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TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPICS PAGES Dedication ……………….…..……..…………………….1 Brief Historical Information…………………………….2 Pioneers………………………………….……………….4 What is the.

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Presentation on theme: "TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPICS PAGES Dedication ……………….…..……..…………………….1 Brief Historical Information…………………………….2 Pioneers………………………………….……………….4 What is the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPICS PAGES Dedication ……………….…..……..…………………….1 Brief Historical Information…………………………….2 Pioneers………………………………….……………….4 What is the steel drum orchestra..….…………………..6 Steps in Making a Steel Drum………………………….10 Technical Terms……………..………………………….19 Reflection……………………….……………………….2Reflection……………………….……………………….23 Conclusion……………………….……………………..23 Bibliography And References…………………………..25 Limbo Dancers END SLIDE SHOW

3 DEDICATORY I dedicate this project to Mr. Jackman for encouraging me to learn about steel drums, their function, and type of steel drums, history and the making of the instrument. Most of all, the way I learn to love such a primitive instrument and for trusting me with the execution of the double guitar at Redland Elementary. Thank you for being an inspiration. ALESSANDROS ANCKLE INDEX

4 Brief Historical Background of Steel Drums Steel drums were invented on the island of Trinidad around the time of W.W.II. One can trace the roots of these instruments back to the African slaves who were placed on the island by Spanish and French plantation owners as early as the 16th century. The constant struggle against the "elite" upper class brought many hardships and frustrations to the African slaves; most of them had been separated from their families and lost their native languages. Music was their only link back to Africa. The elite classes were notorious for setting specific rules and hours for African drumming. They were fearful the drums would incite the slaves to rebellion and that perhaps they were sending rhythmic messages. Over the centuries, as the upper classes would ban the lower classes' instruments, the lower classes would simply invent a new performance instrument. Rhythmic elements of African drumming can be heard throughout the evolution of steel drums and is used in the percussion sections (engine rooms) of the steel bands today. The African rhythmic patterns were later reproduced on bamboo stomping tubes by tam boo bamboo bands that marched in the streets during Carnival. These instruments were constructed by cutting varying lengths of bamboo sticks, stomping the larger sticks on the ground, and striking the smaller ones together. INDEX

5 The next important step in the evolution of the steel drum was metal beating bands of the early 1930's as a gradual replacement for the banned tam boos bamboo. These bands consisted of players using all metallic instruments (i.e. tin pans, biscuit drums, dustbins, etc.) and were sometimes referred to as "iron bands" or "pan bands". It was soon discovered that these non- pitched metal instruments changed pitch after they had been beaten for a while. The very first pitched steel drums were made from smaller metal containers and were convex in shape. The performer would carry the smaller metal drum with one hand and beat the metal with the other. These instruments were crude; they were still in their experimental stages and had no intentional pitches. In the 1940's and 1950's pan innovators experimented with the styling or note patterns, and improved upon the tuning. Today the drum is constructed from the bottom of a 55-gallon barrel, sunk down in a concave fashion, and tuned with precision. Jeannine Remy INDEXSTEEL DRUM TIMELINE

6 The history of the steel pan is a story of prohibitions and compulsion. Its invention was in fact induced by the ruling colonialists trying to suppress the strong rhythmic heritage of the black Africans. Here are some milestones in the history of the pan: 1883 The use of drums in street parades was outlawed since the colonialists feared that passing of secret messages by means of drumming might become the impetus for social unity and revolt among the black. Riots and conflict between the natives and the authorities led to the banning of drum processions after the carnival this year The ban of drums led to the use of tuned bamboo sticks in street parades. During the 1930's biscuit tins were included as rhythm instruments in the Tam boo Bamboo bands Tam boo Bamboo bands were forbidden due to street clashes among rival groups A gradual change to steel instruments in street bands Are considered to be the "birth" years of the steel drum. Tam boo Bamboo bands finally switching over to steel. Alexander's Ragtime Band, led by pioneer Carlton Forde, is said to have been the first known band with an ensemble exclusively consisting of steel instruments Carnivals forbidden during World War II for "security reasons", which gave people more time for acoustic experiments with the emerging "steel drum" The first melody pans with three to eight tones was introduced. The pan crafting process was improved by sinking, grooving and tempering. Sticks damped with rubber tubing were starting to be used. The instruments were grouped into categories as iron, boom, dud up, ping-pong In a spontaneous Carnival at the end of the war there were several bands consisting of only steel pans - the first real steel bands The Invaders steel band, led by Elliot "Ellie" Manette, was reported to be the first steel band to participate in organized "mas". The last years of the small melodic steel pan; in 1948 the 55 gallon oil drum finally replaced the biscuit tin as main raw material. The first fourteen-note steel drum with chromatic tones was developed. Steel Drum Timeline

