Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer Note: Guilt introduces a division between the person who feels guilt and other individuals. Write a paragraph about a time when you felt."— Presentation transcript:
1Bell RingerNote: Guilt introduces a division between the person who feels guilt and other individuals.Write a paragraph about a time when you felt guilty. Include an explanation of how you overcame that feeling.We will return to your paragraphs after reading the poem.
2About the SelectionColeridge has developed a fantastical vocabulary of images with which to explore the isolation created by guilt.This poem vividly illustrates the torments guilt can create and the horror of complete isolation from society.The central character, the ancient Mariner, recounts the tale of his crime against life and the physical and emotional punishments his action sets in motion.
4IllustrationsMost of the illustrations in this presentation are part of a series of illustrations created by Gustave Doré in 1875.Doré, who was born in 1832, in Strasbourg, France, near the German border, moved to Paris in 1847.A self-taught artist, Doré refined his technique through independent study of engraving at the National Library in Paris.
9Wherefore stopp’st thou me? This engraving:three men are en route to a wedding feastan ancient Mariner detains one of the menthe eyes of the man detained suggest that he is a bit annoyed (perhaps a bit afraid)The opening of the frame narrative, Lines 1-16
10Literary Elements What is the stanza structure? What is the rhyme scheme of the selection?
11Explanation Stanzas are four lines long The rhyme scheme is abcb This is the form typical of early English ballads, reinforcing the impression that the dramatic story is set in the Middle Ages
12Diction: Lines 5-16Note the use of archaic verb forms (stoppeth, may’st) and pronoun forms (thy, thou)What conclusion do you draw about the use of this diction?
13ExplanationLike the archaic word “rime” and the ballad elements, the verb forms suggest the past. The author’s diction also reinforces the unfamiliar setting and helps establish the fantastic nature of the work.NOTE: Thou is the nominative form of “you.”Thee is the objective form of “you.”The verb ending –st indicates the second person.The verb ending –th or –eth indicates the third person.
14Poetic Sound Devicesinternal rhyme: the use of rhyme within a poetic line—having a word in the middle of a line rhyme with the end word. assonance: the repetition of a vowel sound in stressed syllables with different consonant sounds.
15Literary AnalysisWhat examples of internal rhymes and assonance can you find in lines 5-8?
17What effect does the ancient Mariner have on the Wedding Guest? Reading Check: Lines 13-20What effect does the ancient Mariner have on the Wedding Guest?
18The Wedding GuestThe Mariner has a hypnotic effect on the Wedding Guest who is spellbound by the eye of the old seafaring soul. The ancient man insists that the younger man must hear a tale. (Lines 17-20)The wedding guest hears the Mariner begin his tale. Lines 17-20
19Lines The ship was cheered, the harbor cleared / merrily did we drop / Below the Kirk, below the hill / Below the lighthouse top.
20Lines 25-28 The Sun came up upon the left, / Out of the sea came he Lines The Sun came up upon the left, / Out of the sea came he! / And he shone bright, and on the right / Went down into the sea.
21Lines 21-32: The Mariner tells how the ship sailed away from his home harbor, out of sight of the church and the lighthouse, continuing southward with a good wind and fair weather till it reached the Line (equator).Illustration not by Doré.
22Red as a rose is the bride The wedding guest , who has already explained that he is “next of kin,” hears the bridal music and wants to go on to the feast, but the mariner continues his tale.The bride and groom arrive for the wedding banquet, LinesCompare the event and setting of this scene from the frame narrative with the illustration "The Mariner's Isolation" from the central narrative of the Mariner's voyage. What is the thematic and structural significance of the frame narrative in relation to the central narrative?
23LinesWhy does the poet interrupt the Mariner’s tale at this point?
24ExplanationThe interruption reminds the reader that the wedding is about to start and that the Wedding Guest should go but cannot because he feels compelled to stay and listen.The pause signals a dramatic shift in the narrative and the introduction of the fantastic.
25What is the effect of the archaic word “spake” in line 39?
26AnswerThe use of the archaic form of “spoke,” lends the poem a feeling of ancient mystery and fantasy.
27The ship fled the stormLines 41-50: A storm blew in and drove the ship toward the South Pole. (Shortly after setting out, the ship encountered bad weather).
