2 1. India before the mid-20th century included what are now the independent nations of India and a. Tibetb. Afghanistan and Burmac. Sri Lankad. Pakistan and BangladeshThe Indian empires of ancient and medieval times, and India as a British colony were made up of what are now the independent nations of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, though early empires often did not include southern India. Pakistan and Bangladesh separated from India because they are predominantly Muslim nations, while India is predominately Hindu.
3 2. The three major rivers of India originate a. on the Deccan Plateaub. in the Himalaya Mountainsc. on the Ganges Plaind. from underground aquifersMost major rivers have their origins in mountains. The three major rivers of India are fed by rainfall and by snow melt in the Himalaya Mountains to the north.
4 3. Which best characterizes the rainfall pattern in India? a. India is a semi-arid region because it receives little rainfall all year.b. India is a humid, tropical region because of heavy rainfall all year.c. India has heavy seasonal rainfall brought by monsoon winds.d. India receives many misty, light rains throughout the year.Monsoon winds from the southwest bring heavy rainfall to much of India from June through October. Winters are cool and dry while spring is hot and dry.
5 4. The Indian subcontinent is bordered on the north by the a. Himalaya and Karakoram mountainsb. Hindu Kush and Western Ghat mountainsc. Himalaya and Eastern Ghat mountainsd. Hindu Kush and Zagros mountainsThe Karakoram Mountains in northwest India link up with the Himalaya Mountains that extend across most of northern India. The Karakoram Mountains have some of the world's highest peaks, including K-2, the second highest mountain in the world. The Eastern and Western Ghats are along the coasts of southern India with a narrow coastal strip separating them, respectively, from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. The Hindu Kush is a major mountain range on the border between India and Afghanistan. The Zagros Mountains are farther west in what is now Iran.
6 5. The early cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were located a. along the Indus Riverb. on the coast of Indiac. along the Ganges Riverd. in the valleys of the Himalaya MountainsThe cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were built along the Indus River because annual floods provided rich soil and the river waters could be used for irrigation. Rivers were also convenient means of transportation. Coastal cities became important later when trade became the economic basis of cities; however, the economies of early civilizations were based on agriculture.
7 6. After they became established, the early Indian civilizations at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa carried on trade witha. Europeb. Japanc. the Arabian Peninsulad. MesopotamiaThe Indus Valley civilizations at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa carried on trade with the early civilization in the Middle East of Sumeria in Mesopotamia. The Mesopotamian culture preceded that of the Indus Valley in development. Europe, Japan, and the Arabian Peninsula at that time had more primitive cultures.
8 7. Which of the following is the HIGHEST caste in the Hindu caste system? a. Brahmansb. warriors and noblesc. merchantsd. LandownersBrahmans as priests of the Hindu religion are the highest caste of the four basic castes. Warriors and nobles are second in importance, merchants and landowners are in third caste, and the lowest caste is the servant caste of peasants and laborers.
9 8. Whose preference is MOST important, for Hindus, in the choice of a marriage partner? a. brideb. groomc. parents of the bride and groomd. Hindu priestMarriage partners among Hindus are chosen by the parents of the bride and groom who arrange the marriage, often in childhood and often without the involvement of the bride and groom who may have had little acquaintance with each other before the wedding. Marriages usually take place between members of the same caste. The value of the dowry the bride brings to the marriage is often a factor in the negotiations between the families.
10 9. Which best describes the Vedas? a. They are books written by the priests of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.b. They are the teachings of the person who began the Hindu religion.c. They are a uniform code of laws set down by the Aryan king.d. They are books written by Brahmans to preserve Aryan traditions.The Vedas are books written by Aryan priests (Brahmans) to preserve the traditions of the Aryan tribes. Initially the Brahmans memorized and recited the rules, legends, and prayers of the Aryans; however, between 1200 B.C. and 600 B.C. they began writing them down in "books of knowledge."
11 10. Which best describes the origin of the religion of Buddhism? a. It was brought by the Aryans from Central Asia.b. It was based on traditional Dravidian beliefs.c. It was developed by Siddhartha Gautama as a reform of Hinduism.d. It was the religion of the early civilizations of the Indus Valley.Siddhartha Gautama developed his religious ideas after a period of fasting and meditation because he sought an explanation for the abundance of unhappiness and misery in Hindu society. His teachings, which gave rise to Buddhism, retained some Hindu beliefs while rejecting others.