3 There is nothing so unequal as the equal treatment of unequals. Felix Frankfurter Former U.S. Supreme Court Justice 3
4 SECTION 1: UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUES 4
5 District personnel will: Investigate district/regional data of identified gifted students; Assess current identification practices; and Create a plan to make systematic changes to increase equitable representation of students in gifted programs. Objectives 5
6 State Plan: 1.6A Data and procedures assure that all populations of the district have access to assessment and if identified, the services offered as part of the program for gifted students [19 TAC §89.1(3)]. Have your low SES gifted/talented children been left behind? 6
7 State Plan: 1.6R Gains have been made over the last two (2) years toward having the population of the gifted program reflect the population of the district. Have your low SES gifted/talented children been left behind? 7
8 State Plan: 1.6E The population of the gifted/talented program reflects the population of the total district or has for two of the past three years. Have your low SES gifted/talented children been left behind? 8
9 Texas Population Trends Visit the site of: Dr. Steve Murdock State Demographer Think about: The issues for your school district Actions your group can take to address these issues 9
10 If we dont provide G/T services to the best and the brightest from these rapidly growing population groups, where will the leadership and role models come from?
11 Identified Gifted/Talented by Race/Ethnicity Number enrolled Percentage of total population Number of identified gifted/ talented Percentage of total gifted/ talented population Percentage of population groups under- identified Native American 9, Asian88,796313,49463 African American 415, , Anglo1,103, , Hispanic1,360, , Totals (N=)2,979, , Source: Texas Education Agency.
12 Discrepancies in Identification of Gifted/Talented Students by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status Source: Texas Education Agency Race/ Eth. No. Enrolled No. ED % Enrolled ED No. G/T No. ED G/T % G/T ED Native American 9,9714, Asian88,79628, ,4941,70213 African American 415,980295, ,3728,48444 Anglo1,103,979282, ,3527,2966 Hispanic1,360,5361,098, ,76133,63745 Total2,979,2621,708, ,62451,22623
13 Total K-8 student population Total identified gifted/talented population K-8 Percent of identified gifted/talented 2,979,262221, Number and Percentage of Identified Gifted/Talented Students in Texas K-8
14 Number and Percent of Identified Economically Disadvantaged Gifted/Talented Students in Texas K-8 Total K-8 student population Total K-8 economically disadvantaged population Number and percent of economically disadvantaged students identified gifted/talented 2,979,262 1,708,833 51,226 Economically disadvantaged identified gifted/talented students under- represented by 75,911 students (57% of 221,624 = 127,137 = 7.44% = Equity) 57% Economically disadvantaged23% Identified gifted/talented Under-identification of economically disadvantaged gifted/talented: -34%
15 How do your district statistics compare to the state as a whole? What inequities exist in your G/T population?
16 SECTION 2: THE POLITICS OF GIFTED/TALENTED EDUCATION
17 What can you do?
18 1. Appoint a task force to study the current identification procedures and practices. The following is a list of suggested task force members representing such groups as: campus and central office administrators classroom teachers special education and Title 1 teachers school board members gifted/talented specialists parents of gifted/talented students
19 2. Clearly define the purposes of the task force. 3.Provide training for the members of the task force prior to asking them to make decisions.
20 This training may include some of the following: reading and discussion groups based on literature about gifted/talented students, students from poverty, twice-exceptional gifted/talented students, and giftedness among certain cultural and socioeconomic groups training in the reliability and validity of standardized tests
21 This training may include some of the following: statistics from the region, as well as the local district, that show the current racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition of the districts program in-district and out-of-district consultants who have expertise in the topics being studied and considered
22 Twice-exceptionally gifted The Task Force should address the needs of all gifted students, including twice-exceptionally gifted students: ADD + Gifted ADHD + Gifted Dyslexic + Gifted ED + Gifted Non-English speaking + Gifted LD + Gifted
23 State Plan: 1.5.2A Students are assessed in languages they understand or with nonverbal-based tests. Qualitative instruments or samples of student work should also be administered in the students dominant language.
