Presentation on theme: "Anna Grigorian, M.S. David Vest, B.A.. Mood & Food Statistics Major life events- from work stress to divorce- can trigger emotions that lead to overeating."— Presentation transcript:
Mood & Food Statistics Major life events- from work stress to divorce- can trigger emotions that lead to overeating. 62% of Americans say work has a significant impact on stress levels. 73% of Americans name money as the number one factor that affects their stress level. Stress has not only been linked with increased food consumption in certain individuals but has also been reported to shift their food choices from lower fat to higher fat foods Binge-eating is a pattern of disordered eating during which a person periodically is unable to exercise control over the consumption of food, usually in response to a stressful situation. Between 2% and 5% of Americans experience binge-eating disorder in a 6-month period Approximately 35% of people with binge-eating disorder are male.
Food as a source of security Eriksons 1 st Stage Conflict: Trust vs. Mistrust Task: To develop a sense that the world is safe & good Psychological Theme: Dependency on others to meet needs Mother (food) is main source of meeting needs = security Effects on Adulthood: Food represents comfort.
Food as a source of security Freuds Oral Stage Physical Focus: Mouth/sucking (food) = pleasure Psychological Theme: Dependency on others to meet needs If needs not fulfilled or over-fulfilled person becomes fixated in this stage Adulthood Tendencies : Dependency and passive character or complete independence and a demanding character. Preoccupation with oral activities. Predisposed to overeating.
Security and Attachment Attachment … is the lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969) serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the child's chances of survival Security (via transitional object) A security object can give a child both emotional and tangible comfort, especially during times of stress
Food & Culture Food in time of celebration and food in time of sorrow: A lifetime of eating emotionally
If food plays such a big role in our lives, why is emotional eating aproblem??
Research Data (Most research on Emotional Eating has been conducted in Europe) The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4 th ed. Text Revision provides three diagnosis Anorexia Nervosa (307.1) Bulimia Nervosa (307.51) Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (307.50) These disorders are characterized by a disturbance in perception of body shape and weight Prevelance :AN=0.5% Females; 0.01%Males BN=1-3% Females; 0.01% Males
Research Data (Cont.) International Classification of Diseases 9 th Ed. Clinical Manual (ICD9 CM) Contains Additional Classification of Obesity (278.0)
Research Data (Cont.) Emotional eating in reaction to negative affect Study: Effects of Negative Mood Induction and Impulsivity on Self-Perceived Emotional Eating (Bekker,M., Meerendonk, C., & Mollerus, J.; 11/12/03) Participants: 84 female college students (Tilburg, Netherlands) Experiment: Two groups where mood questionnaires, emotional eating questionnaire, and a quiz were given to each participant separately. One group was inducted with how well they had done on the quiz and told that the test results were important to the University; the other group was not. Participants were re-tested after a short break.
Research Data (Cont.) Results: Negative affect compared with neutral affect resulted in statistically significant higher levels of self-perceived emotional eating. Negative Affect Neutral Affect ImpulsivityBefore QuizAfter QuizBefore QuizAfter Quiz High37.92 (9.9)46.00 (8.3)39.00 (9.9)39.77 (10.8) Low33.38 (11.6)38.38 (12.1)33.46 (11.7)36.46 (13.2) Mean scores (and SDs)
Research Data (Cont.) Cognitive and Behavioral Study: Emotional Eating and Eating Disorder Psychopathology (Lindeman, M. & Stark, K.; 2001) Participants: 129 Female, Volunteer, University Students Test: Each participant was provided Cloningers Temperament and Character Inventory then comparison was made with each participant after completing Eating Disorders Inventory and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire
Research Data (Cont.) Results: Positive Correlations Found between certain diagnosed behaviors, cognition, and temperament
Research Data (Cont.) Cultural Study: Emotional Eating and Eating Psychopathology in Nonclinical Groups: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Women in Japan and the United Kingdom (Waller, G. & Matoba, M.; 1997) Participants: 90 women split into three groups; Japanese women in Japan, Japanese women from Japan now living in Great Britain, and Brtish women Procedure: All women were provided self-reporting questionnaires
Research Data (Cont.) Results: Cross cultural differences were noted as well as significance in acculturation
Research Current research is aimed at establishing general links in to how emotional eating effects people and why it develops into pathology for some and not others Recent research has discovered links between bulimic tendency and emotional eating Emotional eating is cognitive, behavioral, and affective with emerging research suggesting that it is also cultural
How to break the cycle (and avoid becoming a statistic)
Self-Help Dos Do learn to recognize true hunger Keep a log to track your triggers Do look elsewhere for comfort Try an enjoyable activity- knitting, running, drawing, etc. Try a relaxation exercise when youre stressed Do snack healthy Dont keep high calorie/sugary foods around Do eat a balanced diet Do practice mindfulness
Mindfulness: A Closer Look Drawn from Buddhist meditative tradition Therapy is generated internally with the client Thoughts are like leaves floating down a river The client has the ability to look at each thought WITHOUT emotional charge or whether it is rational or irrational Clients can pick and choose which thought to analyze and do so objectively not subjectively Clients are encouraged to sit with each thought, analyzing it as much as possible so that the thought is understood and can appear with more or less frequency while understanding that thoughts are constantly moving and nothing more than just a thought
Outside Help Seek a… M.D. To rule out any medical problems Nutritionist To plan a healthy diet with balanced meals Therapist To help you process and address personal root-causes of overeating