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LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE & SHIFT

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Presentation on theme: "LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE & SHIFT"— Presentation transcript:

1 LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE & SHIFT
LANGUAGE & SOCIETY

2 WHEN ONE LANGUAGE MEETS THE OTHER
Language maintenance Language shift

3 LANGUAGE SHIFT

4 Non-migrant communities
SCENARIOS Migrant minorities Migrant majorities Non-migrant communities

5 Migrant minorities Local majority Immigrant minority

6 Migrant minorities Language shift for practical reasons
Job Education Business Pressure from the host society Language shift is expected A sign of successful assimilation

7 The language shift of 2nd-generation immigrants
L1 monolingual L1 and L2 bilingual L2 monolingual

8 If you don’t want to be part of us…
Debate Rages On Over 'English Only' Policies

9 Migrant majority Immigrant majority Local minority

10 Migrant majority Colonization
The colonial powers impose their languages on the colonies.

11 Colonization More Population Immigrants Local population

12 Colonization The Dominant Culture Immigrants Local population

13 Case: The Isle of Man The official language of the Isle of Man is English, while Manx Gaelic has also had official status since 1985. Manx has traditionally been spoken but is now considered "critically endangered". Manx has been officially recognised as a legitimate regional language.   Manx is closely related to the Irish language and Scottish Gaelic. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isle_of_Man#Language)

14 Case: The Isle of Man Why is there a language shift on the island?

15 Factors contributing to language shift
Economic, social, and political factors Job opportunities See no reason to maintain L1

16 Migrant majority Language shift does not necessarily occur
when multilingualism is widespread. many indigenous vernacular languages Language shift could occur When one primary indigenous language is used

17 Non-migrant communities
Language shift due to political, economical and social changes

18 LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE

19 Demographic factors Where people live The size of the group
Rural areas vs. urban areas. The size of the group Spanish in the US. Chinatowns.

20 Attitudes and values Positive attitude slows down the language shift.
A symbol of ethnic identity The father in ‘My Fat Greek Wedding’ explaining the root of any word is Greek. An internationally recognized language slows down the speed of shift French-Quebec

21 LANGUAGE DEATH & LOSS

22 Language death and loss
When all people of a language die, the language dies too. Endangered languages Why is it an issue? A language carries the cultural heritage of its speakers.

23 Examples 'Language Death: A Problem for All' By David Crystal

24 How a minority language can be maintained
It is a symbol of group identity. The degree and frequency of contact with the the home group. Social factor may help. Extended family vs. nuclear family Institutional support Domains: education, law, religion, government, media

25 Ethnolinguistic vitality
We can predict the likelihood that a language will be maintained by measuring its ethnolinguistic vitality. Components The status of the language The size of the group The extent of institutional support

26 Language revival Attitude
How strongly the speakers want to revive the language Their reasons for doing so

27 Six factors which may help a language to progress (Crystal, 2000)
An endangered language will progress if its speakers: increase their prestige within the dominant community increase their wealth increase their legitimate power in the eyes of the dominant community have a strong presence in the education system can write down the language can make use of electronic technology

28 Examples of language revival
Puyuma Language Revival Bunun Language Revival Hebrew Ocitan Maori


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