28The storm blew them, further and faster, southward—
29LinesWhy does the poet shift from four-line stanzas to a six-line stanza?
30ExplanationWe have become accustomed to a certain pace. The new length forces us to read faster as the rhythm echoes the effects of the storm that drives the ship onward.
31And it grew wondrous cold Lines 51-54: “And ice, mast-high, came floating by…”The land of ice and of fearful sounds, where no living thing was to be seen.
32Reading Skill: Sound Devices Lines 51-54: Alternation of long and short sounds of the vowel a in line 53 (“mast-high, came”) and the alternation of long and short sounds of the vowel e in line 54 (“As green as emerald”) create a wavelike movement; the contrast emphasizes the words with the long sound (came and green).
33The ice was all aroundLines 59-62: The ice was here, the ice was there / The ice was all around; / It cracked and growled, and roared and howled, / like noises in a swound!Hope of Rescue--Lines 55-66: When their ship is caught in the ice at the South Pole, the sailors hail the arrival of the albatross as a good omen signifying their approaching freedom. How does this drawing illustrate the tension the poem creates between the themes of isolation and communion?
34OnomatopoeiaIdentify four examples of this literary device in lines 59-62Discuss the effect of using the device here
35crackedgrowledroaredhowledThe effect is to make the ice seem more like a supernatural monster than a natural feature to be found in polar regions
36Text StructuresThe plot incidents work on two levels. One level involves a physical journey from a familiar environment to wild, remote regions of the globe and back.What, do you think, is the other level?
37ExplanationThe other level is a spiritual journey which takes the ancient Mariner from innocence to the point of damnation and back toward a state of redemption.
38The albatrossLines 63-78: Then, a great sea bird called the Albatross came through the snow-fog and was received by the crew with great joy and hospitality.The Albatross proves to be a bird of good omen and follows the ship as it returns northward through fog and floating ice.
39Critical Thinking: Lines 71 - 82 Why does the poet continuously describe the Mariner’s eyes as “glittering” and “bright”?
40ExplanationHe is suggesting that the Mariner has a “mad glint” in his eye. Such a gleam may be seen in other literary characters who are controlled by a force outside themselves.Have you ever seen Stephen King’s The Shining, for example? What is the look in the eye of the character played by Jack Nicholson?
41I shot the albatrossLines 79-82: The ancient Mariner inhospitably kills the pious bird of good omen.The illustration depicts the bird as innocent and unaware that it is about to be shot. The engraving captures the instant just prior to the arrow’s strike.
42Author’s Craft DICTION The gloss or marginal notes in the right margin have been added by the poet. The poet uses these notes to help the reader accept the supernatural elements in the story. (The author’s voice helps readers suspend their disbelief by providing a “rational” voice and perspective on the fantastic events in the story.
44What do these lines tell you? Lines The Sun now rose upon the right / Out of the sea came he, / Still hid in mist, and on the left / Went down into the sea.What do these lines tell you?
45ExplanationThe sun now rises on the right and sets on the left. The wind blows from the south, driving the ship northward from Antarctica.
46Comparing and Contrasting Sound Devices How does the use of alliteration and internal rhyme in lines give a fatal feeling to the Mariner’s deed?
47AnswerAlliteration and internal rhyme add emphasis to and slow down lines of poetry. The devices also make the words involved seem to follow one another as if they were fated, since sound as well as sense requires the use of these particular words. In this way, the alliterations had/hellish, would/work/woe, and breeze/blow, along with the internal rhyme averred/bird, make the stanza portentous and contribute to the fatal feeling of the Mariner’s action.
48I had done a hellish thing The shipmates cried out against the Ancient Mariner for killing the bird of good luck.
49The Mariner’s Isolation ’Twas right said they, such birds to slay, / That bring the fog and mist.Though they cried out against him at first, when the fog cleared the shipmates justified the Mariner’s actions, thus making themselves accomplices in the crime.
50I had done a hellish thing This illustration depicts the Mariner's attitude after killing the albatross.Compare and contrast the drawing with the Wedding Celebration drawing from the frame narrative.
51So LonelyLines 87-90: “And the good south wind still blew behind, / But no sweet bird did follow. / Nor any day for food or play / Came to the mariners’ hollo!”
52The fair breeze continues; the ship enters the Pacific Ocean, and sails northward till it reaches the Line. Suddenly, the ship is becalmed.Read lines How does the repetition of words contribute to the image of the stilled ship?
