager to die, distracted the devil by pointing to a nearby apple tree. Jack convinced the Devil to get an apple out of the tree and even offered to hoist the Devil up on his shoulders to help him get the apple. The Devil, fooled once again by Jack, climbed into the tree and plucked an apple. Jack took out a knife and carved a cross into the trunk of the tree. Trapped once again the Devil howled to be released and told Jack he would give him 10 years of peace in exchange for his release. Jack, on the other hand, insisted the Devil never bother him again. The Devil agreed and was released.
Almost a year later Jack's body, unable to keep up with his evil ways, gave out and Jack died. When Jack tried to enter Heaven he was told that because of his meanness he would not be allowed into Heaven. When Jack attempted to gain entry into Hell, the Devil, still smarting from years of humiliation refused Jack admission. However, the Devil threw Jack a piece of coal to help him find his way in the dark of limbo. Jack put the piece of coal into a turnip and it became known as a Jack O'Lantern. On All Hallows Eve, if you look, you can still see Jack's flame burning dimly as he searches for a home.
T rick-or-treating and other rhymes Trick or treat, smell my feet, give me something good to eat! Black cat, Big, fat bats or Chocolate hats! Bats are sleeping, bats are sleeping Upside down, upside down. Waiting for the night to come, waiting for the night to come. Then they fly around, then they fly around! Trick or treat, trick or treat, trick or treat we say! Try to get the treats before the ghost scares us away, hey! Trick or treat, trick or treat, trick or treat we say! If you don't have treats for us, we'll never go away! I want something stick and sweet. Don't want a trick, want something to eat. Wish Halloween wasn't just one night. Then we'd have candy all the time. I want candy!
"May Jack-o-lanterns burning bright of soft and golden hue Pierce through the future's veil and show what fate now holds for you." ~ Author Unknown The Witches Caldron "Eye of newt, and toe of frog, Wool of bat, and tongue of dog Adder's fork, and blind- worm's sting, Lizard's leg, and owlet's wing For a charm of powerful trouble, Like a hell-broth boil and babble Double, double, toil and trouble, Fire burn, and caldron bubble" ~ William Shakespeare "At first cock-crow the ghosts must go back to their quiet graves below." ~ Theodosia Garrison "When black cats prowl and pumpkins gleam, May luck be yours on Halloween." ~ Author Unknown "Webster was much possessed by death, and saw the skull beneath the skin." ~ T.S. Eliot
G host stories: urban legends? "Jack the Rippers legend" Jack the Ripper began his career probably the August 31, Although there is no absolute certainty, since there is some doubt whether the murder of a woman, also prostitute, August 6 of that same year, and that it responded to the name of Martha Tabram, was also his work. In any case, the police did not at the time advertising in this case. Martha was murdered by a "long sharp knife" between the 2 and 3 and a half in the morning. Anyway the fact of having been caught in the same neighborhood as Whitechapel in a pub that still exists (The angel and the Crown), gives grounds for suspicion. The first official crime, and that they recognize all the chronicles, is that of the august 31, 1888, Mary Ann Nicholls (alias Polly), a prostitute, alcoholic, who dies violently. According to the affidavit forensic "The wounds inflicted upon the victim, have been made by an expert person, who made the cuts with absolute precision and cleaning". The second crime series happens the 8th of September of the same year. Annie Chapman (prostitute, alcoholic, like the others) is murdered in an identical way.
Just in that month, the September 27, police received the first letter signed by "Jack the Ripper". Sent to the Central News Agency, Fleet Street, and written in red ink (a detail of black humour), it wrote: "will not waiver in my task of gut whores. AND I will be doing so until I get caught. The last work left embroidery [...] Retain this letter, without making it public, until my next work [...] Don't mind calling me by my artistic name". After a long list of murders, mutilations and crimes, September 30 the police receive the second letter from Jack the Ripper: "My dear boss:... Thanks for having withheld my previous letter until this moment, in which new i have thrown in the street to work" The November 9, 1888 Jack the Ripper is fired with the carving-up of Marie Kelly, also prostitute and alcoholic. It was dead in his room that he rented in the street Miller's Court No. 13 of Whitchapel. The woman was found lying on his back on his bed, naked, with the ears, the nose and sinuses uprooted. Analyzing the photographs of the time was clearly observed writing on a wall the initials "FM", these letters fit perfectly with the initials "fu**ing mother (crappy) ", as James Maybrick wrote in his journal course, Florence Maybrick, alleged woman in this.
At the time there were many suspicions although none was demonstrated. The most dangerous (in the social system) was that Jack was none other than Edward, the duke of Clarence, son of King Edward VII, who died, at age 28, after a series of killings. Without knowing who was the responsible, the legend has ensured a long life. At the end of 1991 it was discovered the journal of James Maybrick, the course Ripper, where is it contained information that only the police knew.
