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CH 510 – The History of Christianity 1

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1 CH 510 – The History of Christianity 1
UNIT TWO – The Imperial Church Slides based in part on The Story of Christianity by Justo Gonzalez

2 The Dawn of the Imperial Age of the Church

3 Diocletian ( )

4 Diocletian reorganizes the Empire
East & West Two Co-Emperors – Title: “Augustus” Diocletian in the East Maximian in the West Two “Junior” Emperors – Title: “Caesar” Galerius ( ) in the East – commander of the Army of the Danube which was fighting the Persians at the time Constantius Chlorus in the West This organization worked well while Diocletian was Senior Augustus Administratively easier Relative peace Secured line of succession (in theory preventing civil wars)

5 The Great Persecution At first, the peace of the church seemed assured
Both Diocletian’s wife and daughter were Christians None, but Galerius, had given any indication of enmity towards Christianity The Cause of Persecution: Military service of Christians No consensus among Christians about military service; many Christians in the legions Some were condemned to death for refusing to serve, some condemned for leaving service Christians deemed dangerous because there was no guarantee (in the eyes of their commanders) as to whether they would obey orders Galerius convinced Diocletian to expel Christians from the legions, which he did so by decree

6 Outbreak of Persecution
Diocletian’s edict did not order any further repercussions against Christians other than expulsion from the legions However, some officers attempted to force Christians to deny their faith Result: a number of executions, all of them in the army of the Danube, under Galerius In 303, Galerius convinced Diocletian to issue an edict expelling Christians from positions of public trust, and destroying all Christian books and buildings Christians who refused to hand over their sacred writings were tortured and condemned

7 The Situation worsens…
Two fires that broke out in the Imperial palace are blamed on Christians (some suggest that Galerius was responsible) Diocletian orders all Christians in the imperial court to offer incense before the gods (his wife and daughter comply; several others refuse and are executed) Diocletian becomes paranoid of conspiracies against him; orders all Christian leaders arrested Must hand over sacred writings (“Traditors”) Must sacrifice to the gods Many succumbed to the threats, others fled, many were martyred

8 Galerius forces Diocletian’s abdication
Diocletian becomes ill in 304; abdicates in 305 Galerius then secures Maximian’s abdication by threatening to invade the latter’s territories; Maximian complies Constantius Chlorus takes over as Augustus of the West; Galerius in the East (senior emperor) Constantius’ son, Constantine, held as hostage in Galerius’ court Two Caesars: Severus (West) and Maximinus Daia (East) Severus appointed Augustus in the West after Constantius’ death

9 After Diocletian’s abdication
Galerius and Maximinus Daia in the East Constantius I and Severus in the West

10 Constantine, son of Constantius held hostage by Galerius

11 Instability Constantine escapes and joins his father, Constantius, in Britain When Constantius dies, the troops refuse to obey the designs of Galerius and proclaim Constantine as their “Augustus” An infuriated Galerius offers Constantine the position of Caesar instead; Constantine accepts the compromise Meanwhile, Maxentius (son of the dethroned Maximian), takes Rome; Severus commits suicide Galerius invades the West, but his troops pass over to Maxentius; forcing Galerius to go back East to appeal to the retired Diocletian to resume power Licinius appointed by Galerius as the new Augustus in the West (308) The Empire was in a stalemate, with competing Augusti Civil war was inevitable

12 Persecution subsides…
Persecution continued under Galerius and Maximinus Daia unabated; the other emperors did not enforce persecution edicts Suddenly Galerius becomes ill, and convinced that this is God’s judgment upon him, issues a decree changing the policy (April 30, 311) Galerius dies five days later Licinius (Augustus, West), Maximinus Daia (Augustus East), Constantine (Claimant in West) Maxentius (usurper) Constantine marches towards Rome, Maxentius’ capital (312)

13 Licinius & Maxentius

14 Constantine the Great

15 Constantine’s path to sole emperorship
The Battle of Milvian Bridge (October 28, 312) Defeat and death of Maxentius Constantine becomes master of the western empire

16 “In hoc signo vinces.” Lactantius recorded that Constantine received this sign in a dream on the night before battle and was commanded to place it on the shields and labarum of his soldiers Eusebius records that the vision of this symbol appeared in the sky with the words: “In hoc signo vinces,” i.e. “In this sign you shall conquer.” (Chi-Rho)

17 The Edict of Milan (313) After the battle of Milvian Bridge, Constantine meets Licinius at Milan to draw up an alliance Constantine rules the west, while the east continued to be partitioned between Licinius and Maximinus Daia Part of the agreement was that the persecution of Christians would stop Considered the end of official persecution, though Galerius’ edict is probably a more important watershed Despite the Edict, Maximinus Daia continued his policy of persecution

18 In the aftermath of Milan
Constantine consolidates his power in the west, while Licinius goes off to make war with Maximinus Daia in the east Maximinus Daia defeated at Byzantium by Licinius (August 313) Empire divided between Constantine and Licinius Related by marriage, so hope that civil wars would cease Both secretly aspired to be sole rulers Civil war broke out in 314, and Constantine ceded all of Licinius’ European territories The war ended with a truce that lasted until 322 Licinius attitude towards Christians soured as he was suspicious that they were praying for the triumph of his rival, Constantine

19 Constantine defeats Licinius
Constantine invades Licinius’ territories again in 322 under false pretenses Licinius feared Constantine’s labarum so much that he ordered his troops to avoid looking at the Christian emblem, and not to direct a frontal attack against it; Constantine’s much smaller army is victorious Licinius flees to Byzantium, and after a series of defeats, surrenders; he is later murdered Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman world (324)

20 Byzantium “New Rome” “Constantinople”
Constantine personally draws the line for the new walls of his city

21 From Unconquered Sun to Jesus Christ
Constantine’s Religiosity

22 Constantine’s religion
Never placed himself under Christian tutelage or bishops High ranking Christians formed part of his entourage Continued to take part in pagan rites even after his conversion Bishops raised no voice of condemnation Considered himself “bishop of bishops” with the right to determine his own religious practices and even to intervene in the life of the church Did not receive baptism until his deathbed