7 INDEX PAN PIONEERS The list of those who have pioneered innovations in the steel pan is comprehensive. The most prominent on that list include individuals such as: Winston Spree Simon, Winston Spree Simon, A resident of John in Port-of-Spain, Winston 'Spree Simon' is famous for his role in the development of the 'ping pong, which became the tenor pan of today. He was also a proficient player of the instrument, and showcased, through concerts, the possibilities of the instrument. He held performances both locally and abroad, playing calypsos and classical tunes. It is believed by some, that he was the inventor of the steel pan. Ellie Mannette Ellie Mannette Ellie Mannette is responsible for developing the concept of the concave sinking to the steel pan surface rather than convex. Skilled with the tenor pan, he is also the creator of the double seconds, as well as, the concept of having rubber attached to the end to the playing stick. He currently resides in the United States and is the founder of a steel pan manufacturing company. OTHER PIONEERS Click Name for Tribute

8 INDEX Other Famous Pan Players, Composers and Arrangers: Ray Holman Ken "Professor" Philmore Jit Samaroo Len "Boogsie" Sharpe Jim "Boss" Wharton Andy Narell Liam Teague Robert Greenidge

9 Maybe the best place to start is to describe an Orchestral Family of instruments. In any orchestra the various groups or families of instruments are grouped together to create voice sections. The Horns, Woodwinds, Strings and Percussion sections are examples. Each section contains instruments that play in various parts of the musical scale from the very high notes (soprano) to the very low notes (bass). The Steel Drum family of instruments mirrors the above description. The Lead Pan plays the highest notes, The Double Seconds play the next lower and so on. The Steel Drum family consists of the following basic instruments, musical functions and vocal choir relationships: You can see that the individual instrument sets have inherited names corresponding to several families of instruments and choir voices according to their function in the steel band. CLICK ON ICON TO SEE DETAILS STEEL DRUMS ORCHESTRAL FAMILY LEAD DOUBLE SECONDS DOUBLE GUITARS TRIPLE CELLOS TENOR BASS SIX BASS INDEXTONAL RANGE

10 TONAL RANGES Graph of tonal ranges for the most common steel pan models. Total range of scale corresponding to that of a grand piano, less one octave at the bottom and 1.5 octave at the top.

11 The classic (Circle of 5ths) lead instrument. Used for playing the melody line in the Steel Band. Circle of 5ths Note Layout 2 1/3 Octave Range C4 to E6 Three levels of instrument sets to choose from.. Low C Lead Low D Lead LEAD DRUMS (C and D), NOTE AND RANGE INDEX

12 The super versatile design of this 2-pan set is used for playing melody, harmonies (with the Lead), chording, and is an excellent choice for playing those really hot solo's. Many professional lead players enjoy playing the double second pan set due to its unparalleled versatility. DOUBLE SECONDS DRUMS INDEX

13 The Double Guitar set adds a super mellow accompaniment sound to any band. Primary use for this 2-pan set is strumming and chording but can also be special ordered for solo work (D3-B4 range). INDEX DOUBLE GUITARS DRUMS

14 A beautifully rich sounding instrument. The Triple Cello set is used to fill rhythm chords between the Bass and Double Guitars - very pleasing tones... INDEX TRIPLE CELLO DRUMS

15 A step toward the bass voice, this set of 4 pans creates a powerful rhythmic flavor for the bass line. Logical Synchronized Note Layout. The note layout for this set is designed primarily for bass line doubling and chording. Range F2-C4 Three levels of instrument sets to choose from.. TENOR BASS DRUM,NOTE AND RANGE INDEX

16 SIX BASS DRUM, NOTES AND RANGE Produces those deep bass tones that add the "sub-woofer" (where did that sound come from?) quality to the mix. An absolute must in a larger band or orchestra. The note layout for this set is designed specifically for playing Bass Lines. Range C2 through F3 INDEX

17 Sinking - The flat end (bottom) of the drum is pounded into a pan shape by many individual hammer blows in a process known as sinking. The depth of the sink is dependent on the instrument being created. The higher the tone, the deeper the sink. The hammering also causes the metal to both stretch and harden. SI N K I N G INDEX

18 The Cut Off – This is where the skirt length of the pan is determined. The higher the range of the individual Pans voices, the shorter the skirt must be. THE CUT OFFTHE CUT OFF SMOOTHINGSMOOTHING Smoothing - Another round of hammer work must be done in the smoothing process. This is similar to the process of reshaping a dented car fender and then smoothing the metal using hammers and backing tools. This process also further hardens the metal. INDEX

19 Etching – The unique shape of each note is then etched into the metal using a drift punch and a hammer. This also creates a dead zone between the notes. Firing – The pan is then heated red hot for a few minutes before being allowed to cool. This process anneals the metal and lets the stretched, bent and otherwise severely molested metal molecules realign themselves and relax. Etching Firing INDEX

20 Note Shaping – Each note space, inside the etching, is then shaped into a dome by further hammer work. Preliminary Tuning – This is where the builder finds out if this particular Pan will become a sweet sounding musical instrument or a very unique looking backyard barbeque or goat feeder! Through lots of tapping and often, more enthusiastic hammering, each note is brought into tune. Note Shaping Preliminary Tuning INDEX PART OF A STEEL DRUM AND NOTE