24 SECTION 3: PRINCIPLES OF IDENTIFICATION Source: Reichert, S. (1997). Excellence with Equity in Identification and Programming, Handbook of Gifted Education. Colangelo & Davis, (eds.) Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
25 Defensibility: Procedures should be based on the best available research and recommendations. Advocacy: Identification should be designed in the best interest of all students. Students should not be harmed by the procedures.
26 Equity: Procedures should guarantee that no one is overlooked. Students from all groups should be considered for representation according to their demographic representation in the district. The civil rights of students should be protected. Strategies should be specified for identifying the disadvantaged gifted/talented. Cut-off scores should be avoided because they are the most common way that disadvantaged students are discriminated against.
27 State Definition § DEFINITION. In this subchapter, "gifted and talented student" means a child or youth who performs at or shows the potential for performing at a remarkably high level of accomplishment when compared to others of the same age, experience, or environment and who: (1) exhibits high performance capability in an intellectual, creative, or artistic area; (2) possesses an unusual capacity for leadership; or (3) excels in a specific academic field.
28 Pluralism : The broadest defensible definition of gifted/talented should be used. Comprehensiveness : As many learners as possible with gifted/talented potential should be identified and served. Pragmatism: Whenever possible, procedures should allow for the cost- effective modification and use of available instruments and personnel.
29 SECTION 4: UNDERSTANDING POVERTY Sources: Payne, R. (2005). Framework for Understanding Poverty. Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Slocumb, P. and Payne, R. (2000). Removing the Mask: Giftedness in Poverty. Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc.
30 Preschoolers language experiences in welfare, working class, and professional class homes Social class Number of words heard per hour Estimated number of words heard per week Encouragement versus discouragement words per week Welfare61662, vs. 1,100 Middle class1,251125,0001,200 vs. 700 Professional class2,153215,0003,200 vs. 500 Source: Hart, B., Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experiences of Young American Children. Baltimore: Paul Brookes. Language Development Differences
31 PovertyMiddle ClassWealth SurvivalWorkPolitical connections RelationshipsAchievement Financial connections EntertainmentMaterial securitySocial connections Driving Forces of Social Class
32 Lack of Linear Orientation Story structure is linear in middle class: Stories have a beginning, middle, and an end. Story structure in poverty is circular: The focus is always on the characters, not the plot. The purpose is to entertain.
33 FrozenLanguage that is always the same. For example, wedding vows, the Pledge of Allegiance, the Lords Prayer. FormalThe standard sentence syntax and word choice of the business and school community. Word choice is specific and precise. Explicit language. ConsultativeFormal register when used in a conversation. In English, discourse pattern is not as direct. CasualLanguage between friends and is characterized by a 400–800 word vocabulary. Word choice is general and not specific. Conversation is dependent upon nonverbal assists. Sentence syntax often incomplete. Implicit language. IntimateLanguage between lovers or twins. Language of sexual harassment.
34 Poverty Middle Class Wealth DestinyFate/LuckChoiceDivine right Language Casual register Formal register TimePresentFutureTradition PossessionsPeopleThings One-of-a- kind
35 goal setting, planning, sequencing, discerning main idea, and/or vocabulary. Implications for Identification Student has difficulty with:
36 Poverty is concrete, sensory, and emotional. The world of school is verbal and abstract. Students from poverty have difficulty abstracting.
37 Look for students who: use figurative language that reflects comparisons to people and entertainers; discern patterns in human behavior, but not necessarily ideas; and/or connect personal experiences to abstract concepts, though these concepts may be focused on family and neighborhoods. Implications for Identification