23 Attitude of Christian leadership
Constantine’s moral and religious deviations were seen as the actions of one who, while inclined to become a Christian, had not yet taken the decisive step (i.e. baptism) Afforded latitude in these matters due to the favor that he poured out on the Church Church could support and advise Constantine, but not give him spiritual direction The truth of the matter is that Constantine was probably a true believer in the power of Christ; seeking the favor of the God of the Christians, not the Christians themselves since he had little to gain from allying himself with them “God-fearer” analogy works here

24 Impact of Constantine Cessation of persecution (immediate)
Development of “official theology” Marriage of church and state? Great apostasy? Intellectual, doctrinal development; heresy & orthodoxy Pagan reaction –culminating in reign of Julian the Apostate Development of liturgical cultus (worship) Building of churches (basilicas)

25 The Struggle to Define the Orthodox Faith
Official Theology The Struggle to Define the Orthodox Faith

26 Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 263-339)
Born most likely in Palestine; spent most of his life in Caesarea Disciple of Pamphilus of Caesarea, a teacher in the Origenist tradition Eusebius traveled far and wide on a quest to find original Christian documents Affected by the persecution started by Diocletian Eventually collaborated with Pamphilus the five book Defense of Origen; added a sixth book after the latter’s martyrdom Most important work: History of the Church Without his work, our knowledge of the early period of church history would be reduced by half Deep admirer of Constantine

27 Eusebius Became bishop of Caesarea in 313
Attended the Council of Nicaea (325) Sympathetic to Arius, but supported Nicaea Overall interest was the unity of the church

28 Reactions to Imperial Favor

29 The new situation – imperial favor
Eusebius represents one extreme: Recent events are the fulfillment of God’s purposes Imperial favor meant that church offices became positions of privilege, power and prestige Various motives of those who desired church offices Christians no longer lived in fear of persecution Some considered security and comfortable living to be the greatest enemies of the faith How was one to be true to Christ in such circumstances?

30 The Reaction of Monasticism

31 The Origins of Monasticism
Even before the Peace of Constantine, there were some who chose to live ascetical lives (e.g. self-denial, celibacy) Origen of Alexandria Platonic ideals reinforced by statements from the gospels and Paul’s letters (e.g. eunuchs for the kingdom?) Appeal of asceticism among the Gnostics Roots of monasticism both inside and outside the church Asceticism popular in Greek Philosophy Platonism Stoicism Imperial favor for the Church meant a new appeal to these approaches to spirituality

32 The Desert Fathers

33 Monasticism “Monk” comes from monachos (meaning “solitary”)
“Anchorite” – meaning “withdrawn” or “fugitive” Two early biographers of desert fathers: Athansius’ Life of Anthony Jerome’s Life of Paul the Hermit Monasticism not the invention of an individual, but rather a mass movement or “exodus” from the world into the wilderness where individuals could live the “ideal” of self-sacrifice and prayer unhindered from the world

34 St. Anthony of the Desert (ca. 251-356)

35 St. Pachomius (ca )

36 Communal (Cenobitic) Monasticism
Increasingly, solitary monasticism would give way to communal monasticism (by default) Cenobitic (meaning “communal”) Pachomius’ vision to “serve humankind” (rejected it at first) Repeated attempts Success based on the adoption of a rigorous rule Rule of life: work and devotion Monastic enclosures

37 Monastic Life (Pachomian)
“Pray without ceasing” Defined daily roles and chores (bakery, cobblers, etc.) Psalmody, Scripture reading and meditation, prayer (corporate and private) Regular meeting times (morning/evening) Hierarchy: abbots, archimandrites (vows of obedience to superiors) Typically dependent on churches and regular clergy for sacramental administrations (Eucharist) Attracted pagans as well as Christians

38 Proliferation of Monasticism
Various Lives of notable monks (e.g. those written by Athanasius, Jerome) popularized the monastic spirit Notable church patriarchs and matriarchs founded monasteries (e.g. Macrina, Basil the Great)

39 The Schismatic Reaction

40 Donatism (4th century) The question of the “lapsed”
The question arose after each violent persecution Novatian schism (3rd century) Cyprian of Carthage – Episcopal authority vs. Confessors The early 4th century persecutions had been particularly violent in North African; many had yielded to pressure to renounce the faith or hand over the scriptures Traditores: Some handed over fake scriptures Some handed over genuine Christian scriptures

41 Confessors Those who survived imprisonment and/or torture during periods of persecution – Confessors Highly respected for the firmness of their faith The “intercession” of Confessors was sought in cases of those who had lapsed In his day, Cyprian of Carthage battled with confessors who were often too ready to readmit the lapsed back into the communion of the church without regard to the authority of bishops The situation was different in the 4th century: Confessors took a harder line against the lapsed than the bishops Bishops were accused of being “traditores” simply for being lenient to the lapsed

42 Controversy over Caecilian (311)
Dispute over the see of the famous Cyprian of Carthage Caecilian was elected shortly after the end of the persecution in the west; not popular with the rigorist party Caecilian was known for denouncing the fanatical craving for martyrdom that was popular in North Africa during the last persecution Consecrated in haste by Bishop Felix of Aptunga Denounced by Secundus, Primate of Numidia, who denounced Felix as a “traditore” The rigorous party then elected Majorinus as a rival bishop Majorinus died shortly afterwards Donatus elected after the death of Majorinus; leader of the rigorous movement for nearly 50 years

43 Donatist Schism The bishop of Rome and many other bishops quickly declared in favor of Caecilian, asserting that Majorinus and Donatus were usurpers Constantine took great interest in the controversy Imperial policy against the Donatists; suppression

44 Causes: theological, political & economic
Theological: Validity of Sacramental Administrations Were the sacraments of “heretical” bishops valid? Some of the Donatist bishops were questionable Political & Economic: Cosmopolitan vs. Rural Romanized (Latin) vs. Native (indigenous culture/language)

45 Donatism vs. The “World”
Early Donatists not opposed to the empire as much as they were to “worldliness” Thus the Donatist movement is seen as a reaction to the “new situation” of Imperial favor upon recognized Christianity Nevertheless, they repeatedly sought for a repeal of Constantine’s policy against them; and official recognition CIRCUMCELLIONS (c. 340): Considered “bandits” – resorted to violence Fanatics for martyrdom (i.e. terrorists) Romans had no other recourse than the violent suppression of the Donatists Donatism persisted even after the invasion of the Vandals (5th century)

