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Who wants to be a grammar millionaire? Developing your English grammar and expression Copyright © 2013 The University of Adelaide Dr Julia Miller School.

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Presentation on theme: "Who wants to be a grammar millionaire? Developing your English grammar and expression Copyright © 2013 The University of Adelaide Dr Julia Miller School."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Who wants to be a grammar millionaire? Developing your English grammar and expression Copyright © 2013 The University of Adelaide Dr Julia Miller School of Education / Discipline of Higher Education

3 What is your first/main language? Slide 2 How would you say this sentence in your language? The door of her cabin opened.

4 Sentence analysed The door of her cabin opened. Slide 3 Definite article – thePast simple – opened Ergative verb – opened

5 Session outline 1.Articles (a/an/the) 2.Tenses in academic writing 3.The passive voice (and ergative verbs!) 4.Who wants to be a grammar millionaire? 5.Further resources Slide 4

6 Help! While you watch, pay attention to the articles (a/an/the) in blue Slide 5

7 1. Articles: a, the or nothing? What do articles do? Articles tell us more about how we see nouns in English. A/An – the first time we use a noun The – shared knowledge about a noun or the way it is used 0 – general statements, or another word first (such as my or two) Slide 6

8 Articles: a, an, the or nothing? Think about your noun. – Is it countable (can you make it plural)? – Is it singular or plural? – Is it definite (both reader and writer know what you are referring to)? e.g. Are you going to the library? Slide 7

9 Slide 8

10 Choosing the right article Singular, countable noun Plural or uncountable noun Is it definite? Is it definite? Yes No Yes No the a/an the 0 Slide 9

11 Is the noun definite? Use the Both writer and reader know what it refers to. e.gI read two articles and a book. The book was very interesting. I went to a wedding last week. The bride looked beautiful. Slide 10

12 Some advice from Ms Parrot Slide 11

13 You try! Where would you put articles in Exercise 1 in your handout? How many times would you use the? English learners dictionaries are useful for many purposes, for both native and non-native speakers of English. Most popular five versions of these dictionaries are produced in UK. Most students would benefit from using such dictionary several times day when writing essay. Essay need not be complicated, but using good dictionary will improve quality of anyones writing. Slide 12

14 No article English learners dictionaries are useful for many purposes, for both native and non-native speakers of English. Most popular five versions of these dictionaries are produced in UK. Most students would benefit from using such dictionary several times day when writing essay. Essay need not be complicated, but using good dictionary will improve quality of anyones writing. Slide 13

15 Indefinite article English learners dictionaries are useful for many purposes, for both native and non-native speakers of English. Most popular five versions of these dictionaries are produced in UK. Most students would benefit from using such a dictionary several times a day when writing an essay. Essay need not be complicated, but using a good dictionary will improve quality of anyones writing. Slide 14

16 Definite article English learners dictionaries are useful for many purposes, for both native and non-native speakers of English. The most popular five versions of these dictionaries are produced in the UK. Most students would benefit from using such a dictionary several times a day when writing an essay. The essay need not be complicated, but using a good dictionary will improve the quality of anyones writing. Slide 15

17 The missing articles English learners dictionaries are useful for many purposes, for both native and non-native speakers of English. The most popular five versions of these dictionaries are produced in the UK. Most students would benefit from using such a dictionary several times a day when writing an essay. The essay need not be complicated, but using a good dictionary will improve the quality of anyones writing. Slide 16

18 Choosing the right article – reminder Singular, countable noun Plural or uncountable noun Is it definite? Is it definite? Yes No Yes No the a/an the 0 Slide 17

19 2. Verb tenses in academic writing Present simple – opinions and findings Past simple – finished actions Present perfect – findings that are still relevant; no date Slide 18

20 Slide 19 Use the present tense to explain or discuss current knowledge Continuing objectivese.g. This study aims to... General principles or lawse.g. Ohms law states that... Data or findingse.g. These results indicate... Opinion (even when expressed in the past) e.g. Brown (1997) claims that... Habitual state or action e.g. Water boils at 100 C.

21 Slide 20 Use the past simple tense to describe what previous researchers did or thought (but perhaps no longer think) Past objectives and actionsThe study aimed to... The interviews were held... The researchers found that... What people used to thinkIt was believed for many years that... Smith (1987) maintained that... but later revised his opinion.