38 School failure is often the result of missing resources.
39 Emotional resources: Being able to choose and control emotional responses, particularly in response to negative situations without engaging in self-destructive behavior(s) Mental resources: Having mental abilities and acquired skills in reading, writing, and computing, as well as a facility with language, necessary to deal with daily life
40 Physical resources: Having physical health and mobility Financial resources: Having money to purchase goods and services
41 Relationship and role models: Having frequent access to adults who are appropriate, who are nurturing to the child, and who do not engage in self- destructive behaviors Support systems: Having friends, family, and backup resources available to access in times of need Knowledge of the Middle Class Hidden Rules: Knowing the unspoken cues and habits of a group
42 Comparison of Attributes of Gifted/Talented Students and Gifted/Talented Students from Poverty
43 Attribute Gifted/Talented (Kingore, 1993) Gifted/Talented from Poverty (Slocumb & Payne, 2000) Advanced language Displays advanced vocabulary Uses complex sentences effectively Naturally uses metaphors and analogies to express relationships Limits vocabulary to casual register Lacks cause and effect relationships in sentence structure Uses figurative language to reflect comparisons to people and entertainers Comparison of Attributes of Gifted/Talented Students and Gifted/Talented Students from Poverty
44 Attribute Gifted/Talented (Kingore, 1993) Gifted/Talented from Poverty (Slocumb & Payne, 2000) Perspective Displays an ability to understand and incorporate unexpected or unusual points of view through oral language, writing, manipulatives, and/or art Incorporates unexpected or unusual points of view through oral language and manipulatives and art (may not do so in writing) Comparison of Attributes of Gifted/Talented Students and Gifted/Talented Students from Poverty
45 Attribute Gifted/Talented (Kingore, 1993) Gifted/Talented from Poverty (Slocumb & Payne, 2000) SensitivityIs intensely sensitive to the needs of others Demonstrates a strong sense of justice and sets high standards for self and others Demonstrates a strong sense of justice as defined by poverty Has fairness issues Identifies with the anti- hero; sees anti-hero as a victim Comparison of Attributes of Gifted/Talented Students and Gifted/Talented Students from Poverty
46 Attribute Gifted/Talented (Kingore, 1993) Gifted/Talented from Poverty (Slocumb & Payne, 2000) Accelerated learning Demonstrates mastery and an ability to learn and understand material and concepts beyond the facts and knowledge typical and expected for that age group Learns quickly when shown how to do things that he/she considers meaningful Comparison of Attributes of Gifted/Talented Students and Gifted/Talented Students from Poverty
47 Attribute Gifted/Talented (Kingore, 1993) Gifted/Talented from Poverty (Slocumb & Payne, 2000) Sense of humor Demonstrates understanding of higher level of humor; applies a finely developed sense of humor, either through production of jokes, riddles, puns, or other humorous effects or through understanding of the subtle humor of others Applies a finely tuned sense of humor, creates original jokes Often reflects imitations of people and events humorously Tells stories and uses casual register in colorful ways Mimics accurately Comparison of Attributes of Gifted/Talented Students and Gifted/Talented Students from Poverty
48 Attribute Gifted/Talented (Kingore, 1993) Gifted/Talented from Poverty (Slocumb & Payne, 2000) Analytical thinking Discerns components of a whole Determines relationships and patterns in procedures, experiences, ideas, and/or objects Is intrigued with the idea of planning, though he/she may lack planning skills Discerns patterns in human behavior, but not necessarily in ideas Comparison of Attributes of Gifted/Talented Students and Gifted/Talented Students from Poverty
49 Attribute Gifted/Talented (Kingore, 1993) Gifted/Talented from Poverty (Slocumb & Payne, 2000) Meaning motivated Shows curiosity, inner drive, and thorough, independent understanding Asks penetrating questions Demonstrates extensive memory Is curious, independent Asks questions focused on relationships Has an extensive memory about people and conversations Questions issues related to fairness and/or importance Comparison of Attributes of Gifted/Talented Students and Gifted/Talented Students from Poverty
50 Source: Equity in Gifted Education Task Force Members. The Varied Faces of Gifted/Talented Students Traditional perception of gifted/talented student Gifted/talented student from poverty English language learner who is also a gifted/talented student from poverty Special education and/or 504 student who is a gifted/talented student from poverty
51 Varied Faces of Giftedness Learning Use of language Critical thinking Logic Curiosity and questioning attitude Rate of acquisition Perspective Preferences Motivation Sensitivity and maturity Interest and persistence Perfectionism Independence Resolution and leadership Goal setting
52 Varied Faces of Giftedness Creativity Divergent thinker Sense of humor Risk taking Conformity and inhibition Affective Criticism
53 SECTION 5: CONSUMERS BEWARE: MAKING EDUCATED DECISIONS ABOUT TESTING F. Richard Olenchak, Ph.D
54 Metaphor of Buying a Car BUYING A CARBUYING A TEST How trustworthy is it? (reliability)How consistent is it? (reliability) How well does it accommodate the range of needs in my household? (validity) How well does it accommodate the range of needs in my district? (validity) How much does it cost? How many people can it hold at once?How many can we test at once? How fast can it go?How fast can it be scored?
