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FOOD SAFETY ISSUES Dr. S K Saxena, Director, Export Inspection Council (EIC) Ministry of Commerce and Industry New Delhi

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Presentation on theme: "FOOD SAFETY ISSUES Dr. S K Saxena, Director, Export Inspection Council (EIC) Ministry of Commerce and Industry New Delhi"— Presentation transcript:

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2 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES Dr. S K Saxena, Director, Export Inspection Council (EIC) Ministry of Commerce and Industry New Delhi

3 2 Export Inspection Council of India 2 FOOD Food Means any article used as food or drink for Human Consumption other than Drug and also includes: -Any article which enters or used in the composition or preparation of food -Any flavoring matter or condiments -Any other article notified by the Central Govt. e.g. Packaged Drinking Water.

4 3 Export Inspection Council of India 3 Law of Land No person shall manufacture, sell, stock, distribute, Transport or exhibit for sale any article of food, including prepared, ready to served or irradiated food except under a license/Registration by FSSAI.

5 4 Export Inspection Council of India 4 Food Safety Assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/ or eaten according to its intended use.

6 5 Export Inspection Council of India 5 International Trade : India FY (Total) Export $ 304 Billion (20.94% Growth) Import $ 488 Billion (32.15% Growth) FY (Food & Agri) Export $ Billon (56% Growth/Share 8.7%) Import $ Billion

7 6 Export Inspection Council of India 6 National/International Regime: Food Safety FSSAI/FAO, WHO, WTO, CODEX, OIE, IPPC including SPS, TBT 1.Consumer Safety (Prime Importance) 2. Fair Trade Practice (Fraud/Adulteration)

8 7 Export Inspection Council of India 7 Food Safety Issues Physical Hazards Chemical Hazards Biological Hazards Adulteration Hazards

9 8 Export Inspection Council of India 8 National Regime: Ensuring Food Safety National Food Control System (Primary Responsibility) Single Competent Authority Multiple Competent Authorities In India: FSSAI (Domestic & Import), EIC (Export), APEDA, MPEDA, Spice Board, Tea Board etc.

10 9 Export Inspection Council of India 9 Global Food safety issues

11 10 Export Inspection Council of India 10 Export Inspection Council of India Food Safety Issues Travel Very Fast Food Safety Information Travel Faster than Sound and Light

12 11 Export Inspection Council of India 11 Export Inspection Council of India Food Safety and Regulators Export :(Pre-shipment Inspection, Sampling, Testing and Certification) by EIC Import: (Sampling, Testing, Transportation and Sale) by FSSAI/EIC Domestic: (Processing, Testing, Storage, Transportation and Sale) by EIC/FSSAI/BIS

13 12 Export Inspection Council of India 12 Export Inspection Council of India Important Pillars of National Food Control System Legislation/Regulation Inspection Testing (Backbone) Food Chemist Enforcement

14 13 Export Inspection Council of India 13 Export Inspection Council of India THREATS:FOOD BORNE ILLNESS Food borne illness- Disease transmitted to humans by eating Unsafe/Contaminated food. Outbreak- Development of food borne illness by two or more people that eat a common food that is identified as the source of the illness.

15 14 Export Inspection Council of India 14 Export Inspection Council of India Type of food borne illness Infection Ingesting food contaminated with living pathogenic microorganism A bacterial infection occurs when an infective dose of bacteria are eaten e.g. Salmonella, E. coli Intoxication Ingesting food contaminated with the toxins produced by photogenic (disease causes) micro-organism A bacterial Intoxication occurs when a toxin produced by certain bacteria is eaten & causes a reaction-e.g. Staphylococcus aurous, botulism.

16 15 Export Inspection Council of India 15 Export Inspection Council of India What causes food borne illness Failure to thoroughly cook or heat food Failure to properly cool processed food Infected employees who practice poor personal hygiene Food allowed to remain at bacteria-incubating temperatures Raw contaminated ingredients incorporated into foods that receive no further heat treatment Cross contamination of processed foods with raw item either by workers who mishandle foods or through improperly cleaned equipment.

17 16 Export Inspection Council of India 16 Export Inspection Council of India Seven categories of food poisoning 1.Natural Food Poisoning This is caused by type of plant and fish that are toxin to humans E.g. rhubarb leaves, poisonous mushroom, puffer, fish. 2.Chemical Food Poisoning This is caused by chemicals accidentally or negligently getting into food. E.g. Overuse of insecticides, cleaning agents, heavy metal contamination of fish from industrial areas.