46 The Arian Challenge

47 Testing Imperial intervention
Constantine’s peace was destined to change the way the Church would deal with doctrinal disagreements and controversies Constantine had hoped that Christianity could unify the empire (“cement of the Empire”); thus took a personal interest in disputes which threatened the Church’s unity In time, imperial intervention in doctrinal matters would be used to serve political ends and often prove to be the cause of lasting divisions

48 The Arian Controversy Seedbed of the controversy: Alexandrian approach
Accommodationist stance towards Philosophy Representative theologians: Justin, Clement, Origen God seen as “perfection” (i.e. immutable, impassible, and fixed, unbegotten) Allegorical interpretation helped Hellenistic thinkers to make sense of a Bible which presented an “earthy” God Logos theology: Logos = reason of God (personal, capable of direct relations with the world and with humans)

49 Mediating Logos (Reason) Mutable Created Order (Humanity)
Logos Theology Immutable God (Perfection) Mediating Logos (Reason) Mutable Created Order (Humanity) (Imperfect)

50 Logos Theology: “Begottenness”
The Arian controversy would hinge on the interpretation of the Greek term gennetos (“begotten”) In Greek philosophy this term had a broader, hence vaguer sense than the way it is used in the NT “came to be” or “derived from” or “generated” Alexandrian Christian thought had learned to express its monotheistic stance by insisting that God is the sole agennetos (“underived” or “unbegotten”) All else that exists was derived or generated (including the Son) However, the way that the Son was generated was unique over against the way all other things were generated

51 Origen’s understanding
All things were generated or “begotten” out of nonexistence (creatio ex nihilo), except for the Son The Logos (Son) was generated or “born” from God, and thus was truly the “only-begotten Son” of the Father The Logos is “eternally begotten” (begotten from eternity) Hence the Logos is in a secondary but real sense divine What Origenist tradition envisaged was a pluralism of divine persons within a hierarchy of being: God (eternal, unchanging first principle) The Logos or Son (Image of God, begotten from God) All Creatures (called out of non-existence)

52 Alexander vs. Arius Alexander: contended for the co-eternal Word
Argued that Arius denied the divinity of Christ Church always worshiped Jesus; either worship had to cease or the Church would be sanctioning creature worship Arius: “There was when he was not” The Word (Logos) is the “first” creation The Word pre-existed the Incarnation Argued that Alexander denied monotheism Alexander condemns Arius Arius appealed to his former students and bishops in the East Protests in Alexandria on behalf of Arius

53 The details of Arius’ position
Affirmed the hierarchical idea that the Logos mediates between God and the world But argued that between the ungenerated and the generated, God and creature, there could be no ontological middle ground The mediator must be God or creature, and since there cannot be two Gods, it follow that the Son is a creature. Alexander, by stressing the deity of the Logos (and his exact likeness to God) held one of two impossible assumptions, either: There are two Gods Or, like the Monarchians believed, no real distinction between Father and Son

54 Constantine intervenes…
Recently defeated Licinius (324) Sends Bishop Hosius of Cordova (advisor in ecclesiastical affairs) to Alexandria, who reports back that reconciliation was not possible by normal entreaties Constantine calls for a great council of Christian bishops from throughout the world Goal to settle the Arian dispute with a consensus statement Establish standards throughout the empire

55 Hosius’ detour through Antioch
On his way back from Alexandria, Hosius stopped to preside over an assembly of bishops in Antioch to install a new bishop there (Eustathius) The assembly issued a confession of faith that rejected Arius’ teaching: “The Logos is begotten not from nonexistence but from the Father, not as made but as properly an offspring…he exists everlastingly…and is immutable and unchangeable.”

56 Council of Nicaea (325)

57 Council of Nicaea (or Nicea)
Traditional number of bishops in attendance: 318 (according to Athanasius) Constantine invited over 1800 bishops Eusebius counted 220; Eustathius counted 270 Majority from the East, very few from the West The Council considered many matters of mutual concern and interest throughout the church Standard procedures for readmitting the lapsed Elections and ordinations of bishops and priests Precedence of episcopal sees

58 The parties at Nicaea… Arian Party led by Eusebius of Nicomedia (small group) Anti-Arian Party led by Alexander of Alexandria (small group) The Western Position: Saw the matter as a controversy between Eastern followers of Origen; sufficient to declare that in God were “three persons and one substance” (Tertullian’s position) Patripassianism (Sabellians or Monarchians): The Father and the Son are the same person (the Father “suffered the passion”) Majority of bishops at the council held to the traditional Eastern Subordinationist position; sought a compromise position

59 The Eastern Subordination View
Based on Logos Theology (Origen’s explanation) God (Father) is sole agennetos; all else is gennetos (begotten) Creatures are generated or begotten out of nonexistence, thus are “begotten and made” The Son is “eternally begotten” from God (thus born of God), hence is “begotten, not made.” Christ is divine in the sense of being from God, but subordinate to God UNRESOLVED: What is the true nature of the Logos?

60 The tide turns against the Arians…
Eusebius of Nicomedia argued that Christ was but a mere creature, provoking an angry reaction from most of the attendees Shouts of “heresy” “blasphemy” “liar” Speech snatched from his hands; torn to shreds Resolve of Council to reject Arianism in clearest possible way At first sought to cite scripture passages against Arianism; then turned its energies towards producing a creed Eusebius of Caesarea (not to be confused with Eusebius Nicomedia) read aloud the creed from his own church, which became the basis for the Council’s creed Constantine himself suggested the word homoousios be included in the creed

61 Creed of Nicaea (325) We believe in one God the Father all powerful, maker of all things both seen and unseen. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten begotten from the Father, that is from the substance [Gr. ousias] of the Father, God from God, light from light, true God from true God, begotten [Gr. gennethenta] not made [Gr. poethenta], CONSUBSTANTIAL [Gr. homoousion] with the Father, through whom all things came to be, both those in heaven and those in earth; for us humans and for our salvation he came down and became incarnate, became human, suffered and rose up on the third day, went up into the heavens, is coming to judge the living and the dead. And in the holy Spirit. And those who say "there once was when he was not", and "before he was begotten he was not", and that he came to be from things that were not, or from another hypostasis [Gr. hypostaseos] or substance [Gr. ousias], affirming that the Son of God is subject to change or alteration, these the catholic and apostolic church anathematizes.

