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The Country, The History & The Culture PALESTINE.

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Presentation on theme: "The Country, The History & The Culture PALESTINE."— Presentation transcript:

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3 The Country, The History & The Culture PALESTINE

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5 Palestine Greek: Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē ; Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina; Arabic: فلسطين Filasīn, Falasīn, Filisīn) is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region that was earlier called Judea, which spreads between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. It is derived from a name used already much earlier for a narrower geographical region mainly along the coast.,

6 FLAG

7 RED: The Khawarij were the first Islamic group to emerge after the assassination of Caliph Uthman III, forming the first republican party in the early days of Islam. Their symbol was the red flag. Arab tribes who participated in the conquest of North Africa and Andalusia carried the red flag, which became the symbol of the Islamic rulers of Andalusia ( ). In modern times, red symbolizes the Ashrafs of the Hijaz and the Hashemites, descendants of the Prophet. Sharif Hussein designed the current flag as the flag of the Arab Revolt on June The Palestinian people raised it as the flag of the Arab National movement in In 1947, the Arab Ba'ath Party interpreted the flag as a symbol of the liberation and unity of the Arab nation. The Palestinian people readopted the flag at the Palestinian conference in Gaza in The flag was recognized by the Arab League as the flag of the Palestinian people. It was further endorsed by the PLO, the representative of the Palestinians, at the Palestinian conference in Jerusalem in 1964.

8 FLAG BLACK: The Prophet Mohammad ( ) In the seventh century, with the rise of Islam and subsequent liberation of Mecca, two flags - one white, one black - were carried. On the white flag was written, "There is no god but God (Allah) and Mohammad is the Prophet of God." In pre-Islamic times, the black flag was a sign of revenge. It was the color of the headdress worn when leading troops into battle. Both black and white flags were placed in the mosque during Friday prayers. The Abbasid Dynasty ( ), ruling from Baghdad, took black as a symbol of mourning for the assassination of relatives of the Prophet and in remembrance of the Battle of Karbala.

9 FLAG WHITE: The Umayyad Dynasty ( ), Damascus The Umayyads ruled for ninety years, taking white as their symbolic color as a reminder of the Prophet's first battle at Badr, and to distinguish themselves from the Abbasids, by using white, rather than black, as their color of mourning. Mu'awia Ibn Abi Sufian ( ), founder of the Umayyad state, proclaimed himself Caliph of Jerusalem. GREEN: The Fatimid Dynasty ( ), North Africa The Fatimid Dynasty was founded in Morocco by Abdullah Al-Mahdi, and went on rule all of North Africa. They took green as their color, to symbolize their allegiance to Ali, the Prophet's cousin, who was once wrapped in a green coverlet in place of the Prophet in order to thwart an assassination attempt.

10 CURRENCY Palestine Currency is that of pound which was previously the currency of the British Mandate of Palestine between the years of 1927 till The Palestine Currency of pound was used by the Emirate of Transjordan until the year of 1949 and by the West Bank until the year The Palestinian Pound is divided into one thousand mills. The currency of Palestine is issued by the Palestine currency Board.

11 CURRENCY The Palestine Currency has its coins available in the denominations of 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1 mills. The notes belonging to the Palestinian Currency are available in the denominations of 500, 100, 50, 10, 5 and 1 pounds. The notes of the Currency of Pound are printed from the Thomas De La Rue.

12 COSTUMES A collection of Palestinian Traditional Costumes. These items are representative of the different geographic regions in Palestine such as Bethlehem, Ramallah, Hebron, Bir al Sabe' etc

13 COSTUMES

14 Traditional Wedding Ceremony

15 STAMPS This was the original postage stamp issued by the British Mandatory Government that occupied the Land Of Palestine until 1948.

16 STAMPS The stamp shown has been very recently issued by the Palestinian Authority for their postal service in the areas Judea, Samaria and Gaza. It contains a reproduction of stamp that was once in use during the British Mandate of Palestine in the early to mid- 20th Century. The PLO has done the same with two other British Mandate stamps, the Dome Of The Rock on the Temple mount, and David's Tower featured below.