18 17 Export Inspection Council of India 17 Export Inspection Council of India Continued 3. Bacterial Food Poisoning Five most common bacterial poisoning are: 1. Salmonella-infection 2. Staphylococcus aureus-intoxication 3. Clostridium perfringens-infection and intoxication 4. Bacillus cereus- infection and intoxication 5. Vibrio parahaemolyticus- infectio 4. Viral Food borne Infection Viruses are transported by the food to the human body and than multiply. E.g. hapatitis A, gastroenteritis

19 18 Export Inspection Council of India 18 Export Inspection Council of India RESPONSIBLE AGENTS FOR FOOD POISONING Micro-organisms Micro-organism occur naturally. Most are harmless, we use these to do such things as: 1.decompose leaves, garbage 2. Treat sewage 3. Produced antibiotics 4. Manufacture foods such as cheese, wine beer, vinegar and yogurt Less than 1% of them harmful to humans, these are said to be pathogenic.

20 19 Export Inspection Council of India 19 Export Inspection Council of India Continued Micro-organism can be classified into the following categories: 1. Bacteria 2. Viruses 3. Fungi: Yeast and moulds

21 20 Export Inspection Council of India 20 Export Inspection Council of India Bacteria Microscopic, single celled, colourless plants Bacterial cell divided in two approximately equal parts called binary fission. They can develop spores when conditions are unfavourable. These spore can with stand cooking, boiling, and freezing temperature for several hours. These can change back to live cells when conditions improve.

22 21 Export Inspection Council of India 21 Export Inspection Council of India Viruses Extremely small microorganism-one third to one hundredth of an average bacterium Can not grow in food but may be transmitted by food. Viruses do not require potentially hazardous foods to survive They generally require fewer organism to make you sick: therefore it is easy to transmit viruses through water Viruses can cause many diseases including infection, hepatitis A, influenza viral gastro

23 22 Export Inspection Council of India 22 Export Inspection Council of India Fungi-Yeast Generally beneficial: help make bread, wine and beer Yeast do not cause food borne disease They do cause spoilage in foods that are high in sugar (jellies) & acid (pickle, juice) Some molds produce cancerous mycotoxins such as aflatoxin Some are used to make antibiotics and blue vein cheeses Destroyed by heating>60 0 C for 15 min.

24 23 Export Inspection Council of India 23 Export Inspection Council of India Continued 5. Mycotoxin Poisoning This is caused by moulds that produce toxins called mycotoxins. E.g. aflotoxin is produced by the mould Asperligillus flavus that grows in damp wheat and peanuts 6. Protozoan Infections These microorganism often occur in our water, gastroenteritis caused by Gilardia lamblia and cryptosporidium parvum have occurred recently in many countries.

25 24 Export Inspection Council of India 24 Export Inspection Council of India Continued 7. Worm Infection These infection can be caused by roundworms, tapeworms and flukes These microorganism cause such things as abdominal plain and diarrhoea.

26 25 Export Inspection Council of India 25 Export Inspection Council of India Parasites Require a living host for at least one stage of their life cycle (reproduction) Can cause a variety of symptoms.

27 26 Export Inspection Council of India 26 Export Inspection Council of India STREET FOOD 2.5 billion people eat street food every day across the world Use of unfiltered water contamination Poor hygienic conditions, personal hygiene No access control MITIGATION STRATERGY Maintenance of proper cleaning and sanitation around the cooking and serving area.

28 27 Export Inspection Council of India 27 Export Inspection Council of India VAISHNO DEVI Appx 30,000/- persons are fed in a day Shram Daan: Any one can be involved in cooking, cleaning activities, serving etc. No access controls Religious faith involvement Improper washing of utensils

29 28 Export Inspection Council of India 28 Export Inspection Council of India TIRUPATI Food Sabotage Appx 60,000/- persons are fed free Shram Daan: Any one can be involved in cooking, cleaning activities No access controls Religious faith involvement Contamination can occur due to poor sanitation

30 29 Export Inspection Council of India 29 Export Inspection Council of India MID- DAY MEAL Midday Meal Scheme is the popular name for school meal programme in India which started in the 1960s Primary school children (6-14 years) form about 20 per cent of the total population. lunch/snacks/meal free of cost to school children on school working days. According to this scheme 13.6 million SC children and million ST girls in classes I- V were to be covered in 15 states and 3 Union Territories, where the enrolment of SC /ST girls was less than 79 percent. Rubbing the plates with soil followed by a quick rinse after. consumption of food Unclean uniform worn and floor where children are made to sit to have their food. Placing bare feet on the part-open lids of the cooked food-cans while loading of the food-cans in the tempos MITIGATION STRATEGY Creating a fully computerized kitchen along with machines for making 'chappati', vegetable cutting and food packing. Training all the workers with respect to food safety and personal hygiene. Proper storage of the raw materials to prevent any kind of infestation.