53AnswerThe repetition of words echoes the ship’s condition of rest; like the ship, the line does not move, since the same words keep returning.
54Critical Thinking: Lines 91 - 103 What cause and effect is at work when the crew members change their minds about the Mariner’s killing of the bird? In other words, why do they change their minds?
55ExplanationThe fog lifts after the bird is killed, so the crew members hold the bird responsible for the fog, justifying the mariner’s action.This incorporation of superstition is a Gothic element.
56Internal RhymeTwo examples here are “blew”/ “flew” in line 103, and “first” / “burst” in line 105. (You will recall that the first use of this technique was “met” / “set” in line 7.
57FYITwo of the most frequently quoted phrases from English poetry are found in lines 117 – 122:“painted ship upon a painted ocean” and “water, water, everywhere, nor any drop to drink.”
58Water, water, everywhere Lines : The Albatross begins to be avenged. The shipmates now want to throw all the blame back on the Mariner, so they hang the carcass of the Albatross around his neck.Analyze: What effects does the artist (Gustave Dore) use to capture the eereie mood of the poem?Possible Answer: Here, the artist uses the contrast of light and darkness as well as layout to capture the eerie mood of the poem. Most of the suffering sailors lie in the darkest part of the illustration and at the bottom of the illustration. Only a very few sailors are at the top of the light.
59Artistic effectsElements in the engraving that reveal the sailors’ thirst and suffering include a man grasping his head in anguish, a sailor bent over the side of the ship as if imploring the heavens, and the general mass of men lying prostrate or with heads bowed.Analyze: What effects does the artist (Gustave Dore) use to capture the eereie mood of the poem?Possible Answer: Here, the artist uses the contrast of light and darkness as well as layout to capture the eerie mood of the poem. Most of the suffering sailors lie in the darkest part of the illustration and at the bottom of the illustration. Only a very few sailors are at the top of the light.
60Read lines 127-130, focusing on the sound devices. Notice that the increased concentration—the massing together of sound devices in these lines—has the dramatic effect of a chant or incantation.
61The Death-Fires danced at night St. Elmo’s Fire, a visible electrical discharge from a ship’s mast, believed by sailors to be an omen of disaster.This engraving captures the wonder and dreamlike qualities of the poem. The Mariner, alone on the deck, is left to observe the fantastical spirits and creatures surrounding the ship.
62What’s Up? The ship is becalmed. They are in “the doldrums” which refers to an area, or belt, near the Equator in parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.Weather in the doldrums is characterized by no wind or very light winds.In ancient times, while becalmed, crews used up their precious stores of food and water while making no progress toward their destination.Fresh water was especially important because the salinity of ocean water not only makes it undrinkable but also causes illness.
63Instead of the cross, the Albatross / About my neck was hung.
64SummaryThe ship sets out in familiar waters that are described realistically. Its voyage carries it into uncharted regions that take on qualities of a nightmare.
66Nine fathom deep he had followed me A Spirit had followed them; one of the invisible inhabitants of the planet, neither departed souls nor angels. These spirits are very numerous, and there is no climate or element without one or more.“Nine fathom deep” is repeated in line 377.
67What poetic effect does Coleridge use in lines 149-153 to build suspense?
68Here, Coleridge uses repetition to build suspense.
69What is the effect of repeating the old-fashioned word wist?
70The word wist brings the sound of water splashing against the hull of the ship.
71Fantastic Language and Archaic Vocabulary also contribute to the mood of a poem
72Line 168: Hither to work us weal Words like hither and weal set this line apart from contemporary culture.
73Mood What mood does this engraving evoke? The mood is despairing and hopeless.
75The death ship nearsLines : The ancient Mariner sees a far off speck. As it gets nearer, he thinks it is a ship, so he moistens his parched throat with his own blood so that he can shout, “A sail! A sail!”
76Lines 165 - 166 Can you see ambiguity in these lines? (In other words, could the lines be interpretted more than one way?)
77Possible meaningsLike the Mariner, the other sailors are drinking blood—an initiation rite in vampire tales.“As” could mean “as if.” This would lead to the interpretation that the lines are a simile and that the sailors are symbolically “drinking in the sight.”
