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World Cultures Unit 4: Families.

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Presentation on theme: "World Cultures Unit 4: Families."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Cultures Unit 4: Families

2 I. Mate Selection A. Free Marriage 1. Choose a mate independently based on personality or traits that you like

3 B. Arranged Marriage 1. Family members decided who you will marry 2. Often established in early childhood a. Early identification as a couple helps in the maintenance of the relationship 3. Reasons for arrangement a. Economics: keeping family wealth or expansion of wealth b. Political: keeping or expanding political power c. Race/ethnicity d. Social class: Caste system

4 Voices of Modern Culture
SB V U2 L8 Marriage Is an Arrangement Agenda Voices of Modern Culture Essential Question: What are some elements of family conflicts about arranged marriages? Review: Bend It Like Beckham Quickwrite: Arranged Marriage Exploring Knowledge: Arranged Marriage Reflection: Bend It Like Beckham Purpose: • To examine cultural norms about marriage practices • To compare and contrast personal, social, and cultural perspectives • To analyze positive and negative aspects of a cultural tradition

5 Review: Bend It Like Beckham
Review your notes from the Bend It Like Beckham, particularly notes about wedding customs and marriage. What’s the difference between a “love match” and an arranged marriage? 1 Prompt students to review their notes from the film viewing in the previous activity, particularly notes about wedding customs and marriage. 2 On the student page, ask students to identify the difference between a “love match” and an arranged marriage as seen in the film. Have students complete the quickwrite about whether they would accept an arranged marriage. Why or why not?

6 Quickwrite: Arranged Marriage
By yourself, complete the quickwrite on page 82. Would you accept an arranged marriage? Why or why not? Before they read the newspaper article “Matrimony with a Proper Stranger,” students should keep a list of pros and cons about arranged marriages. After students read, they should fill in the pros and cons discussed in the article.

7 Exploring Knowledge: Arranged Marriage
Before reading the article, what do you think might be the benefits (pros) and drawbacks (cons) of an arranged marriage? Pros Cons Before they read the newspaper article “Matrimony with a Proper Stranger,” students should keep a list of pros and cons about arranged marriages. After students read, they should fill in the pros and cons discussed in the article.

8 Exploring Knowledge: Arranged Marriage
As you read the article, keep track of the pros and cons as they are presented in the article. Pros Cons

9 Reflection: Bend It Like Beckham
By yourself, complete the reflection on page 83. What pressures do you think Jess in Bend It Like Beckham may feel about marriage from her family and culture? How do you expect that she will feel?

10 4. Examples: a. Japan i. A middle man puts together a list of potential mates = chose from a menu b. Egypt i. Secret observations: men go to places women gather and pick one they like to ask their parents about

11 C. Theories 1. Endogamy a. Identifies the specific groups that a mate must be chosen from (most like your own) b. Prohibits marriage outside of your own race, ethnicity, religion, social group c. Intended to reinforce the cohesiveness of a group

12 d. Examples: i. Amish: must marry other Amish ii. Yaruros of Venezuela: must marry a cousin chosen by the uncle of the male

13 2. Exogamy a. Requires mate selection from outside of certain groups b. Widen genetic mixing c. Incest Taboo: no marriage or sexual relations with specified relatives i. Forbidden in 95% of all cultures Homosexuality: no marriage or sexual relations with the same gender i. Forbidden in 92% of all cultures

14 3. Love a. Not viewed as needed in some relationships i. Some areas religion & economic needs are more important ii. US & Western Europe place a high degree of importance on Love a. Bonded/friend to create a new life with away from parents

15 II. Marriage vs. Mating A. Marriage 1. Union of 2 or more individuals for sexual & economic aspects that is supported by religious institutions & society a. Exclusive bond

16 B. Mating 1. Sexual relations for various reasons 2. Non-exclusive 3. Controlled by laws & social rules a. Age, race, gender, blood or marriage relation to person

17 Mate Selection Ritual Fulani: males paint their faces, dress in bright colors, and dance to attract a wife or wives. Video Clip on Mating Start at 12:30, end at 23

18 1. Marriage between two individuals
III. Marriage Types A. Monogamy 1. Marriage between two individuals 2. Most common form of marriage 3. Serial Monogamy a. A person marries, divorces, marries, divorces, etc….. one person at a time b. Reasons: economics, love, companionship, abuse Traditional Jewish Wedding Video Clip

