Presentation on theme: "France, Dutch Revolt and Germany"— Presentation transcript:
1France, Dutch Revolt and Germany Religious WarsFrance, Dutch Revolt and Germany
2Who’s Who in 16th c France: 2Who’s Who in 16th c France:Catherine de MediciValois Familypolitique?rules as regentsons:Francis II rCharles IX rHenry III rJanuary Edict of 1562Henry of NavarreBourbon FamilyHuguenot NobleGuise Family = Catholicbacked up byJesuitsthe papacyPhilip II of Spain
3French Religious Wars 1562 - 1598 3French Religious WarsThe massacre of worshiping Protestants at Vassy, France 1562
4St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572 Huguenots in town to celebrate wedding of Henry of Navarre to Marguerite of Valois3000 Huguenots butchered in Parisinternationalizes plight of the HuguenotsPhilip II no longer worried about French involvement in Dutch wars
5politiquesModerate Huguenots and Catholics tired of anarchy and wars wanted conciliation with each other. Wanted politics to be more important than religious differences. Believed in religious toleration and peace to France.
6Calvinists turn militant removal of a heathen tyrant was not only permissible, but a Christian dutythe beginnings of Huguenot theories of resistanceJohn Knox1558
7Henry of Navarre (Bourbon): Catholic or Protestant? Protestant when he weds Marguerite of ValoisCatholic to escape St. Bartholomew’s MassacreRenounces conversion and back to ProtestantBecomes King of France and converts back to Catholicism “Paris is Worth a Mass.”Politique?
8Politiques open door to. . . Jean Bodin:intellectual = writes and promotes idea ofa sovereign statein every society one power must be strong enough to give law to all others, with or without their consentsounds like the beginning of. . .absolutism8
9Civil Wars: Wars of the Three Henries Henry III, King of FranceValois Dynasty - CatholicassassinatedHenry of Guise formed the Catholic LeagueGuess who’s the next king?assassinatedHenry of Navarre - Bourbon - Protestant
10Henry of Navarre - Henry IV King of France “Paris is worth a Mass” - politiqueEdict of Nantes 1598:religious and civil freedoms granted to Huguenots but worship prohibited in Catholic townsallowed to have protective towns but Catholicism declared the official religion of Francecreates a state within a stateBegins setting up stage for absolutism
11Henry IV points the monarchy towards Absolutism (r. 1589-1610) Laid the foundations for changing France to an absolutist state along with duke of Sully (a Protestant) becomes the 2nd most important man in FranceCut back the privileges of the French nobility by attacking:provincial governorsparlements, especially the Parlement of Parisdoes not call Estates Generalwants to live long enough to see a “chicken in every pot” for every FrenchmanAllows Jesuits to return to FrancePro-Protestant foreign policy: supports Dutch revolt against Spain and Protestant side of 30 Years’ War against Habsburg rule“nobles of the robe” - men who occupied high positions in the king’s bureaucracy now challenged the exclusivity of the “nobles of the sword”
12Henry IV and his finance minister - duke of Sully Sully a Protestantintroduces the paulette - annual payment to throne assures office will pass to their heirsrepair roads and bridges and build canals to promote internal trademercantilist policy leads to introduction of new manufactures - silk and tapestriesFrench society divided into ranks and privileges:First estate - clergySecond estate - nobilityThird estate - everyone elsenew group: nobles of the robe - rising in social ranking, they were peers and dukes who now held administrative and judicial positions
13Love-life + = Marguerite out - Marie de Medici in Henry IV + Marie de Medici = Louis XIII+=Cardinal Richelieu rules withboy kingBourbon dynasty rules France until French Revolution
14Cardinal Richelieua politique - supports Dutch and English protestant armies against Catholic Habsburg in Thirty Years’ WarDivided France in generalities (districts) and appoints intendants to govern each.
16Dutch Revolt 1566-Philip II of Spain controls the Low Countries. Netherlands, Burgundy
17Philip tightens control of the Netherlands league formed by Dutch to protest Spanish rulePhilip then increases taxes to fund the cost of the Spanish empireinsists that decrees of the Council of Trent be enforced throughout the Netherlands - wants to get rid of heresy by imposing the InquisitionResponse:iconoclast revolt - smashing of Catholic statues
18Philip’s attempt at control The Duke of Alba and hisCouncil of Troubles or the Council of Bloodvs.William of OrangeStadholder, governor of northern provinces, includes Hollandaided by “Sea Beggars” - pirate ships
19Pacification of Ghent 1576southern provinces (Belgium) join northern provinces against SpainWhy? Spanish Fury event of Antwerpunion is only temporary - southern provinces fear iconoclast Calvinists
20Peter Brueghel’s The Massacre of the Innocent 1565 Peter Paul Ruben’sMassacre of the InnocentsBased on Biblical story of King Herod’s order of infanticide, massacre at JudeaAn indirect criticism of Spanish atrocities against the Dutch in the NetherlandsBaroque20
22The Netherlands Divide Union of Arras southern provinces and make peace with SpainUnion of Utrecht Netherlands declares independence - United Provinces of the Netherlands, Dutch RepublicWilliam of Orange “The Apology” denounces Philip II as a heathen tyrantElizabeth I helping with her “sea dogs”Spanish Armada defeated in 1588Independence recognized in T/Westphalia 1648
23Thirty Years’ War Germany What starts the tension?Ruler of the Palatinate,Frederick V converts to Calvinism 1560Religious balance created byPeace of Augsburg is threatenedFerdinand II’s breaks his promise to Bohemian noblesnobles throw Ferdinand’s regentsout of windownobles elect Frederick V of Palatineas their new king23
25Four Stages: Bohemian stage - Danish stage - Denmark King Christian IV - LutheranSwedish stage - Gustavus Adolphus and Cardinal Richelieu vs. Ferdinand IIIFranco-Swedish stage - French openly enter the war