Urban Legends The eternal wife Every woman dreams of her wedding day and a thousand fantasies but what happens when something goes wrong, this is what my story and sadness that it produces. Clara was one of those girls who only fantasized about her wedding day and next to her boyfriend was happy and protected. But the day he asked her to marry the woman he was happiest in the world, everything is prepared for the wedding, there were all the preparations for the expected ceremony was the most beautiful and unforgettable people and fence it would. Clara belonged to a wealthy family as his father was a businessman in the textile sector, in particular was an expert in fine fabrics and high quality. His mother owned the only store selling mannequins town where fabrics and garments that supplied her beloved husband, there was from a wedding dress socks. Clara chose the most beautiful dress from the store and everything was ready for the big event and hoped that she fantasized for a long time. The whole village was invited and Clara was so excited, arrived on time at the altar, but realized that her future husband had not arrived. The minutes passed and there was no sign of him, until a woman appeared at the door of the church and told her that her boyfriend had fled with his sister last night, Clara heard this began to mourn his sentence, from that day only crying, had not even removed the wedding dress, her mother told her to take off that dress and to live your life, it was time to overcome, but she always answered: -Not mama, I want to be a bride eternal. For her life no longer made any sense. His mother to the realize that she wanted to stay like that forever took a tough decision. WOULD MAKE IT A GIRLFRIEND ETERNAL since the see that she began to die of sadness thought in making it dummy so that nothing else but your beautiful wedding gown by always and with the permission of his mother doctors began with his work only at that time, when the work was finished placed it in your store. He said the people that the nights she leaves her dresser and travels through the store looking for revenge and each person is found after the closing hour does not appear the next day, it appears only a dummy on the side of the bride.
The tree of the vampire The story goes that in the 18th century in colonial Guadalajara reached a mysterious man who came from Europe, and that went to live in a small town called Bethlehem, he was called Mr. Jorge and he was one of the richest landowners of the village, however, the inhabitants of the village feared already accustomed to wear always dressed in black and exit only at night. After a short time, people were alarmed to see that appeared dead animals, but a few days later found dead bodies of people without a drop of blood. This caused a great deal of fear in the heart of those humble farmers, which are locked in their homes before sunset and prayed fearing for their lives. Finally met and armed with value, sticks, torches and knifes decided to go in search of the murderer. Close to the pantheon heard screams, and on reaching abhors don Jorge that he was biting the neck of one of the peasants. When the vampire was surrounded by fled leaving your victim bloodied. The next day, the people went out to see the cure of the people and asked him to help them to stop the vampire that terrorized. Thus arrived at the ranch of don Jorge and the cure was performed on him an exorcism and the vampire receded by cursing and swearing that will retaliate them all, then one of the villagers you nail a stake in the chest. Once dead was buried in the pantheon of Bethlehem. It is said that months later, the tombstone is broke and in its place was born a tree trunk and deep-rooted. Legend has it that the day that the tree must be cut or the roots break completely the tombstone don Jorge returned to take revenge against those who were taken prisoner. So if you give a tour of the Mexican republic, don't forget to visit in Guadalajara, a little village called Bethlehem where even today you can observe the magnificent tree upright on his tomb.
Lucky that you didnt switch on the light About two years ago, in the city of Granada, there was a murder which attracted a lot of attention. It was in a student flat, where they lived four girls. One night, two of the girls went to their respective homes, because on Fridays they used to come back to spend the weekend with their family. The other two were on the flat. One of them decided to go to sleep to a classmates flat. She left the flat, leaving the other girl alone. At night, the girl that had gone to sleep outside realized that she hadnt got her pajamas, so she returned to the flat to pick it up. She went to her room and she didnt switch on the light because she didnt wanted to "wake up" her friend. She picked up the pajamas that was in the locker and she went again. The next morning, when she came back, she realized that the police were on the floor and that the neighbors filled the corridor. She was very scared because she didnt know what had happened. When she went to her room she saw that a "body" was in the soil cover with a sheet. It was a corpse! Her friend had died! How? She was very nervous, a lot of questions encouragements in her mind and she couldnt found any response. The police told her that the night before a thief had entered into the flat and, when the girl was alone, he killed her after stealing all the money she had. When the girl protagonist went on the flat to take the pajamas, the thief was in the room and he had already killed his partner. The man stopped writing in the mirror of the room, with red lipstick: "LUCKY THAT YOU DIDNT SWITCH ON THE LIGHT".
The crazy surgeon Many years ago, in a department of Uruguay said that lived in a normal house and flow a surgeon with the aim of making life longer. No one knew him, or he knew no one of that people, but everyone knew who was in the basement of the house working all the time. People said that you could see the glare of a light all the nights in that mysterious place and it is believed that is when he used to investigate with bodies of dead people by himself. A summer night, some curious boys decided to check themselves if the history that the people of the place tell was real or not, so they were to visit the surgeon, approached the basement and they knocked on the door that was found open: - Hi, is there anyone...? - But nobody answered... One of them saw a ladder toward an underground passage and they followed it, determined to investigate it. Lowered carefully, very little by little and as they were advancing they began to glimpse the glare of a dim light, armed with value and a large dose of curiosity they continued; one of them he looked around and he saw the surgeon burping guts to a woman's body. Surprised and frightened, he stalled without being able to react. Only the scream of that ruthless being made them react, screaming full of panic but it wasnt enough, the surgeon attacked them with their sharp scalpel and one caused him five cuts but managed to escape, the other was inside and in the middle of the struggle to survive the house caught fire and there were forever the boy and the mysterious surgeon. The next morning when the police went to investigate the house they found the lifeless body of one of the kids but they found no trace of the surgeon. Years later, the boy who survived grew and bought the house with the stay that was around her. He told that in the evenings he saw an image of a person with the face burned around the bedroom and when the man brought closer, this person vanished in front of his eyes. Today the house is completely abandoned, and still today it is said that the spirit of that surgeon remains between those walls and many people claim see some nights the glare of a faint light that comes out of that place…