Presentation on theme: "Done by Nada Al ghali(37B). What are>>performatives?? ***it is one of the interesting functions of language, or type of speech act Definition of performatives:"— Presentation transcript:
What are>>performatives?? ***it is one of the interesting functions of language, or type of speech act Definition of performatives: It is an utterance that peforms an act or creates a state of affairs by the fact of its being uttered under appropriate or conventional circumstances A performative utterance. Is also called speech act.
When can I say that a certain speech act is PERFORMATIVE??? 1.When they are uttered in the appropriate context 2.By someone authorized-empowered 3.Takes effect only in the context of an established institution
For example, when Peter says "I promise to do the dishes" in an appropriate context then he thereby does not just say something, and in particular he does not just describe what he is doing; rather, in making the utterance he performs the promise; since promising is an illocutionary act, the utterance is thus a performative utterance
More examples: >'I do (sc. take this woman to be my lawful wedded wife)' -- as uttered in the course of the marriage ceremony. >'I name this ship the "Queen Elizabeth"' >I give and bequeath my watch to my brother' -- as occurring in a will >'I bet you sixpence it will rain tomorrow'
Distinction between informative or directive and performative utterances: John & Jane got married(informative) Get married(directive) I declare you man and wife(performative) Said in a wedding ceremony by the appropriate person
To conclude; A performative utterance performs the action to which it refers when uttered in the appropriate context by someone authorized and in the context of an established institution.