2Objectives:Identify and describe the contributions to art made by various Native American culturesDiscuss the influence of geography and beliefs on the artworks created by those Native American CulturesRecognize symbols used in Native American ArtDescribe the cultural and artistic achievements of the Southwest regionStandards: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 6.3, 6.6, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3
3Southwest Region of America Extends from the northern area of Mexico to the southern foothills of the Rocky MountainsMost often associated with the Pueblo people
4The Pueblo Pueblo means village Used to identify groups of people living in large, highly organized settlementsAncient Pueblo dwellings were built with walls made of adobe-sundried clay
5Rise of Pueblo Civilization Pottery is one of the oldest art forms in the Native American culture.It developed out of necessity for the use of cooking, storage and water vessels.When the great civilizations such as Mesa Verde, Chaco Canyon and Canyon de Chelly were thriving, pottery techniques excelled.The Native American was no longer nomadic and being settled in one area for years or a life time gave them the opportunity to perfect this skill.The pueblo potters of today use the same styles, skills and technique as their ancestors.
6Pueblo Pottery Very skillful in creating painted pottery Each community developed its own distinctive shapes and painted designs.Many symbols were used to create hidden messages
7Pottery todayTraditional Southwest Native American Pueblo Pottery is entirely handmade... that includes sifting the clay, making the natural dyes, making the yucca brushes, and making the slip to finish the potteryMaria Martinez Barbary Gonzalez-great granddaughter of Maria
8Pueblo Techniques today Pueblo Indian Potters use clay they gather themselves, usually from sacred tribal land. They sift and clean the clay as they've done for centuries.Entirely made by hand in the traditional (hand-coiled) way.The ancient process of making coiled pottery begins with the artist gathering clay, plants, minerals, and shards of broken pottery from the reservation. Paints, dyes and brushes are made from local plants.In most pueblo pottery, old pottery shards, ground down and mixed with the clay are added to the clayThe shards act as a grog and help prevent the new pot from shrinking or cracking during the drying process.Also, old pottery shards provide an important spiritual connection to the past.The clay is rolled and coiled to form the new pot.After the pot is shaped, a slip is applied.The pot is then burnished and fired.Some potters fire in kilns others use traditional, outside adobe ovens or open fires.
9Navajo Weavings Women were weavers Learned from the male Pueblo weaversMade cloth from looms from beginning of 1800’sNew designs and patterns adapted from Spanish and Mexican settlers
10Weaving Characteristics Closeness of the weaveRich, vibrant colorsBold designs
11BasketryBaskets were woven using natural fibers from plants that were readily available. This differs from region to region.In the Southwest Region, baskets were usually made from Three Leaf Sumac, but sometimes yucca or willow.Boiled down Pinion pitch was applied inside to seal them from leaksBaskets were used as water jugs, trays and low bowls.
13The NAVAJO WEDDING BASKET is viewed as a map through which the Navajo chart their lives. The central spot in the basket represents the sipapu, where the Navajo people emerged from the prior world through a reed. The inner coils of the basket are white to represent birth. As you travel outward on the coils you begin to encounter more and more black. The black represents darkness, struggle and pain. As you make your way through the darkness you eventually reach the red bands, which represent marriage; the mixing of your blood with your spouse and creation of family.During this time there is no darkness. Traveling out of familial bands you encounter more darkness, however, the darkness is interspersed with white light. The light represents increasing enlightenment, which expands until you enter the all white banding of the outer rim. This banding represents the spirit world, where there is no darkness.The line from the center of the basket to the outer rim is there to remind you that no matter how much darkness you encounter in your world, there is always a pathway to the light.This pathway during ceremonies is always pointed east. The last coil on the basket rim is finished off at this pathway to allow the medicine man to easily locate it in darkness.Additionally the Navajo Ceremonial Basket serves another purpose. In none of the ancient Navajo rites is a regular drum or tom-tom employed. The inverted basket serves the purpose.
15Navajo PotteryTraditional Navajo pottery was originally a primitive form of work than pueblo wares, fairly thick in appearance, with little or no design and covered with a pine pitch making it utilitarian.This enabled the piece to hold water or to use in cooking.Navajo pottery designs have changed dramatically over the last few decades.Unlike the pueblo pottery, many pieces are thrown on a wheel or start out as greenware rather than using the standard pueblo coil method.However, many Navajo artists are choosing to return to their earlier ways and are hand coiling their pieces.All carved and etched pottery pieces are hand carved and hand painted. The paint "slips" are natural pigments from the earth.The designs used represent rain clouds, whirlwinds, water, mountains, lightning, etc.Turquoise stones added to the wares have also become popular, and represent a symbol of wealth and prosperity.
16Symbols1. The bag of rain which the Humpback Yeibitchai carries on his back 2. Falling rain 3. Rain far-off 4. Mountain 5. Turkey track 6. Star 7. A spring or something hidden; as food 8. Whirling logs (swastika) 9. Mouth of the Talking God, "Yeibitchai" 9 A, 9 B, 9 C, 9 D, are variations of the design often used in borders 10. A diamond composed of two triangles signifying rain 11. Cloud-ladder which may be single, or double as in 12, on which the Slayer and his brother rode to Heaven 13. Ceremonial basket design: the patient in a ceremony sits with his head over a ceremonial basket to have his hair washed.