17 MONUMENTS Hishams Palace

18 Qasr Hisham (Hisham's Palace) is just five kilometres north of Jericho. The palace was a country residence, built in AD 743 by Al-Walid Ibn Yazid, although it owes its name to his uncle, the Umayyad caliph Hisham Ibn Abd Al-Malik, who ruled an empire stretching from India to the Pyrenees. Hisham, like most early Umayyad rulers, preferred the freedom of the desert to life in the capital city Damascus. The palace is a complex of residential quarters, baths, mosques, and colonnaded courts. Its mosaics and stucco ornaments are fine examples of early Islamic architecture. Experts believe that an earthquake destroyed the palace before it was completed. Thus the accumulated sand and debris helped to preserve the palace's lovely mosaics. The mosaic floors of the baths are a major attraction, but the Tree of Life or the Tree of Human Cruelty is one of the most beautiful mosaics in the Near East. Its vibrant green and gold colours are just astounding, as is its subject. Many of the carved stuccos from the palace are displayed at the Rockefeller Archaeological Museum in Jerusalem.

19 Hishams Palace

20 MONUMENTS El Omary Mosque in Gaza It was built during the first Islamic era, the Omary conquest

21 MONUMENTS El Aqsa Mosque

22 The Blessed El Aqsaa mosque is built south of the glorified Dome Rock and has an area of about 4400 square meters. It was built by the caliph Abdel Malek Ben Marouane in 693 A.D. It was completed by Al Walid Ben Abdel Malek in 705 A.D. on the site of the mosque of Omar Ben Al Khattab PUH, which was in the eastern part. The mosque is 70 meters long and 55 meters wide. It stands on 53 marble columns and 49 square-shaped pillars. When the crusaders occupied Al Quds they built a church on part of its grounds. They made of the other part lodging quarters for their horsemen and a storage for their provisions. But Salah Din repaired the mosque, renovated the mihrab and covered the dome with mosaic tiles. He also brought the minbar, which is made of wood and inlayed with ivory and ebony from Aleppo. He put it in the mosque as a symbol of victory.

23 MONUMENTS El Aqsa Mosque

24 Al Aqsaa mosque highlights the beauty of islamic decoration which is represented by the inside wooden dome, which is covered by beautifully gold- coloured three-dimensional and proportional herbal designs. The windows are surrounded by a design of inclined lines drawn on plaster. The glass is tinted in different colours, which prevents the direct entry of sun rays. This gives the mosque elegance and beauty, and inspires reverence and spirituality. The restoration of the mosque started immediately after it was burnt by the Israelis on 21/8/1969, and the traces of the fire were removed. Now, the inside dome is being restored, as well as the Quranic writings, and the Israa Surat which is spelled out in colored mosaics. It begins from the top of the mihrab and extends in the eastern direction for 24 meters. All the necessary decorative plans have been prepared to make a new minbar in replacement of the burnt minbar.

25 The Rock Dome MONUMENTS

26 The Rock Dome The caliph Abdel Malek Ben Marwan built the Honoured Rock Dome between A.D., as a result of the stability witnessed by the Umayyad dynasty at that time and in order to gather all Muslims around it. The building was planned in such a way to be the focus of attention for all. In fact it is considered a masterpiece of islamic architecture throughout history. The diameter of the dome is 20.3 meters inside and its height is meters. The elegance and beauty of the Blessed Rock dome has bewildered all the scientists and researchers who have tried to study it, and who see in it a combination of architectural beauty and arabic art, with the influence of byzantine style. It is doubtless that Arab, Roman and Byzantine artisans have all participated in its construction, under the supervision of Rajae Ben Hayat Al Kindi, one of the Arab scientists and Yazid Ben Sallam from Al Qods. In the construction of this dome a few philosophical considerations were made. Such considerations reside in the establishment of the general geographical situation of the city of Al Qods, and the particular geographical location in the yard of Al Haram Ash Sharif (Al Aqsaa mosque). It also resides in the direct location of the construction above the blessed dome, as were taken into consideration the artistic and technical requirements in the choice of the octagonal shape, and the central twin dome.