78What reactions to the sighting of the other ship would you expect from the sailors? Can you find such reactions in the engraving?
79One would expect the other sailors would experience joy and relief at the sighting of another ship on the horizon. The sailors in the engraving do not look joyful. Some are lost in their despair, while those who seem aware of the other ship’s approach still seem grim.Possible explanations?
80Perhaps a flash of joy followed by horror Perhaps a flash of joy followed by horror. What ship can come around without wind or tide?Illustrations not by Doré.
81It seems but the skeleton of a ship The ribs of the ship are seen as bars in the face of the setting sun.Image of the Black Pearl from Pirates of the Caribbean.
82Read LinesIn what way does the name of the woman—Life-in-Death—add to the eerie, mysterious atmosphere of the story?
83The name of the woman is like something from an old nightmare, and it adds to the mysterious feeling of the story.
84the game is done!Lines : As the ghost ship carrying Death and his mate, Life-In-Death, approaches, the two specters play a game for possession of the sailors' lives. Death wins the Mariner's shipmates, but Life-In-Death wins the Mariner.
85Line 214: “Four times fifty living men,” Coleridge’s archaic way of expressing numbers makes the story seem more fanciful than real, contributing to the fairy-tale atmosphere.
86Each… cursed me with his eye Lines : At the rising of the Moon, one after another, the ancient Mariner’s shipmates drop dead around him, but the curse lives on in the eye of each of the dead men.Punishment:While his companions drop dead around him, the Mariner remains alive, wearing the albatross around his neck as a symbol of his guilt. Although he is surrounded, he remains alone.
88Fear not, fear not, thou Wedding Guest The wedding guest interrupts, saying that he fears the ancient Mariner is a Spirit, but the ancient Mariner reassures the man and continues with the tale of his horrible penance.
89No saint took pityLife-in-Death begins her work on the ancient Mariner. No saint will release him to the peace of death.
90What element of this engraving reflects the Mariner’s spiritual experience? HUMANITIES:Q: How does the light in the illustration relate to the Mariner’s description of events?A: The light is on the boat, just as the wind blows on the Mariner and his ship.
91Possible AnswerThe boat is isolated amidst a sea of dark and turbulent water; the Mariner is spiritually isolated amidst the dark and turbulent experiences of death and despair.
92Critical ViewingIdentify two elements in this engraving that create a gloomy, suspense-filled atmosphere.
93AnalysisThe engraving depicts a dark day at sea, and the shadows give the feeling that something might happen.
94Lines“A thousand thousand slimy things / Lived on; and so did I.”He despises the creatures and is upset that he and they should live on while so many men have died.
95I looked upon the rotting sea “And drew my eyes away / I looked upon the rotting deck,/ And there the dead men lay.” (Lines )The other sailors have died with their eyes gaping at the Mariner.
96The repetition in these lines emphasizes the starkness of the Mariner’s situation—the fact that he has “no way out.”
97And yet I could not dieLine 262: He has no place to turn for comfort, finding only dead men on the ship and slimy life in the ocean.
98The moving moon went up to the sky Lines : In his loneliness, he yearns toward the journeying Moon, and toward the stars that stay for a while yet still move onward, noting that everywhere the blue sky belongs to them.He notes that the sky is the appointed rest and native country of the Moon and stars, and their own natural home, which they enter unannounced—as lords who are certainly expected—and yet there is a silent joy at their arrival.
99Analyzing Patterns of Imagery Definition: Putting patterns together to reveal the theme and understand the tone of a literary work.
100Read LinesHow does Coleridge’s pattern of imagery in these lines help set the tone of the poem?
101The first reference to color, describing the calm, enamored body of water, seems to suggest intensity and danger. The second reference to color connects the image of life and beauty with the movement of the snakes. The images show that nature can be both frightening and beautiful.
102I watched the water-snakes Lines :By the light of the Moon, he sees God’s creatures of the sea and begins to appreciate them for their beauty, silently blessing them in his heart.Thus, the Mariner finds some form of redemption when he blesses the water snakes—and the albatross falls from his neck.
103What does the engraving suggest about the attitude of the Mariner at this moment? The picture suggests remorse in the eyes of the Mariner as he looks off in the distance.