55 Reliability refers to the consistency of results an assessment instrument provides from one administration to another. Validity refers to the degree to which correct inferences can be made based on the results obtained from an instrument.
56 The Relationship Between Reliability and Validity Key Concept Being Measured Student Score
57 How are reliability and validity determined for tests?
58 Validity (correctness) MethodProcess Content Validity Using an operational definition of what is being measured and a description of the intended student sample, a team of expert judges decide which test items do and do not measure the tests objectives. They also examine the format for appropriateness. The test is revised and the judges are again asked to review it. The process continues until all judges approve all the items.
59 Validity (correctness) MethodProcess Criterion Validity The correlation between the test being developed and some criterion (an existing test or another measurement of the same content or construct) is determined through the degree of relationship that exists between the scores students obtain on the instrument being developed and on the existing one.
60 Validity (correctness) MethodProcess Construct Validity The test developer collects various types of evidence that allow the test developer to make appropriate inferences. First, the variable being measured is clearly defined. Then, test developers form hypotheses based on the theory about how students who have a large degree and how those with a small degree of the variable might behave in particular circumstances.
61 Four main issues in sampling for test development: Race/ethnicity Language Gender Socioeconomic background
62 How to Interpret Reliability Data Reliability coefficients appear as decimals, the closer to a value of 1.0, the stronger the reliability. Reliabilities of.75 and higher are generally considered to be admirable.
63 Quantitative assessment attempts to measure, or obtain a numeric fix, on a particular phenomenon. In identifying students for gifted/talented services in schools, quantitative assessment typically consists of using standardized instruments that adhere to traditional and acceptable methods for demonstrating reliability and validity as previously described.
64 Qualitative assessment attempts to describe what a particular phenomenon is like. Student work Interviews with students Interviews with adults in students lives Behavioral observations Record reviews Responses to different stimuli Behaviors in various situations Non-standardized checklists and inventories
65 Categories of Standardized Tests Ability Achievement Standardized checklists and inventories Content area
66 Ability tests and achievement tests present equity challenges. There is no such thing as a culture-free assessment.
67 What tests do we use in my school district? What populations are represented in their norming samples and to what degree are our kinds of students represented?
68 Testing Information in the Toolkit Kinds of Tests Ability Achievement Checklists and inventories Core content areas Information Given Link to test Purpose Parameters (grade levels) Qualifications for administration Publisher Norm group Reliability Validity
69 Is the test reliable and valid, generally speaking? Does it yield acceptable reliability and validity among samples of students similar to those with whom the tests will be used? Does my intended use of this test reflect the purpose intended by the test developer? Factors that Guide Test Selection
70 SECTION 6: ACHIEVING EQUITY WITHIN THE DISTRICT
71 When should we use campus norms? When should we use district norms?
72 Campus ACampus BCampus C 80% free and reduced lunch 35% Anglo 40% Hispanic 20% African American 5% Asian 40% free and reduced lunch 70% Anglo 20% Hispanic 10% African American 0% Asian 15% free and reduced lunch 80% Anglo 15% Hispanic 3% African American 2% Asian Three Campuses with Varying Demographics
73 Adaptation of Identification Process for Three Campuses
74 Parent inventories typically do not work with parents from poverty or limited English speaking parents. Interviews work much better, though a home visit may be required. Parents from poverty may lack transportation and/or they do not trust the school.