21 The parts of a steel pan The parts of a note

22 Clean Up – Now the beaten, burned, semi-tuned instrument must be made presentable. The surfaces are washed, buffed and polished until they are as smooth as possible. The Pan is then either primed and painted or sent out for the processes associated with chroming. Final Tune Up – This, you would think, is a quick process. Not exactly. Each time a note is stretched a little, the notes around and across from it change a little too. The tuner goes around and around and around to assure things are perfect. Clean Up Final Tune Up INDEX

23 Arch The term arch is used to denote the vertical shape of a note dent. Channel The area of the playing surface that is used to separate notes. Concave Curved downwards, when seen from the top of the pan. Convex Curved upwards, when seen from the top of the pan. Dent The word dent is in this book used to describe the acoustically active areas of the steel pan. The notes are always convex, seen from the top of the pan, and could also be described using the synonymous words; bulge, dome or swelling. I have chosen to use the more technical word "dent", even if the regular use of it mostly refers to unintended, concave shapes. Drum In this text, the word drum is used to denote the raw-material or the parts of a pan. This means that one pan can consist of several drums. Groove An engraved line or indentation that marks the separation of notes. Note A convex section tuned to a specific pitch. Radial A direction along the radius of the drum, i.e., from the center and outwards towards the rim or vice versa. Inner notes are usually oriented radically, i.e., with their length axis pointing towards the center of the drum. Skirt The wall of the steel drum, which acts as a resonator in the pan. Tangential A direction along the tangent of the rim, i.e., following a straight line perpendicular to the radius. Outer notes are usually oriented tangentially, i.e., with their length axis pointing along the rim. TECHNICAL TERMS INDEX

24 Reflections My reflection of the steel drum is that it is a very delicate drum that can play weak and strong melodies and notes. It comes in many sizes. There are large and small notes on all drums. I learned that you must learn every scale on any steel drum or instrument before you can start to play any song on any instrument. INDEX

25 Conclusion My conclusion about the steel drum is that it is a very wonderful instrument that can be very enjoyable to play or listen to, and it has a very unique history. INDEX

26 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCE A. About the Steel Drum The Steel Drum, or Pan, is a unique instrument, and one of the most recently invented.... Other links to pan information on the net can be found at:... B. The origin of steel drums... The origin of steel drums... The following information is reprinted with permission from: Tropical Hammer Steel Drum Crafters:... C. Steel Pans: A Brief History by Maxens Berre The year of 1938 is considered as the birth of the steel drum when Tam boo Bamboo bands were... A Short History of The Colonial Villancico of New Spain.... D. History of the Steel Drum In those years, the authorities still had a fear of primitive rhythms so if a youngster was a member of a steel drum band it was enough to label that person... E. Steel drum band live, Reggae, Caribbean wedding band, live Calypso... Steel Drums band in New Jersey, Pennsylvannia, Delaware, New York, Maryland, Philadelphia, Caribbean music, Caribbean wedding band, Trinidad wedding band, Calypso,... F. Steel Tropics Steel Drum Band Southern California's most exciting Steel Drum Band - Caribbean music, entertainment, concerts, parties, Caribbean band, Tropical Rhythms and upbeat... G. Urban Steel Band - John Marshall High School - Steel Drum Band A professional - High School Steel Drum Band in Rochester, NY. BEGINNING STEEL DRUM, Othello Molineaux 4 INDEX

27 CAREER: Simon developed an 8-note ping-pong (tenor pan) in 1943 and, by 1946, had increased its range to 14 notes. He is best remembered for his virtuoso performance on Carnival Tuesday (March 5) 1946 when he played four tunes on his pan to an elite audience that included the Governor, Sir Bede Clifford. His selections were "I Am A Warrior," Lord Kitchener's "Tie-Tongue Mopsy," Schubert's "Ave Maria," and the national anthem, "God Save The King." He lived in the John John area and was the first leader of Destination Tokyo in It is believed that he led Tropical Harmony and Fascinators at the same time. He was one of eleven panmen selected to join TASPO as the Trinidad & Tobago representatives at the 1951 Music Festival in England. After his tour of England with TASPO, Simon went to Africa to teach the art of playing and tuning pans. He was immortalized in 1975 by Lord Kitchener in the calypso "Tribute to Spree Simon," and a monument to his contribution to the steelband was installed in John John. AWARD: Trinidad & Tobago Public Service Medal of Merit Gold (for Contribution to the Development of the Steelband)

28 INDEX Over 50 years ago the steel drum instrument was regarded as little more than a nuisance; "the pots and pans" used by the poor youth of Trinidad. In 1946, Mr. Ellie Mannette crafted the first musical instrument from a 55-gallon steel barrel. That breakthrough revolutionized the art form and led to the creation of nine current instrument designs or "voices" in the steel band orchestra. Since moving to the United States over 25 years ago, Mr. Mannette has been the key influence in promoting the steel band in hundreds of university, public school and private settings from coast to coast. He has been unwavering in his commitment to the future growth of the art form through the training of quality craftsmen and tuners.

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