104Compare and ContrastHow does Coleridge’s description of the creatures of the great calm compare and contrast with the artist’s representation of them?Thus, the Mariner finds some form of redemption when he blesses the water snakes—and the albatross falls from his neck.The picture suggests remorse in the eyes of the Mariner as he looks off in the distance.
105The artist has skillfully represented water snakes moving in “tracks of shining white” (Line 274), but the etching does not seem to depict “every track was a flash of golden fire” (Line 281).
106Read Lines 288-91 1.What two events happen in these lines? 2. How does the connection of the two events add to the fairy-tale quality of the story?
1071. As soon as the Mariner is able to pray, the albatross falls from his neck and sinks into the sea. 2. When he admires and feels love for the water snakes, the ancient Mariner reconnects himself to nature and the forces of life, so the dead albatross, the symbol of his rejection of nature, falls from around his neck. The coordination of internal events (the Mariner’s discovery of love) with external, symbolic events (the dropping off of the albatross) is characteristic of fairy tales.
115“I fear thee, ancient Mariner” This again frightens the wedding guest, and the Mariner explains that it was not the souls of the men, nor the demons of earth or middle air that made the ship move…
116Read LinesHow does the alliteration enhance the description of the boat’s smooth progress?
117Alliteration enables the language of these lines to flow effortlessly from one word to another, in a fashion that mimics the boat’s slow and smooth progress.
118The sails made on a pleasant noise …but a blessed troop of angelic spirits, sent down by the invocation of the guardian saint.Line 377, another reference to the spirit that follows “nine fathom deep.” This lonesome spirit from the South Pole carries the ship as far as the Line in obedience to the angelic troop but still requires vengeance.
119I fell down in a swound Line 392. The Mariner’s living life has returned, and he has been cast into a trance because the angelic power causes the vessel to drive northward faster than human life can endure.Line : “’For slow and slow that ship will go, / When the Mariner’s trance is abated.’”
120Art and HumanitiesWhich details in the picture suggest that it is the spirit “From the land of mist and snow” (Line 378) that is making “the ship to go” (Line 380)?Line : “’For slow and slow that ship will go, / When the Mariner’s trance is abated.’”
121The white clouds of mist surrounding the ship suggest that something mystical and otherworldly “made the ship to go.”
122Art and HumanitiesWhich details in the illustration convey the mood of hopelessness?Line : “’For slow and slow that ship will go, / When the Mariner’s trance is abated.’”
123The position of the Mariner—flat on his back with hands grasping at the ropes—conveys a mood of hopelessness. The ship’s askew position also contributes to the mood.
125Without Wind or Wave“But tell me, tell me! Speak again, / Thy soft response renewing— / What makes the ship drive on so fast? / What is the ocean doing?”
126Two voices in the air Part IV Line The Polar Spirit’s fellow demons, the invisible inhabitants of the element, take part in his wrong, and two of them relate, one to the other, that penance, long and heavy for the ancient Mariner, has been accorded to the Polar Spirit, who now returns southward.Lines : Poetic sound devices: What instance of assonance can you find in these lines?Do you recognize the assonance in words like ocean and no in line 415 and eye and silently in line 416?
127What do the two voices discuss? Reading CheckWhat do the two voices discuss?
128AnswerThe two voices discuss whether or not the ancient Mariner has performed his penance for killing the albatross, and they discuss the progress of the ship.
129Literary Analysis Question: Poetic Sound Devices How do the two voices contribute to Coleridge’s creation of a dream world?
130Possible AnswerThe voices that the ancient Mariner overhears are disembodied. They discuss his actions and his fate as if they had complete knowledge of him. These facts suggest that they are supernatural powers, as might be encountered in a dream world.
131LinesThe Mariner awakes from his trance, and the supernatural motion is retarded; however, he feels that his penance has begun anew because he cannot take his eyes from the eyes of the dead crew and this tweaks the pain of the pang of their deaths. Suddenly, he realizes the spell has snapped. The curse is finally expiated (atoned for).
132The shadow of the moonLines : The ancient Mariner beholds a harbor bay.What familiar things does the Mariner suddenly see?
133The top of the lighthouse, the hill, the kirk, and his own country. AnswerThe top of the lighthouse, the hill, the kirk, and his own country.