62 Homoousios (“Of the same substance”)
Intended to protect the full divine status of the Son and his co-eternality with the Father In time, would become a major stumbling block for bishops in the East because they felt it implied Sabellianism (Patripassianism), i.e., the idea that there was no real distinction between the Father and the Son The term Homoiousios (of “like” substance) would be suggested as a compromise

63 The Aftermath Constantine banished the few bishops who did not sign the Nicene agreement (e.g. Eusebius of Nicomedia) Alexander dies in 328; Athanasius succeeds him Later, Eusebius convinced Constantine that he had been too harsh on the Arians; even Arius was recalled from exile, but died before restoration Eusebius and his followers convinced Constantine to banish Athanasius and other notable Nicene bishops on a number of false allegations, while being careful not to challenge Constantine’s cherished Nicene formula

64 Other matters settled by Nicaea
Established church structure above the local level, based on the provincial divisions of the empire (dioceses) Limited the authority of local churches by calling for regular provincial councils of bishops, assigning seniority to the bishop of the provincial metropolis (who was given veto power over the election and ordination of other bishops in his area) Established the rule that no one could be made a bishop without the participation of at least three other bishops of a province Recognized the “exceptional” jurisdiction of the churches of Alexandria, Rome and Antioch Formulated the method for establishing the date of Easter

65 The Baptism of Constantine
Constantine is baptized on his deathbed by Eusebius of Nicomedia; dies on May 22, 337 The enemies of Nicaea appeared to have been victorious

66 The Empire divided into three

67 Constantine’s Sons Constantine II – Ruler over Britain, Gaul, Spain ( ) Fell in ambush at Aquileia in 340 (against Constans) Constantius II – The East: Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt ( ); sole ruler of the empire ( ) Constans – Central part of the empire including North Africa ( ); Ruler of the West ( ); murdered by Maxentius in 350

68 Constantine II (reign: 337-340)
Ruler over Britain, Gaul and Spain Fell in ambush at Aquileia to Constans (340)

69 Constantius II (reign: 337-361)
Sole ruler of the Empire from

70 Constans (reign: ) Ruler of the Central part of the Empire, including North Africa ( ) After defeating his brother Constantine, ruler over the West ( ) Murdered by Magnentius (350)

71 Religious Policies of Constantine’s Son
Constans ( ) Constantius II ( ) Tolerant of Judaism Banned pagan sacrifice in 341 Suppressed Donatism in North Africa Supported Nicene orthodoxy Council of Sardica (343), was complete failure From 346, was in open conflict with his brother over religion; matter settled in agreement that each emperor was free to support their preferred clergy in their respective spheres Continued anti-Jewish policies of his father Not fanatically anti-pagan Sympathetic to Arianism Sought compromise at various councils between Nicene orthodoxy and Arianism

72 The Pagan Reaction

73 Julian “The Apostate” (332-363)
Caesar (355); Sole Emperor ( )

74 Julian the Apostate Son of Julius Constantius, Constantine’s half-brother At age of six, Julian had seen all save one of his brothers (Gallus) slaughtered by Constantius II’s troops Both Julius and Gallus were raised as Christians; baptized, catechized, made readers in the Church However, Julian came under the influence of Neo-Platonist teachers and in time became a convinced, though discreet, pagan Julian would go on to study in Athens, where he sought after truth and beauty in the literature and religion of the ancient Greeks; he knew Basil of Caesarea

75 Julian the Apostate Gallus, his half-brother, was made Caesar in 351; eventually arrested and beheaded Julius was made Caesar in 355; turned out to be an able and imaginative military leader and administrator in Gaul His troops proclaimed him “Augustus” Julian was marching at the head of his troops against Constantius II when the latter suddenly died (361) Julian then succeeded Constantius II as sole ruler Once in power, he pursued his ideal of reform and revival of the pagan religion, to which he had a serious, not to say romantic, commitment

76 Julian’s religious policy
Constantine had not outlawed paganism, but he did order the ransacking of the temples and the enriching of Christian churches Julian ordered the return of property to the pagan temples and organized the pagan priesthood into a hierarchy similar to that of the church Divided the empire into regions, each with its own archpriest and each province with its own high priest; Julian was the “supreme priest” (Pontifex Maximus) Ordered and financed massive sacrifices The revival of paganism was ridiculed by much of the populace, even as many of the people participated in it

77 Julian’s policies against the Church
Julian did not pursue a policy of persecution against the church, believing that it would not help his cause Julian did however exclude Christians from teaching in imperially supported schools; also excluded Christians from occupying high imperial office Julian allowed various bishops – both homoousian and homoiousian – to return from exile (Julian had to exile Athanasius a fourth time when this policy proved controversial) Julian’s strategy was to ridicule Christians, calling them “Galileans” (wrote the treatise Against the Galileans) Julian attempted to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem as a practical rebuttal against the Christian claim that its destruction fulfilled prophecy

78 “Thou hast conquered, Galilean!”
Julian’s death Died in 363 during a campaign against the Persians “Thou hast conquered, Galilean!”