22 Slide 21 Use the present perfect tense to show the current relevance of research Research conducted in the recent past and still important now Recent studies have indicated that this is no longer the case. Views held in the past and still held This has been a key issue for many years. Adapted from Winckel & Hart 2002, Swales & Feak 1994 and CALLR 2001

23 Which tense? Slide 22 Smith (2006) (maintain) that... - Smith (2006) maintains that... In Smiths experiment (2006), the researchers (heat) the liquid in a test tube. - In Smiths experiment (2006), the researchers heated the liquid in a test tube. Can you put these verbs from Exercise 2 in your handout into the correct tense?

24 More examples Researchers (prove) that chocolate is good for our health. Slide 23 - Researchers have proved recently that chocolate is good for our health. - Researchers proved in 1998 that chocolate is good for our health.

25 Which tense (more examples)? Shakespeare (say) that not all that glitters is gold. Slide 24 - Shakespeare says that not all that glitters is gold. Jones et al. (conduct) the first experiment in Jones et al. conducted the first experiment in Researchers already (try) to replicate the results. -Researchers have already tried to replicate the results.

26 3. Passives Slide 25 uni/passive-voice/ uni/passive-voice/

27 Stolen What part of speech is stolen? The past participle of to steal Someone had stolen her necklace. Her necklace had been stolen. Slide 26

28 Passives need the verb to be and a past participle Whats wrong here? 1.The new living experiences they want to have could be vary for each person. 2.Australia is well knowing as a multicultural country. 3.It has recognized that Australia is a well developed country. 1.The new living experiences they want to have could vary for each person – active – no verb to be 2.Australia is well known as a multicultural country – passive 3.It has been/is recognized that Australia is a well developed country – passive

29 Active to passive Several other travellers saw her in the corridor. She was seen in the corridor by several other travellers. Someone had stolen her necklace. Her necklace had been stolen. Slide 28

30 Now watch the video and look out for passives My necklace has been stolen, said Bobby. It was given to me by Prince Wolfgang of Hutt River Province. My necklace has been stolen too, said Dizzy, and my necklace was given to me by Prince Wolfgang! Ms Parrot was quickly summoned to solve the mystery. Dizzy was advised to look on the floor. Events need to be analysed carefully before conclusions are reached! Slide 29

31 Other passive constructions She went out to have her nails manicured. Both necklaces got covered by a handkerchief. She wanted to get it cleaned. Slide 30

32 Ergative verbs – Middle voice Someone broke the window. (Active) The window was broken. (Passive) The window broke. (Middle)

33 Examples from the story The speed increased. The train accelerated. The door opened. Slide 32

34 What is an ergative verb? An ergative verb can be active or passive. e.g. She opened the door. The door was opened. The door opened. Slide 33

35 Why does it matter? Many people misuse or ignore ergative verbs. e.g.The figures increased. The gap in earnings decreased. Slide 34

36 Ergative verbs in academic writing Are the verbs in Exercise 3 ergative? Scroll down for the list of ergative verbs. Slide 35

37 ActivePassiveErgative verbs James dropped the ball. The ball was dropped by James. The ball dropped. Peter kicked the ball. The ball was kicked by Peter. X (We cannot say, *The ball kicked.) Peter laughed. XX Exercise 3

38 ActivePassiveErgative verbs The fire burned the wood. The wood was burned by the fire. The wood burned. Jack coughed. XX Farmers grow crops. Crops are grown by farmers. Crops grow. The speaker discussed the topic. The topic was discussed by the speaker. X

39 ActivePassiveErgative verbs The revolution happened in XX Oswald killed Kennedy. Kennedy was killed by Oswald. X The economy has widened the gap between the rich and the poor. The gap... has been widened by the economy. The gap... has widened.