19 B. Polygamy 1. Having multiple spouses 2. Most common in areas that are: a. Torn by war b. Governed by Islam or Mormons c. Agricultural areas, where more kids are an advantage d. More of one gender than the other

20 i. One man marries multiple women (most common form)
3. Types of Polygamy a. Polygyny i. One man marries multiple women (most common form) ii. Men can only have as many wives as he can provide for iii. Examples: Muslim Nations Fundamentalist Mormons Africa

21 Spotlight on a Young Polygamist Family Video
The Story Continued Polygamist Family Video Inside Polygamy: Fundamentalists: 50 minutes

22 i. One woman marries multiple men (only practiced in .5% of
b. Polyandry i. One woman marries multiple men (only practiced in .5% of cultures in the world) ii. Most common form is where a woman marries all of the brothers in a family iii. Practiced where family land is inherited through men, do not want to cut it down iv. Examples: Indonesia Nepal

23 Brothers Share One Wife Part 1
Multiple Husbands: Nat Geo

24 i. Many men and many women all married to each other
c. Group Marriage i. Many men and many women all married to each other ii. Examples: Communal Marriage: Indonesia Polyamorous Family Video Clip

25 d. Special Case: Non-sexual same-sex marriage
i. Nandi in Kenya Male dominate society & inheritance goes through male line i. Wife is infertile = no male heir Wife marries a younger woman & becomes the new wife’s “Husband” iii. Male can then try for new children with the new wife iv. Child is their shared offspring

26 Other Marriage Concerns/Forms
Too Young to Marry Video Incarceration Generation Video

27 IV. Marriage Customs A. Bride Price 1. Money transferred from groom or his family to Bride’s family a. Compensation for loss of a daughter from the family B. Bride Service 1. Grooms works for a set period of time for the Bride’s family a. Compensate for loss of a daughter, prove worthiness as a husband

28 C. Dowry 1. Money given by the Bride’s family to the Bride and/or Groom a. Financial support for the new family 2. Usually belongs to the wife: goes with her if divorced D. Gift Exchange 1. Families exchange gifts a. Promotes an inner-family bond

29 E. Daughter Exchange 1. Female relative of the Groom marries a male relative of the Wife a. Maintains family size b. Creates additional bonds between the two families

30 V. Divorce: ending a marriage
A. Steps/areas of impact in a divorce 1. Emotional detachment 2. Legal process & grounds for it 3. Economic effects 4. Co-parental rights 5. Community divorce a. Changes in friends & institutional ties 6. Psychological a. Gaining autonomy, self-esteem issues, creating a new identity

31 B. Factors for higher divorce probabilities
1. Marriage at a young age: (15-19) 2. Short acquaintance/courtship before (less than 1 year) 3. Short or no engagement period (less than 6 months) 4. Acceptance by family members (parents especially) 5. No/few common interests 6. Belonging to different faiths/religions 7. Failure to attend religious services

32 US Divorce Rates 1920: 13.4 out of 100 1930: 17 out of 100
8. Disagreement on authority or child rearing 9. Urban backgrounds 10. Economic hardships or disagreements US Divorce Rates 1920: out of 100 1930: 17 out of 100 1940: out of 100 1950: out of 100 1960: out of 100 1970: out of 100 1980: out of 100 1990: out of 100 2000: 40 out of 100 2010: 36 out of 100

33 Voices of Modern Culture
SB V U2 L2 Family and Tradition Agenda Voices of Modern Culture Essential Question: What are some ways family that family can be defined? Quickwrite: Family and Culture Culture and Family: Defining Family Purpose: • To examine family as an aspect of cultural identity • To identify traditions that are a part of family life • To interpret text through cultural connections

34 Quickwrite: Family and Culture
By yourself, quickwrite about an experience that you have had with family (your own or another) that connects to the idea of culture. In Unit 1, students began to explore voice and its connection to role and persona. This unit follows up by connecting family and tradition to culture and its influence on perception. The quickwrite asks students to focus on the connection between family and cultural traditions. They may write about their own families or any other family they know personally or through reading books or watching television or films. Be sensitive to the fact that some students may not live in a traditional family setting. The quickwrite should include details of specific experiences.