79 Athanasius (c )

80 Athanasius’ resume Place of birth unknown; probably of lower class
First language was Coptic; not well-versed in Greco-Roman cultural niceties Close contact with the desert fathers; would eventually write Life of Saint Anthony Lived a life a strict rigor and “straight speech”; endeared himself to the populace Two important works: Against the Gentiles and On the Incarnation “Destined” to become the champion of the Nicene faith against the Arians Athanasius fled to the desert when Alexander was on his deathbed; did not want to succeed him as bishop Became bishop of Alexandria in 328, just as Arianism was regrouping and resurging

81 The trials of Athanasius
Accused by his enemies of killing Arsenius, a rival bishop; charges turned out to be false A more serious charge was made against him by Eusebius of Nicomedia while in Constantinople – that he plotted to stop grain shipments of wheat from Egypt to Rome Sent to Trier in exile as a result Released after Constantine’s death, only to be exiled again (voluntarily) to Rome after riots broke out in Alexandria over the succession claims of a rival bishop named Gregory While in Rome he gained the support of the Roman clergy for the Nicene cause; they supported his claim to the bishopric of Alexandria Constans (emperor in the West) requested that his brother Constantius (emperor in the East) let Athanasius return

82 Athanasius’ trials continued…
His return to Alexandria was very momentous; enjoyed ten years of stability and strengthening ties with the orthodox Upon Constans’ death, Constantius was free to pursue his pro-Arian policies; summoned Athanasius to court who refused to go; Athanasius escaped the grasp of imperial troops Five years of hiding in the desert; many orthodox bishops were forced to sign Arian confessions during this time “Blasphemy of Sirmium” – open rejection of the Nicene faith When Constantius died (361), Athanasius was again allowed to return to Alexandria under Julian; only to be exiled again within a year (for a fourth time) because he proved to be too popular

83 Homoousios vs. Homoiousios
In his later career, Athanasius began to realize that many who opposed the Nicene faith feared that the assertion that the Son was of the “same substance” (homoousios) as the Father was a denial of their hypostatic distinctions; the term preferred was “of similar substance” (homoiousios) Athanasius convened a council in 362 where he held out an olive branch to the homoiousion party by admitting “three hypostases” (thus also affirming the Holy Spirit), which was not intended to mean “three gods”; thus homoousios intended to convey the idea of “identity of nature” Under Athanasius leadership the synod decreed that it was enough for all to repudiate Arianism, to confess the faith of the holy fathers at Nicaea, and to anathematize those who say the Holy Spirit is a creature.

84 The end of Athanasius’ life
Fled to the desert again (voluntary exile) in 362 when Julian pursued him Restored to Alexandria under the emperor Jovian (who was an admirer of Athanasius) Upon the succession of Valens, Athanasius fled again into the desert, only to return after he was sure that Valens was not going to pursue a policy against him Died in 373 Athanasius’ views would be vindicated at the Council of Constantinople (381)

85 The Cappadocians

86 The “New Nicene” Party Led by Basil of Caesarea
Composed of Eastern Origenists and former homoiousians who had rallied to the support of the Nicene faith under the influence of Athanasius Worked for reconciliation between various groups that stood against Arianism but were themselves divided Defend a framework that affirmed the full divinity of the Logos and the Spirit

87 Basil of Caesarea (ca. 330-379)

88 Basil the Great Born of a prominent Cappadocian family; educated at Constantinople and Athens In Athens he met and began a lifelong friendship with Gregory of Nazianzus Profoundly influenced by the ascetic life of his older sister, Macrina; Basil established a community of monks on a family estate Once elected bishop of Constantinople, he worked to reconcile West and East, “old” and “new” Nicenes Confronted two heresies: Pneumatomachi (“Spirit-fighters”) aka the “Macedonians,” and the Anomoeans (who argued that Father and Son were “unlike” in nature) Wrote the treatise, On the Holy Spirit

89 Gregory of Nazianzus (ca. 329-ca. 389)

90 Gregory of Nazianzus Lifelong friend of Basil of Caesarea
Attracted to the contemplative life Orator of great distinction; imaginative and discerning theologian Excessively sensitive to criticism; tendency to retreat from positions of public responsibility Became the Patriarch of Constantinople by public acclamation Presided over the Council of Constantinople, but resigned the bishopric of Constantinople when challenged by his opponents that he was already a bishop of another city His enduring legacy is a body of sermons, known for the eloquence and thoughtfulness

91 Gregory of Nyssa (c )

92 Gregory of Nyssa Brother of Basil of Caesarea and of Macrina
Surpassed both Basil and Gregory of Nazianzus in theological depth and penetration His extensive writings came mostly from the period following the death of his brother, when he took up his pen to defend and develop Basil’s teaching Took up the attack against Arianism, but also the problems of theological anthropology and the spiritual life Wrote A Dialogue on the Soul and Resurrection, in honor of his renowned older sister, Macrina

93 Macrina (c )

94 Macrina of Nyssa Older sister of Basil and Gregory, as well as of Peter of Sebaste Arranged to be married, her fiance died before their wedding She devoted herself to the religious life, becoming a nun Known for her devotion to asceticism, she became a famous teacher of other women She and her brother, Peter of Sebaste, turned the family estate in Pontus into a monastery She had a profound influence on her brothers; Gregory wrote a biography of his sister called Life of Macrina After her death, Gregory wrote his “Dialogue on the Soul and Resurrection” which he dedicated to his sister and entitled in The Makrinia Noted for teaching of Apokatastasis – the belief that even the wicked in hell would eventually confess Christ and be redeemed

95 The Key to Reconciliation
The key to reconciling the “old” Nicene party and the Eastern homoiousion position was in the fine distinction that the Cappodocians made between: 1 ousia <=> 3 hupostases (1 essence) (3 hypostases) The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are three hypostases of the one Divine essence

96 Eastern view of the Trinity
Father Fountainhead of Deity Son Holy Spirit Begotten of the Father Proceeds from the Father

97 Capadocian Explanation
The Father, the Word, and the Spirit are three distinct hupostases (concrete, subsistent realities); each of which instantiates a single, identical ousia (being or nature) Thus they are reasonably called homoousios The unity of being implies the unity of activity or operation; they are not distinct from each other because they engage in different activities; all are involved in every divine activity, but in distinct ways that are proper to each hypostasis. This explanation was the basis for the theological affirmation of Nicaea at the Council of Constantinople (381), and the condemnation of the Pneumatomachi (the Macedonian Party)

98 Constantinian Dynasty
Constantine I – Sole Augustus, Sons of Constantine: Constantine II – (Augustus in West) Constantius II – (Augustus in East, ; Sole Augustus, ) Constans – (Co-Augustus in West until 340, then Augustus until 350) Julian – Sole Augustus, Jovian – Sole Augustus,

