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Society A group of people who share a culture and a territory Ex. US Society Italian Society.

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Presentation on theme: "Society A group of people who share a culture and a territory Ex. US Society Italian Society."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Society A group of people who share a culture and a territory Ex. US Society Italian Society

3 Example of understanding problems in society Suicide: Why does it Happen? Depression Loneliness Stress/Pressure Are some people more likely to have higher suicide rates than others? According to Emilie Durkheim yes

4 Yes- Who is more likely? Men Divorced and Widowed Soldiers Single people Without kids Protestants more than Catholics

5 How can sociology explain these differences? Some people not tied in the social network Some people are disturbed by norms that change too quickly in a persons life - guidance and purpose no longer there Divorce, loss of loved ones

6 What do Sociologists do to understand suicide? Examine society as a whole to explain suicide

7 Sociological Imagination/perspective Asking questions Being open minded

8 Sociological perspective (imagination) Understanding the world through a new lens enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography*** History of the Civil Rights Movement with the biography of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. See links between what people do and the social settings that shape their behavior (urban vs. suburban- different ways of growing up)

9 The Sociological Perspective Examines how group membership influences behavior Focus on the behavior of groups, not individuals How external events in our social environment affect an individual

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11 Create your own sociological questions Baseball players taking steroids Questions Why would a person take steroids? Does the media influence our opinion?

12 Weddings in America Question: Why do people spend so much money on weddings?

13 War in Iraq and Afghanistan Question: Why should another government have a say in how another country operates?

14 Gay Marriage Question: Whats the purpose of marriage?

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16 Social Location The corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society (jobs, income, family, gender) Think of being identified by gender, how does it influence us to identify as either male or female?

17 Natural Science Disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment

18 What is a social science? Examines human relationships in an attempt to objectively understand the social world

19 Study of politics and government Study of how people govern themselves

20 Study the production and distribution of the material goods and services of society

21 Study culture- the groups artifacts (tools, art, and weapons)

22 Processes that occur within the individual Study of mental processes Sociology stresses the understanding of factors that are external to the individual and how these external factors influence peoples behavior and attitudes

23 Find images in the magazines that explain the differences in the social sciences

24 Those things that everyone knows are true Sociologists move beyond common sense

25 Goals of Science 1. Explain why something happens 2. To make generalizations that go beyond the individual case 3. To predict what will happen in the future Move beyond common sense

26 Period 5 Each person reads about one Sociologist and takes notes to share with the class

27 Origins of Sociology Always around- attempt to understand social life+social problems New Discipline- 1850s Started during Industrial Revolution- why do some aspects of society suffer?? New thought Apply the scientific method to real world problems

28 Auguste Comte Father of Sociology ( ) France Apply the scientific method to social life Wanted to reform society We should observe society to uncover flaws Didnt conduct scientific studies himself

29 Herbert Spencer ( ) England Disagreed with Comte no one should intervene in reforming society Survival of the fittest- most intelligent members of society survive Social Darwinism Didnt conduct scientific studies

30 Karl Marx ( ) Germany Economics is the central force in social change Class conflict- haves and have- nots Bourgeoisie (upper class) and proletariat (worker) Wanted a classless society

31 Emile Durkheim ( ) French Got Sociology recognized as an academic discipline Studied suicide rates Key factor= social integration- the degree to which people feel a part of social groups Those with weaker ties to society are more likely to commit suicide

32 Durkheim continued… Sociologists should diagnose causes of social ills and develop remedies for them Anomie- breaking down of the controlling influences of society People become detached and left with too little guidance

33 Harriet Martineau England Translated Comtes work into English Wrote about the inferior role of women in society Supported the end of slavery & rights for women

34 Max Weber ( ) Germany Protestantism encouraged change Religion was key to social change Working hard would please God

35 Role of Values in Social Research- Weber Sociology to remain value free- the researchers values shouldnt be involved in research Believed in Objectivity Replication- repeating a study by other researchers to compare results- uncover if values have influenced research

36 Verstehen and social facts Weber explained Verstehen- to grasp by insight Best interpreter is someone who has been there Snoopy Comic

37 Jane Addams- US social reformer Co-founded the Hull House in city slum Saw the effects of industrialization on the poor

38 W.E.B. DuBois African American Activist Analyzed the social structure of the Black community Worked for African American Rights

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40 1 st American woman given the Nobel Peace Prize

41 Question of Sociologists Should the research be used to reform society or used for another purpose What do you think?

42 Basic versus applied Sociology Analyze society and publish results The use of sociology to solve problems Careers in Sociology 1. Counseling children 2. How is AIDS transmitted 3. Analyzing the census

43 Theory Theory- a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together An explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another