35 Culture and Family: Defining Family
How do family and culture connect? record your ideas in the following Venn diagram: Lead students in a discussion that extends the definition of family to include groupings of people related not by blood but by common interests or needs. Think of communities, religious organizations, and so on. On the board or overhead projector, list examples of these groups. Discuss the characteristics of the groups. Then, have students answer the following questions using the Venn diagram graphic organizer: • How are these groupings similar to or different from the traditional family unit? • How does culture connect with this broader idea of family? Both Culture Family

36 Culture and Family: Defining Family
Our Working Definition of Family: Finally, ask students to write a new definition of family that is broad enough to include the groupings discussed above yet narrow enough to include the specific functions, purposes, and roles of a family.

37 VI. Family A. Social institution that is present in every culture in various forms B. Functions of the Family 1. Reproduction 2. Protection 3. Socialization 4. Regulation of sexual behaviors & relations 5. Affection & companionship 6. Social status 7. Care for elder members

38 C. Forms of the Family 1. Family of Orientation a. Family you are born & raised in 2. Family of Procreation a. Family that you start with your spouse 3. Nuclear Family a. Parents & unmarried children b. Serves as the core of all family groups c. Steadily declining due to divorce & other situations

39 4. Blended Families a. Husband, wife, & unmarried children from other marriages 5. Foster/Adopted Families a. 1 or more adult guardians & children not of their own

40 6. Single Parent Families
a. Only 1 parent & their unmarried children i. Most common in industrial nations & war zones ii. Most often the mother & children (60-70% of the cases)

41 7. Extended Families a. Multiple generations of one family living together i. More people to help in the raising of children & providing money

42 8. Alternative Household Arrangements
a. Kibbutz/Communes i. Group of individuals & families joined into an economic & social community ii. Marxist theories started the trend in 1910 a. Collective farming b. Share all aspects of the community: limited personal ownership c. All members are involved in governing the group, raising the children, & resolving conflicts


44 D. Family Authority Patterns: Who controls the family
1. Patriarchy a. Males are expected to dominate the family i. Usually the eldest male or the husband b. Women tend to have low status c. Examples: Muslim Nations Rural China & Asia

45 d. Expected Behaviors of Saudi Arabian Women
i. Be very modest & respectful to males ii. Faces covered in public (veil), wear long sleeves, long skirt, & head covering iii. Men & women must be segregated in public iv. Women have the same religious duties as men, but they must pray at home v. Women cannot inherit property or own it vi. If they want to travel a. Get written permission from a male family member to board an airplane or stay in a hotel without her husband

46 vii. Only receive a public education with the permission of parents
a. Not allowed to have contact with boys at the school or men viii. Women are not allowed to work in a career that brings them into contact with men a. Can’t sell men’s clothes, work in a doctor’s office with male patients ix. Illegal to be photographed in public or without their veil on x. Husband can divorce a wife by stating “I divorce you!” three times in public with witnesses a. Women cannot divorce usually, & if they can the children remain with the father xi. Men: adultery is a minor offense, Women: may be killed for the crime

47 Native American tribes
2. Matriarchy a. Women are expected to dominate the family i. Usually the eldest female or wife b. Men have lower status c. Examples: Native American tribes

48 Not Without My Daughter
Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7

49 3. Egalitarian a. Spouses are regarded as equals in the family b. Both split the responsibilities & the power c. Example: United States

50 E. Family Residence Patterns
1. Where the new family lives is determined by the culture 2. Neolocal: expected to create a separate household 3. Patrilocal: live near or with the Husband’s family 4. Matrilocal: live near or with the Wife’s family

51 F. Decent Patterns 1. How a person’s linage & kinship is tracked for inheritance, emotional ties, social status 2. Bilateral Mother’s & father’s is equally important 3. Patrilineal a. Only the Father’s lineage is important 4. Matrilineal a. Only the Mother’s lineage is important

52 G. Family & Kinship definitions
1. Descent: the cultural recognition of kinship connections between a child & the parent’s kin 2. Kindred: a kinship group that consists of the blood relatives of the individual & their spouse 3. Sibling: a brother or sister 4. Cousin: children of our parent’s brothers & sisters a. Cross cousin: child of the father’s sister or Mother’s Brother b. Parallel Cousin: child of the Father’s brother or the Mother’s sister

53 Family Tree Symbol Key

54 I’m My Own Grandpa Now that we have practiced with decent tracking its time to put those skills to the test by taking the family talked about in the following song and charting it using the symbols discussed and practiced in class. I’m My Own Grandpa Video


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