99 Valentinian Dynasty Valentinian I – 364-375 Valens – 364-378
Elected Augustus by army after death of Jovian Died of natural causes Valens – Appointed Co-Augustus for the East by his brother Valentinian I Died at Battle of Adrianople fighting the Goths Gratian – Son of Valentinian I, appointed “Junior” Augustus in the West Became “Senior” Augustus upon Valentinian’s death (375) Murdered in rebellion (383) Valentinian II – Youngest son of Valentinian I; proclaimed Augustus in west by army after Valentinian I’s death (was still an infant) Gratian forced to accept his younger half-brother, Valentinian, as co-emperor in the West Murder or suicide? (392)

100 Battle of Adrianople (378)
In 376, Emperor Valens allowed the Goths to cross the Danube and settle in the Western empire, hoping that they would become farmers and soldiers; they established themselves as foederati (allies of the empire) The newcomers suffered many hardships due to the dishonesty of the provincial governors, and eventually began to revolt As troubles increased, Valens decided to take control of the situation himself The decisive battle took place near Adrianople, the Romans led by Valens, the Goths by Fritigern; the Goths were victorious The battle represents the worst Roman defeat since the Battle of Edessa (259), and a major turning point in the history of relations between the Empire and the barbarians

101 Theodosius ( ) Emperor from

102 Theodosius the Great The defeat and death of Emperor Valens at Andrianople (378) at the hands of the Visigoths led the surviving emperor, Gratian to appoint a new Augustus for the East: Theodosius Theodosius was a Spaniard; as a westerner he supported the Nicene cause In 380, Theodosius and Gratian issued a joint decree that “all the peoples of the empire” should practice the religion of Pope Damasus (Rome) and of Pope Peter (Alexandria), which confessed “the single Deity of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit” This marked the triumph of the Nicene faith and a new moment in the history of relation between the churches and the Roman state (i.e. official religion was now Christianity)

103 Council of Constantinople (381)

104 Results of Constantinople (381)
Affirmed the Nicene symbol (Creed of 325) Considered a further expansion of the creed which inserted words that affirmed the divinity of the Holy Spirit (the “Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed”) Condemned the Macedonian party and Apollinarianism Settled an old division in the Church in Antioch Gave the Church of Constantinople “the primacy of honor” after the Church of Rome (thereby displacing the Church of Alexandria) Causing new friction between West and East, Giving impetus to the already lively theological competition between Alexandria and Antioch in the East

105 Important figures of the Imperial Church

106 Ambrose of Milan (c )

107 Ambrose’s resume Aurelius Ambrosius: Born in Trier, son of a praetorian prefect of Gaul Educated in the rhetorical schools of Rome for a career in the imperial service; practiced law for a time Appointed civil governor of the province of Aemilia-Leguria, with its capital at Milan Upon the death of the Arian bishop, Auxentius (374), a bitter controversy broke out between Arian and Nicene Christians over his successor Compelled to intervene personally in order to keep the peace, he found himself being acclaimed loudly as the next bishop Tried to dissuade the people, even attempted to escape from the city

108 Ambrose’s resume The emperor, however, was pleased with the choice, so Ambrose agreed to become bishop of Milan At the time he was only a catechumen, so Ambrose had to be baptized and then raised through the various levels of ministerial orders to that of bishop – all done in eight days He immediately changed his life by giving up all property, adopting the discipline of an ascetic and taking up the study of theology Ambrose would prove to champion the Nicene faith, and throughout his career would seek an alliance of the Roman state with orthodox Christianity as against Arianism, paganism and Judaism

109 The Emperors during Ambrose’s Episcopate
Gratian (r ) – Emperor in the West Valentinian II (r ) Junior Emperor under Gratian until the latter’s death Empress Justina (his mother) ruled during his minority Magnus Maximus (r ) Usurper, rebelled against Gratian Defeated by Theodosius Theodosius I (r ) – Emperor in the East, appointed by Gratian Intervened on behalf of Valentinian II against Maximus Became sole ruler of Empire upon Valentinian’s murder (392)

110 Ambrose vs. Empress Justina
Ambrose refused Justina’s wish to allow Arian worship to be celebrated Refused to hand over a disputed church to imperial troops, or even its sacred vessels

111 Theodosius Ardent adherent to the Nicene faith
Issued a proclamation with Gratian that the entire empire should follow the Christian faith (380) Consistent with Ambrose’s own goal to forge a close alliance between the church and the Roman state However, for Ambrose, the emperor was the church’s sponsor and faithful child, but emphatically not its ruler

112 Ambrose vs. Theodosius Ambrose stood against Theodosius in his attempt to punish the Christians of Callinicum for the burning of a Jewish synagogue Ambrose stood against Theodosius for the slaughter of seven thousand citizens of Thessalonica in punishment for rioting Refused Theodosius entrance into the church and communion until he repented Theodosius acquiesced and submitted to penance Decreed that all executions would be delayed for thirty days

113 John Chrysostom (c )

114 Chrysostom’s resume Born of noble parents (father was “Master of the Soldiers”) Educated at Antioch under the pagan rhetor, Libanius; later in theology under Diodore of Tarsus Baptized in 370, sought to live an ascetic life; affected his health Forced to return to Antioch, he was ordained deacon (381) and then priest (386); entered a career of regular preaching which won him a reputation Forcibly taken to Constantinople in 397 to succeed Nectarius as bishop Program of clerical reform in Constantinople was not popular; later he attempted to reform the laity as well

115 Chrysostom’s resume As senior “patriarch” in the East, John also attempted to extend the reforming influence beyond his immediate ecclesiastical reach, and was highly resented as a result John found himself caught between the jurisdictional quarrels of the eastern churches and an imperial court that did not appreciate his single-minded devotion to holiness of life Feuded with Eutropius (the emperor’s steward) over the right to grant asylum; ironically, eventually Eutropius himself would seek asylum from John