75 Consent forms may not be returned to the school. Personal contact usually works better.
76 Schools that use district-adopted instruments with all students do not have to get written permission from the parent. It falls under the same guidelines as administering an achievement test to all students that has been adopted and approved by the district.
77 Peer nominations that are specifically designed for students from poverty may be very helpful in identifying students who have talents that may not be reflected on traditional measures (Slocumb and Payne, 2000).
78 Student interviews may be used very effectively with students from poverty and limited English speakers.
79 Rubrics are used to measure the performance of students, especially when looking at portfolios or other complex performances.
80 Assessors should avoid the use of cut-off scores. Look for patterns in the data collected when identifying students from poverty or students who are culturally different. Examine the patterns in the context of what giftedness looks like within those groups.
81 Teacher perceptions are solicited and include both open-ended questions and checklists.
82 Teacher Perception vs. Teacher Recommendation
83 When considering screening procedures, all students are included. Identification procedures include the use of non-verbal instruments.
84 Placement procedures allow for students to be placed in the program based on observable behaviors, and not solely on the basis of quantitative instruments.
85 SECTION 7: BRIDGING FOR SUCCESS
86 A scaffolding language acquisition approach is critical for students from poverty at Pre-K, K, and 1, as well as in Head Start programs. Excellent Resource: Weiner, Carolyn. Preparing for Success, Meeting the Language and Learning Needs of Young Children from Poverty Homes. ECL Publications
87 Having a facility with language is a key factor in ones perception of how bright a person is. Students from poverty come to school with limited language.
88 Level 1: Talks in words, phrases; learns from listening while someone talks to them about something they see or are doing; talks mostly about objects and events in the immediate environment (Weiner, 2001)
89 Level 2: Engages in extended conversations with another person; learns from one-to-one interaction with more advanced language users; talks about objects and events removed from the immediate environment (Weiner, 2001)
90 Level 3: Understands sequences of events and stories; learns by speaking of own sequences of activities with more advanced language users who help the child put things in order using words such as first and next (Weiner, 2001)
91 Level 4: Uses language to learn about things not directly experienced; talks about a variety of topics with others who may clarify information when the child does not comprehend (Weiner, 2001)
92 Level 5: Uses language to build and evaluate internal verbal models of their world; considers ideas and reflects on thought questions; serves as a manager of own learning; seeks clarification when necessary (e.g., predict, explain) (Weiner, 2001)
93 SECTION 8: FURLOUGH AND EXIT PROCEDURES
94 Need for Reciprocal Agreements within a District AdvantagesDisadvantages Student Teacher What is the focus of your policies that relate to accepting students from sending school-districts? Are they child-centered, adult-centered, or program-centered?
95 The purpose of furlough and exit procedures is to ensure that the rights of students are protected. The biggest challenge is to keep students from poverty in the program once they have been identified.
96 Furlough Policy Increased demand on time caused by scheduling and/or outside interests Emotional problems stemming from self, school, or home (e.g., death of a family member, divorce, illness, etc.) Request by parent(s)/guardian(s), teacher(s), a counselor, or administrator Inability to participate because of scheduling conflicts
97 Furloughs should NOT be used as a disciplinary tool and should be granted without adding undue pressure on the student. Furloughs should not be imposed if a student does not fit into a pre-defined program.
98 Re-entry into the program Specify the re-entry date If parent/student chooses to exit the program, exit procedures must be followed. Furlough and re-entry forms should be filed in the students cumulative record.
99 Furlough forms used in the district should also specify what multiple interventions have been done prior to the furlough and/or exit procedures.
100 If a teacher initiates the petition, that teacher shall provide documentation from multiple sources to support his/her request for exit from services. Exit provisions
101 If educators dont attempt to see beyond the mask of poverty and remove it, who will?
102 If not you, who? If not now, when?
103 Change for gifted students from poverty begins with you. From: Slocumb & Payne, (2000). Removing the Mask: Giftedness in Poverty. aha! Process, Inc. Highlands, TX.