40 4. We need $1,000,000 to save English grammar. Who wants to be a grammar millionaire? $1,000,000 Slide 39

41 $100 Slide 40 Correct answer: c – no articles needed Does this sentence need an article? Some people live there. Does this sentence need an article? Some people live there. a) Yes – a (orange)b) Yes – the (blue) d) Yes – a and the (pink)

42 $1,000 Slide 41 Are the articles in this sentence correct? The wheels on the bus go round and round. b) No – it should be a wheels a) Yes – this is correct c) No – it should be round and a round d) No – it should be some of wheels Correct answer: a) Yes – the sentence is correct

43 $4,000 Slide 42 Which tense should the verb be in? Smith (suggest) (1999) that this is true. b) Present simple – suggests a)Past simple – suggested c) Present perfect – has suggested d) Past perfect – had suggested Correct answer: b) Present simple – suggests

44 $8,000 Slide 43 What two words are missing in this sentence? Australian dollar is stronger than American dollar. b) a/aa) the/a d) the/the Correct answer: d - The Australian dollar is stronger than the American dollar.

45 $16,000 Slide 44 Is this sentence correct? The liquid chocolate solidified. b) No. It should be was solidified. a) Yes, its correct. d) No. It should be was solidified by us. Correct answer: a – Its correct.

46 $64,000 Slide 45 Is this sentence grammatically correct? Researchers discover recently that everyone likes chocolate. b) Yes – its fine a) No – discovers, likes c) No – have discovered, likes d) No – discover, liked Correct answer: c – Researchers have discovered recently that everyone likes chocolate.

47 $132,000 Slide 46 Is this sentence grammatically correct? An university is the good place to study. b) No – A university is a good place to study. a) No – An university is a good place to study. c) Yes – Its fine.d) No – A university is the good place to study. Correct answer: 2: A university is a good place to study.

48 $200,000 Slide 47 Is this sentence grammatically correct? The number wrote. b) No – It can only be The number was written. a) No – It can only be Someone wrote the number. c) Yes – Its fine. d) No – It can be either Someone wrote the number or The number was written. Correct answer: d: Someone wrote the number or The number was written.

49 $250,000 Slide 48 Is this sentence grammatically correct? Some of people in this room dont like quiz shows! a) No – It can only be Some of the people c) Yes – Some of people is correct Correct answer: d: Some of the people/Some people are both correct. b) No – It can only be Some people d) Both – Some of the people and Some people are correct.

50 $500,000 Slide 49 Is this sentence grammatically correct? France, the United Kingdom, Portugal and the Netherlands are all in Europe. b) No – France, United Kingdom, Portugal, Netherlands, Europe a) No – The France, the United Kingdom, the Portugal, the Netherlands, the Europe c) Yes – Its fine. d) No – France, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Netherlands, the Europe Correct answer: c – its correct

51 $1,000,000 Slide 50 Correct this sentence as necessary: Master (1986) (say) that English article system (be) difficult system to understand. b) Master (1986) said that the English article system has been difficult system to understand. a) Master (1986) says that an English article system was difficult system to understand. c) Master (1986) says that the English article system is a difficult system to understand. d) Master (1986) says that an English article system is the difficult system to understand. Correct answer: c - Master (1986) says that the English article system is a difficult system to understand.

52 $1,000,000 Slide 51

53 Summary Articles What should you consider? Tenses Which tense do you use for – opinions and findings? – finished actions? – recent or still relevant research? Passives How can you use ergative verbs? Slide 52

54 5. Further resources Ms Parrots website: A learners dictionary. e.g. A concordancer Using English for Academic Purposes RMIT Learning Lab https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/ ESL café University of Adelaide Library Website Slide 53

55 The Writing Centre Location: Level 3, Hub Central Opening times: Monday – Friday: 10 am – 4 pm Website: Slide 54

56 Evaluation If you would like to give some feedback on this lecture, please fill in the evaluation form and return it to the front. The feedback form is confidential, and you will not be identified in the feedback. Slide 55

57 Time for action! What will you use from this lecture? What was most helpful? Is anything still unclear? Slide 56

58 References Centre for Applied Language and Literacy Research, Edith Cowan University 2001, Writing a literature review, viewed 15 August 2006,.http://www.ecu.edu.au/ses/research/CALLR/WRITING/tense.html Master, PA 1986, Science, medicine and technology: English grammar and technical writing, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. Swales, JM & Feak, CB 1994, Academic writing for graduate students, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Winckel, A & Hart, B 2002, Report writing style guide for engineering students, 4 th edn, University of South Australia, Adelaide. Slide 57

59 Thank you. Have a great year! Slide 58


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