116 Chrysostom’s deposition and fate
John’s fate was sealed when he intervened in the controversy then raging over the teachings of Origen; John provided asylum to four advocates of Origen’s teaching The Empress Eudoxia plotted with Theophilus of Alexandria to hold a synod, composed entirely of John’s enemies, that proceeded to depose him; the imperial court then confirmed the verdict John’s exile was met with violent reaction from the populace John was briefly restored after an earthquake which was widely believed to be a judgment against the verdict However, adversity had not taught him discretion; he was then exiled to Cucusus (Armenia) Died in 407 while traveling to a yet more distant exile

117 The Divine Liturgy of John Chrysostom
Most “celebrated” (i.e. most used) Eucharistic liturgy in the Eastern (Byzantine) tradition Probably first developed in Antioch, and brought to Constantinople by John Chrysostom, where it is believed that it was refined and beautified under John’s guidance John is credited for having written or reworked the Anaphora (central prayer) himself Theology is that of the Cappadocian Fathers in combatting heresies and upholding Trinitarian belief It became the normative liturgy of the Eastern Church during the reign of Justinian (6th century)

118 Jerome (c )

119 Jerome’s resume Eusebius Hieronymus (a.k.a. Jerome)
Born around 348 in Northern Italy Schooled at Rome in grammar, rhetoric and classics of Latin literature; made friends with Rufinus Ardent admirer of classical learning, though felt that this love for essentially pagan tradition was sinful A superb Latin stylist, careful linguist, and an eloquent and unscrupulous polemicist Lived an ascetic life, initially in Dalmatia and Aquileia around a circle of devout and literate Christian friends; left that company when his character was under attack Left for Antioch in 372, where he undertook a serious study of Greek and later Hebrew Not long after that he resolved to live a completely ascetic life in the wilderness north of Antioch

120 Jerome’s resume He lived among numerous hermits who populated the hills north of Antioch; found it impossible to get along with his neighbors, and so returned to Antioch Under the influence of Gregory of Nazianzus he was introduced to the writings of Origen, and began his long career as a translator by beginning the project of putting Origen’s homilies into Latin Returning to Rome in 382, he became secretary to Pope Damasus, and began his most ambitious translation project of all – a revision of the crude Old Latin version of the Bible He translated the OT from the Hebrew original, having become persuaded that the Hebrew text and canon were proper authorities for the church (rather than the LXX)

121 Paula and Eustochium While in Rome, Jerome became the teacher and spiritual master of a group of ascetically minded, wealthy and aristocratic women, including Albina (whose palace served as their place of residence), Marcella, Marcellina (Ambrose’s sister), and particularly the widow Paula and her daughter Eustochium, who became accomplished students of Greek and Hebrew Jerome’s enemies would use this association against him; the practice of eastern asceticism was not without its critics in Rome, especially Jerome’s view that the celibate state was superior to that of marriage Jerome would defend his views in Against Helvidius and Against Jovinian; He argued for the perpetual virginity of Mary

122 Jerome’s downfall When Damasus died in 384, the new bishop (Siricius) had little regard for Jerome’s scholarship Jerome fled the city when one of Paula’s daughters died (her death was blamed on his ascetic teachings) Jerome, Paula and Eustochium would eventually found a monastery in Palestine, based on a “moderate asceticism” Palestine afforded him the opportunity to study Hebrew in more depth and to further his translation of the Bible into Latin Jerome’s version would become the basis of the Vulgate, the standard Bible of the Western Church Jerome wrote to Eustochium about his shock at the sack of Rome on August 24, 410

123 Augustine of Hippo ( )

124 Augustine’s resume Aurelius Augustinus
Middle-class Latin speaking family Born in the Numidian city of Thegaste; predominant language was Berber Father, Patricius was a pagan; mother, Monica, a devout albeit superstitious Christian In his early years he was heavily influenced by Manichaeism and, later, Neo-Platonism (Plotinus)

125 Augustine’s Confessiones (Confessions)
Written , while Augustine was in his early 40s, shortly after being named Bishop of Hippo Written at the request of his friend, Paulinus of Nola, eleven years after his baptism May have been written as a defense against the charge that Augustine was still a Manichee An instant “best-seller”

126 The Confessions Widely considered the first autobiographical work in western literary history, influencing many other such works for 1000 years. Consists of thirteen books; unbroken record of the development of his thought from childhood through conversion First 35 years of his life Not a complete autobiography (since he lives many more years) Augustine’s conversion story, from sinful youth to his embracing of Christianity

127 Augustine’s Autobiography
Educated in Thagaste; showed promise as a student His description of his early childhood was not positive; critical of his teachers; critical of his selfish/sinful nature Augustine’s mother, Monica, was a devout Christian Augustine was raised a Christian; became a catechumen of the church at an early age Once fell ill and was going to be baptized; he recovered, so baptism no longer “necessary”

128 Augustine’s autobiography
In Book 2 of the Confessions, he deals with the onset of adolescence, and what he seems to consider the most lurid and sinful period of his life. Augustine’s father, Patricius, manages to raise funds to send him to Carthage for further education. Augustine praises his father for doing this, yet points out that it wasn’t done with his son’s moral development in mind, but rather for worldly success. He “ran wild,” he writes, “in the jungle of erotic adventures...and became putrid in [God's] sight.” In addition to his first sexual escapades, Augustine is also quite concerned with an incident in which he and some friends stole pears from a neighborhood orchard. Augustine deeply regrets both of these sins, and offers a few brief insights as to how and why he committed them.

129 The nature of sin Stealing pears as a youth for “mischief sake”
Sin is a perversion of the goodness of God Each sinful desire represents a desire to be “like God”

130 Augustine in Carthage In Carthage, Augustine enters a place and a lifestyle in which “all around me hissed a cauldron of illicit loves.” His range of “rotten...ulcerous” sins expands from teenage pranks to include attending public spectacles and reading tragedies. Low point in Augustine's relationship with God--turned almost entirely toward transient diversions It is at this point, however, that Augustine first suspects that seeking truth might be more important than worldly success. Shopping around for the right philosophy, he discovers Manichaeism Manichaeism turns out to be the biggest mistake of his life, and much of Book III is devoted to an initial attack on the Manichee faith.

131 The influence of Cicero
Cicero’s Hortensius Augustine read the book at age eighteen, in the course of his studies to become a skilled and stylish orator. But the book, which also argues that the pursuit of truth through philosophy is the route to a happy life, moved him deeply. For the first time, he “longed for the immortality of wisdom with an incredible ardor in my heart.”