134In crimson colors came Lines 480-499. HUMANITIES QUESTION: Which elements of this and other engravings reveal the influence of the Romantic period in which Doré was born?Redeeming spirits:Lines : Realizing he is not truly alone, the Mariner sees the sea creatures around him and "blesses them unawares." The act of love causes the albatross to drop from his neck, and angelic spirits approach to begin his redemption. Animating the corpses of the crew, the spirits steer the ship back to the Mariner's home. Compare these supernatural creatures with the spectres of Death and Life-In-Death. How do the poem's supernatural beings reflect opposing forces in the Mariner's own soul?
135Possible AnswerThe intricately drawn waves of the sea and the flowing robes of the spirits reveal the influence of the Romantic period.
136TRADITION OF FANTASY IN BRITISH LITERATURE imaginary worlds treated with great liveliness and attention to detail (echoed by Jonathan Swift in his epic Gulliver’s Travels, by Lewis Carroll in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, by Jules Verne in 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, by C. S. Lewis in The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe).incorporated in popular contemporary fiction (Ex.: J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter novels)
137Lines :What images in these lines contribute to the fantastical atmosphere in the poem?
138AnswerFantastic elements in these lines include the shapes, shadows, and crimson colors in lines 482-3, the angelic figures that appear by the dead bodies, the “lovely light” given off by the seraphs, and the musical quality of the silence in lines
139LinesThese lines are less crowded with sound devices than the lines describing the Mariner’s nightmarish sea journey. This shift in language matches the shift in mood—the language becomes less rich and surreal as the Mariner finds his way home.
141The skiff-boat neared Part VII Lines 514-22 What does the Mariner think that the Hermit will do for him?
142The Mariner thinks that the Hermit will absolve him from his sins. AnswerThe Mariner thinks that the Hermit will absolve him from his sins.
143Coleridge borrowed from medieval traditions in writing his poem. Lines 523-6Coleridge borrowed from medieval traditions in writing his poem.Which word might Coleridge have borrowed from medieval tales of knights?
144Answer:The word trow (meaning believe) comes from the lexicon of medieval chivalry.
145Read Lines 556-559 Identify any poetic effects in the lines. What impact do these effects contribute?
146Answers 1. Internal rhyme: still and hill Alliteration: whirl/where, sank/ship, still/saveRepetition: “round and round”2.The poetic effects contribute to the momentum of the lines.
147The whirlThe ship suddenly sinks. The ancient Mariner is saved in the Pilot’s boat.
148The PilotThis engraving illustrates the stanzas of the poem in which the Mariner is saved in the Pilot’s boat.
149shrieve (archaic form of shrive) [v] 1) to administer the sacrament of reconciliation; 2) to free from guilt; 3) to confess one’s sins, esp. to a priest. (Miriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary)
150Oh shrieve me, holy manLine 574: The Mariner earnestly pleads with the Hermit to perform the rite which will absolve the Mariner of guilt.
151Read LinesWhat happens to the ancient Mariner in these lines?
152The penance of life falls on him, and his body is taken over by a powerful, painful force which compels him to tell his story teaching love for “all things both great and small.”
153Strange power of speech Lines : The Mariner must tell his tale as a continued punishment for killing the albatross.He travels from land to land repeating the tale.
154What do you think is meant by “strange power of speech”?
155I know the man that must hear me Lines : “To him my tale I teach.”The alliteration in this line emphasizes the centrality of the tale to the story and points to the selection process of the recipient.On-going Penance:Lines : The Mariner reveals that his on-going penance involves repeating his tale to selected listeners. In this illustration, the Mariner is accosting a man to whom he will tell his story. Why does the Mariner's tale bring horror as well as wisdom to his listeners? What features of the illustration suggest that the Mariner's story is one of both terror and redemption?
156The wedding guestsLines : “What loud uproar bursts from that door! / The wedding guests are there: / But in the garden bower the bride / An bridesmaids singing are:”
157The Mariner is goneLines : “He went like one that had been stunned / And is of sense forlorn: / A sadder and a wiser man, / He rose the morrow morn.”What do you infer from lines ?
158SourcesColeridge, Samuel Taylor. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. Prentice Hall Literature: The British Tradition. Texas Teacher’s Edition. Grant Wiggins, et al., Eds. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Print.Doré, Gustave. “Images from Gustave Doré‘s illustrations to The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.” Art Passions. 20 January Web. <http://dore.artpassions.net/>.