27 The Rock Dome This used to be a current architectural style in Syria, especially the gates in the four directions, and the islamic writings which made one contemplate divine power and islamic wisdom, and the decorations of architectural and constructional mosaic designs (arabesques) which inspire ideal spiritual purity. This has left a big influence in the method of islamic arts as it is considered among the oldest decorative styles by the use of geometrical proportions in architectural planning and decoration. Such is the case in the internal ceiling. When one moves into the building of the blessed Rock dome from the outside hot air in the summer, one quickly feels the invigorating inside air, and the soft light which soothes ones psyche and nerves, and which comes from outside light in an indirect manner, and then one notices the ambient architectural neatness. When one climbs over the outside roof, one sees Al Haram Ash Sharif below it as a magnificient structure within which the honoured Rock occupies the focal point.

28 The Rock Dome Undoubtedly, this building constitutes the epitome of beauty, coordination, harmony and architectural proportionality and neatness. This is what every visiting Arab or foreign historian, archaeologist or architect witnesses and expresses. In this context, Dr. Hartman stated that the Rock Dome is a model of coordination and harmony. Professor Hyter Lewis stated that the Rock Dome is the most beautiful building on earth, and that it is even the most beautiful monument celebrated by history. In conclusion, the construction of the Rock dome constitutes the real image of the Arab Muslim personality in all its philosophical and artistic extents. When one speaks of the islamic architecture, this is the best example to illustrate it as it is full of artistic and architectural creativity.

29 ARTS El Dabka Dance

30 ARTS Handcrafts The Bedouins are a nomadic people who, historically, have lived across the Middle East and North Africa, inhabiting arid areas and moving their base with turning of the seasons. Traditionally womens work, the Bedouin weaving was developed in their unique culture, creating household items suited for the life in the desert. Sheep wool from ones own herd is spun into thread, colored with natural dye and woven into a fabric using a ground loom. The particularly tight and strong fabric is used for tents, rugs, pillows, and other domestic items

31 Palestinian ceramics are produced at traditional family owned factories in Hebron and some other cities. They include a wide range of colorful hand painted plates, vases, hanging ornaments, tiles, cups, jars and framed mirrors. They are known for the intricate detail of their flower and arabesque patterns. In most ceramic factories, you can have your name painted on articles while you wait. The city of Hebron is also known worldwide for its famous glass blowers and designers. Glass factories, where hand-blown glass products are made, have been a feature of the city since the Middle Ages. Here one may observe, from beginning to end, the fascinating process of glass-blowing. This traditional craft has been adapted for factory production methods. The royal blue glass of Hebron is perhaps the most recognizable in the Middle East, but glass blowers also create items in many other beautiful colors.

32 ARTS Graffiti

33 ARTS Graffiti

34 ARTS Graffiti

35 ARTS Graffiti

36 FOOD Fatoush A popular Palestinian salad prepared a lot during the fasting month, Ramadan. It is a very fresh spring salad that combines many nutritious ingredients. Chicken Fattah Chicken Fattah…The word Fatteh generally refers to any meal that contains pieces of fried or roasted bread. Some examples are Hummus Fatteh, Eggplant Fatteh, and chicken Fatteh.

37 Why do Arabs care about Palestinians?

38 Allah said in the Holy Quran ) سبحان الذى أسرى بعبده ليلا من المسجد الحرام إلى المسجد الأقصى الذى باركنا حوله لنريه من آياتنا إنه هو السميع البصير ) ( Glory be to God The One, Who did take His Servant ( Muhammad )on a night Journey from the Sacred Mosque to Al Aqsa Mosque, the precinct of which We have Blessed that We might show him some of Our signs. Indeed! God is The All Hearing the All seeing)

39 Our religion obligates us to respect and protect the freedom of all religious practices ( آمن الرسول بما أنزل إليه من ربه والمؤمنون كل آمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله لا نفرق بين أحد من رسله وقالوا سمعنا وأطعنا غفرانك ربنا وإليك المصير ) البقرة 285 ( The Messenger (Muhammed) believes in what has been sent down on him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. (They say), We make no distinction between any of His Messengers-and they say, We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness our Lord, and to You is the return (of all)." (Al-Baqarah285)