44 Three Main Theories of Sociology 1. Symbolic Interactionism 2. Functional Analysis 3. Conflict Theory Use divorce as an example- How does each theory help us to understand why the divorce rate in the US is so high

45 Usual level of analysis Focus Key Terms Applying to Divorce Rate examines small scale patterns of social interaction Face to face interaction; how people use symbols to create social life Labels Micro- level anaylsis Industrialization and marital roles led to a redefinition of love, marriage, children, and divorce

46 Symbolic Interactionism Sociologists- Charles Cooley, William Thomas, and George Herbert Mead Studies the use of symbols to establish meaning, develop views of the world, and communicate Our behaviors depend on the way we define ourselves and others (aunts, uncles, boyfriends, girlfriends) these relationships dictate how we act Study face to face interactions and relationships

47 Applying Symbolic Interactionism 1. Emotional Satisfaction- demand far greater than in the past 2. The love symbol- expectation of true love 3. Meaning of Children- in the past mini adults, now vulnerable and innocent 4. Meaning of parenthood- lasts longer as kids go to college and sometimes come home

48 5. Marital roles- who works? Inside and outside of home 6. Perception of alternatives- women outside of home working, several alt. than remain in unhappy marriages 7. The meaning of divorce- as divorce became more common, meaning changed, personal change and the opportunity to begin new instead of negative 8. Changes in law- much easier to divorce

49 Usual level of Analysis Focus of Analysis Key Terms Applying the Perspective to Divorce Rate Macro level analysis - Examines large- scale patterns of society Relationships among the parts of society; how these parts are functional or dysfunctional Structure Functions (manifest- help or latent- unintended consequence) Dysfunction Society changes and the traditional functions of the family, family ties weaken, divorce rate increases

50 Functional Analysis Society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer saw society as a living organism If society is to function smoothly its parts must work together in harmony

51 Robert Merton- Manifest and latent functions Manifest functions- if an action is intended to help some part of a system- $10,000 to a couple to have kids to raise the birth rate Latent Functions- unintended consequences- economy benefits because of diapers and cribs…. When all parts fulfill their functions, society is in normal state

52 Applying functional analysis Believe that industrialization and urbanization undermined the traditional functions of the family 1. Economic production- family team to factory 2. Socialization of Children- education by family now schools 3. Care of the sick and elderly- had been family care now to hospital 4. Recreation- entertainment 5. Sexual control of membership- sex outside of marriage 6. Reproduction- single women have children

53 Family has lost many traditional functions

54 level of analysis Focus Key Terms Applying to Divorce rate Macrolevel examines large scale patterns of society Struggle for scarce resources by groups in a society Struggle for scarce resources by groups in a society how the elites use their power to control the less powerful how the elites use their power to control the less powerful Inequality Inequality Power Power Conflict Conflict Competition Competition Exploitation Exploitation When men control economic life, the divorce rate is low because women find few alternatives to bad marriages; today women have jobs and can leave

55 Conflict Theory States that society is composed of groups engaged in fierce competition for scarce resources Karl Marx- key to human history is class struggle- Bourgeoise and Proletariat People in positions of authority try to enforce conformity, which, creates resentment and resistance Result is a constant struggle

56 Applying Conflict Theory Focus on how mens and womens rel. have changed Men dominated women- not anymore Women can support selves Wives strive for more equality from husbands

57 Theories Macro Functionalists and Conflict Theorists focus on large scale patterns of society Micro Symbolic Interactionists focus on social interaction in small scale patterns

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59 A. Functionalist perspective B. Symbolic Interactionist perspective C. Conflict theory perspective****

60 A. Functionalist B. Symbolic Interactionist C. Conflict Theory

61 This theoretical perspective utilizes a macro level of understanding of human behavior Focus on how larger components of society interrelate and work together A. Functionalist B. Symbolic C. Conflict

62 This theory focuses on competition for power and money between the haves and have nots: Symbolic Interactionsim Functional Analysis Conflict Theory

63 According to this theory, our behavior depends on the way we define ourselves and others: Symbolic Interactionsim Functional Analysis Conflict Theory

64 According to this theory, when all parts of fulfill their function; society is in a normal state: Symbolic Interactionsim Functional Analysis Conflict Theory

65 This theory studies face to face interactions and relationships: Symbolic Interactionsim Functional Analysis Conflict Theory

66 This theory can be summed up by a constant struggle: Symbolic Interactionsim Functional Analysis Conflict Theory

67 Get into groups of three to create a group poster that explains one of the three perspectives Use images and vocabulary to explain your perspective in detail

68 If you were a sociologist studying the rise of domestic violence in the 1990s which perspective would you use to study the topic? Explain why. There is no right or wrong answer. Social Interactionism Functionalism Conflict Theory


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