31 30 Export Inspection Council of India 30 Export Inspection Council of India INDIAN WEDDING Big fat functions with impressive menu Involvement of large number of families and friends Serving of stale and chances of adulterated food. Preparation of food in unclean utensils. Poor personal hygiene of the individual preparing and serving the food. MITIGATION STRATEGY Caterers should be licensed only Maintenance of good personal hygiene and maintenance of the sanitary conditions in and around the cooking & serving area. Authorization/licensing of the caterers to avoid the consumption of contaminated food.

32 31 Export Inspection Council of India 31 Export Inspection Council of India FLIGHT CATERING Variety of Material & customers to be catered Cold Chain is maintained Centralized Kitchen Cross –contamination may occur MITIGATION STRATEGY Security Checks while loading of vehicles from kitchens Mis-handling at Transportation Effective cold chain. Double security sealing mechanism Avoiding stacking of the delivered food if its not in a sealed box.. Access only to Only trained and identified food handlers Surveillance of raw materials and ready meals.

33 32 Export Inspection Council of India 32 Export Inspection Council of India POLITICAL PARTIES Cross country meetings Religious functions like iftaar party Involvement of Political personnel/ official delegates of importance MITIGATION STRATEGY Authorization/licensing of the caterers to avoid the consumption of contaminated food. The materials is tested on animals before it is served. Access control for all staff.

34 33 Export Inspection Council of India 33 Export Inspection Council of India HOTEL/ RESTAURANTS Large number and variety of customers ( domestic/ international) Specialized Menu Working round the clock Cross-contamination occurs when fresh food is prepared or stored on the same surface as spoiled food or raw meat. MITIGATION STRATEGY Access controls at entry of kitchens Police verification of all hotel staff and even vendors entering into the premises Scanning system for guest and food/ other commodities entering in the hotel CCTV camera Keeping the food at the right temperature to avoid the "temperature danger zone."

35 34 Export Inspection Council of India 34 Export Inspection Council of India Food Testing 1.Testing: To do something in order to discover that Food Product is safe, meets the requirements of standard and implied needs 2.Analysis: To study or examine Food Product in detail to discover more about its quality and safety 3.Inspection: Look at Food Product including label carefully that everything is correct and legal 4.Sampling: A sample which is representative of a lot/consignment

36 35 Export Inspection Council of India 35 Export Inspection Council of India Input To a Laboratory is (Sample) Output Analytical Data (Test Report) Decision Trade & Commerce (Import/Export) Safety (Environment/Research)

37 36 Export Inspection Council of India 36 Export Inspection Council of India REQUIREMENT OF Food Testing Estimated to be 10 folds by 2020 Estimated 200 Lakhs Food Business Operators in India Safe 3 Meals a day for over 1.2 Billions Critical Parameters: Environmental Contaminants (Dioxins, PCBs, PAHs,) Residues of antibiotics and its Epimers, Pesticides and its Isomers.

38 37 Export Inspection Council of India 37 Export Inspection Council of India Targets to Ensure Food Safety Chemical Hazards 1.MRL 2.MRPL Biological Hazards 1.Limit Value (Hygiene/Safety Indicator) 2.Absent Physical Hazards 1.As per Regulation

39 38 Export Inspection Council of India 38 Export Inspection Council of India Target of an Analyst By All Means: Achieve the value of a constituent/ contaminant in a given Matrix (as nearer as possible to the Assigned/True Value) to facilitate reliable decisions.

40 39 Export Inspection Council of India 39 Export Inspection Council of India History chromatography spectrometry gas chromatrography liquid chromatography mass spectrometry ' mg/ml μg/ml ng/ml pg/ml

41 40 Export Inspection Council of India 40 Export Inspection Council of India Important to Achieve Win-Win Situation Food trade access International trade capability Safe national trade Improved food safety Less illness, Less Medical and Social costs and Less Poverty Improved health Improved participation in national development Overall Development

42 41 Export Inspection Council of India 41 Export Inspection Council of India Thank You & Jai Hind

43 42 Export Inspection Council of India 42 Export Inspection Council of India Export Inspection Council Any


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