40 Allah ordered His messenger in the Holy Quran to Believe in all what Allah revealed By saying: ( قل آمنا بالله وما أنزل علينا وما أنزل على إبراهيم وإسماعيل و إسحق ويعقوب والأسباط وما أوتى موسى وعيسى و النبيون من ربهم لا نفرق بين أحد منهم ونحن له مسلمون ) ( Say,(oh you Muhammad) " We believe in GOD and in what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Abraham, Ismail, Jacob, and the tribes. And in what was given to Moses and Jesus and the prophets from their LORD, we make no distinction between any of them and to Him we submit ( Muslims)")

41 In El Ahram Newspaper December 2004 an article by Osama Seraya: Father Shenouda ( Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of All Africa) insisted on maintaining his decision on forbidding Coptic's from performing pilgrimage to Jerusalem and normalization with the Israelis, as it would be a decision against his conscious.

42 This land witnessed different messengers, Abraham,Jacob Jesus, Muhammad, with the same message to worship God Al Mighty

43 Pink Floyd to Israel: Tear down the wall Bethlehem 2/6/2009 Ma an A British rock legend and co-founder of Pink Floyd said on Tuesday he would give a concert instantly if Israel s illegal West Bank wall is torn down. Roger Waters made this pledge during a visit to Ayda Refugee Camp in the West Bank city of Bethlehem. The wall snakes around the camp, hemming it in with concrete.

44 Albert Einstein, was also a Jew of acute moral sensitivities. As such he too ultimately distanced himself from both Zionism and the Israeli state it created. In 1938 he observed, I would much rather see reasonable agreement with the Arabs on the basis of living together in peace than the creation of a Jewish state. My awareness of the essential nature of Judaism resists the idea of a Jewish state with borders, an army, and a measure of temporal power, no matter how modest. I am afraid of the inner damage Judaism will sustain–especially from the development of a narrow nationalism within our ranks....

45 What we wish for? For years the world has been carrying the burden of the Holocaust It's time to take responsibility for the Holocaust happening in Palestine

46 What could you do? Analysis and sympathy have no value if they do not result in any action. There are enough action ideas below that every single person on this list has the power to do at least one, ideally many more.

47 1. Monitor and contact local media to inform others and counter misinformation. Write letters to the editor (usually words) or op-eds (usually words) for local newspapers. Also contact radio talk shows and television news departments, especially in response to biased coverage. You can find all local media at: The US Campaign to End the Occupation compiled a fact sheet about US direct contributions to the war on Gaza, which you can use for facts:

48 2. Organize and join demonstrations in front of Israeli embassies or (if that's not doable) in front of the offices of elected officials or other visible place. Inform the media beforehand. Here is a list of the many demonstrations happening around the country (For example, St Louis, where I live, usually has one a month, but this month there are demonstrations every day): =1773

49 3. Join local activist groups organizing local actions. If there aren't any, start your own. Now is an excellent time to rally support. 4. Initiate boycotts, divestments and sanctions to nonviolently pressure Israeli compliance with international law, as was effective in the struggle against Apartheid in South Africa. Now is an excellent time to rally support and begin a campaign. More info and resources at

50 5. Send direct aid to Gaza through one of the following organizations: - United Nations Relief and Works Agency: - United Palestinian Appeal:www.helpupa.com - Islamic Relief: - Canadian Red Cross: - American Near East Refugee Aid: - Physicians for Human Rights: - Other groups: You can also support solidarity activists on the ground at

51 6. Contact elected and other political leaders in your country to urge them to apply pressure to end the attacks. Find your representatives and their contact info at 7. Sign petitions for Gaza, for example: n=1 https://secure2.convio.net/pep/site/Advocacy?s_oo=d13BldH27y pl2jxg-1cOFA..&id=233

52 8. Put a Palestinian flag at your window. Wear a Palestinian head scarf (keffiya). Wear black arm bands (this helps start conversations with people). 9. Do a group fast for peace one day and hold it in a public place. 10. Inform others in your community with flyers, vigils, and conversations. At the very least, forward this on.


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