132 Manichaeism Founded by Mani, Persian, mid-Third Century
Mani saw himself as the incarnation of the Holy Spirit Established a new religion that was a potent mix of Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Hinduism Mani killed by Persians in 276 AD Key belief: attempted to solve theodicy problem (how can there be a good creator God, and suffering and evil) with two gods Material world – evil; Creator god – evil Spiritual world – good; Spiritual god – good Fully initiated Manichees led austere lives Vegetarians Chaste Completely rejected material Many people become Manichaean ‘hearers’ or catechumens Reputation for being elite, intellectual

133 Three primary Manichaean Arguments against the Catholic Faith
The first, and most famous, concerns the nature and source of evil. If God is supremely good, and if he is also all-powerful, eternal, and the cause of all existence, how can evil exist? Manichees insisted that God is not all-powerful and that he is in fact in constant struggle against his opposite, the dark, material world that is by nature evil. The second, what is the nature of God? Is he corporeal? Physical? –The OT seemed to portray him as such The third concerned what the Manichees portrayed as crudity of the Old Testament, especially the Book of Genesis (e.g. polygamy)

134 Augustine’s autobiography
Upon Augustine’s return to Thagaste from his studies at Carthage he begin to teach rhetoric, making friends and chasing a career along the way Augustine takes a concubine during this period Has a son, named Adeodatus Loses a close friend at this time, which compels him to leave Thagaste once and for all These events prompt him to discuss at this point the transient nature of life, and the permanence of God.

135 Meeting with Faustus, the famous “Manichee luminary”
Meets him while a teacher in Carthage At first he is impressed with his modesty Simply refuses to talk about things he doesn’t have knowledge of However, Faustus’ rhetorical flashiness does not impress Augustine, who claims that by this time he had learned to value the content of speech over mere loquacity. The net result of the interview was disillusionment . Augustine departs from this meeting with more doubts than ever about Manichee myths and pseudo-science (e.g. Astrology).

136 Augustine’s move to Milan
The young Augustine then moves from Carthage (where he finds his students too rowdy for his liking) to Rome (where he finds them too corrupt) and on to Milan, where he will remain until his conversion. Manichaean beliefs begin to lose their luster for him during this period; in time he will again consider himself an unbaptized Christian (a “catechumen”). Augustine encounters a number of important figures, including Ambrose (the Bishop of Milan) He also encounters the profound doubt of the skeptical school and comes close to total skepticism in his own philosophy.

137 Ambrose & Augustine Bishop Ambrose would be a major influence in Augustine's conversion to the Catholic faith

138 Allegorical Interpretation
Augustine becomes increasingly open to Christian philosophy and theology, primarily for the reason that he hears the Old Testament “figuratively interpreted” for the first time by Ambrose. This becomes the practical catalyst that allows Augustine to begin to move toward total faith in the church. Genesis, with its apparently intractable issues of a God that “created” and did things like a being who lived in time and in a body, suddenly seemed much more reasonable when “expounded spiritually.” The apparently sinful actions of the prophets of the Old Testament also took on new sense when read metaphorically.

139 Ambrose’s Interpretive Method
“The Letter kills, the Spirit gives Life.” A big step comes when Augustine learned that most Catholics do not take literally the passage in Genesis in which God makes man “in his own image.” He begins to suspect that other “knotty” passages in scripture may hide deeper meanings as well. Increasingly attracted to the refusal of the Catholic Church to offer “proofs” of its doctrines An engaging form of modesty Faith, not reason, is the basis for true knowledge Helps to alleviate his skepticism to some degree

140 Neo-Platonism Throughout The Confessions, Augustine uses Neoplatonic terms and ideas In Book 7 he reaches a point in his autobiography where he admits that Neoplatonism was the key to reconciling his long pursuit of philosophy with his new and serious faith in the Catholic church. The union of this philosophy and this theology guides his work for the rest of his life

141 Neo-Platonism Rejecting Manichaean dualism, he still needed answers to the following issues: The nature of God The problem of evil God is pure Spirit – immaterial, transcends the physical, incorruptible God is Being itself. The Soul is non-spatial just as God is non-spatial. Evil is the absence of good; not co-equal with good.

142 A “House Divided” Augustine’s vision of “Lady Continence”
His struggle with a division of wills "Tolle, lege; tolle, lege.” (“Pick up and read.”)

143 Romans 13:12-14 The night is far gone, the day is at hand.   Let us then cast off the works of darkness   and put on the armor of light;   let us conduct ourselves becomingly as in the day,   not in reveling and drunkenness,   not in debauchery and licentiousness,   not in quarreling and jealousy.   But put on the Lord Jesus Christ,   and make no provision for the flesh,   to gratify its desires.

144 The Baptism of Augustine and Adeodatus (387)

145 The rest of the story… Augustine ordained Priest (391)
Made bishop of Hippo Regius ( ) Jerome stated that Augustine “established anew the Christian faith.” Universally considered the most influential theologian of the Western Church

146 Two controversies Donatism Pelagianism
Developed Doctrine of the Church Sacraments as ex opere operato Pelagianism Developed Doctrine of Original Sin Doctrine of Grace Predestination

147 Augustine’s Works Augustine’s friend and biographer, Possidius, catalogued Augustine's works after his death and observed that no one would be able to read them all Among the vitally important works: Against the Academics On Free Will Confessions On the Trinity City of God On Christian Teaching Retractions concerning On Free Will Virtually innumerable letters, treatises, homilies, commentaries, expositions, sermons on Psalms

148 End of an Era

149 End of an Era 404 – Under pressure from Alaric and the Visigoths, the capital of the West moves from Rome to Ravenna 410 – Rome is sacked by Alaric, the last Roman legions leave Britain – The Vandals conquer six provinces of North Africa 430 – The Fall of Hippo (Vandals) 452 – Atilla the Hun invades Italy; Huns eventually driven back 455 – Vandals sack Rome 474 – Visigoths cease to recognize Roman supremacy 476 – The last Western emperor is deposed, and Odoacar is declared king of Italy


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