10Migrant majority Colonization The colonial powers impose their languages on the colonies.
11ColonizationMore PopulationImmigrantsLocal population
12ColonizationThe Dominant CultureImmigrantsLocal population
13Case: The Isle of ManThe official language of the Isle of Man is English, while Manx Gaelic has also had official status since 1985. Manx has traditionally been spoken but is now considered "critically endangered".Manx has been officially recognised as a legitimate regional language. Manx is closely related to the Irish language and Scottish Gaelic.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isle_of_Man#Language)
14Case: The Isle of ManWhy is there a language shift on the island?
15Factors contributing to language shift Economic, social, and political factorsJob opportunitiesSee no reason to maintain L1
16Migrant majority Language shift does not necessarily occur when multilingualism is widespread.many indigenous vernacular languagesLanguage shift could occurWhen one primary indigenous language is used
17Non-migrant communities Language shift due to political, economical and social changes
19Demographic factors Where people live The size of the group Rural areas vs. urban areas.The size of the groupSpanish in the US.Chinatowns.
20Attitudes and values Positive attitude slows down the language shift. A symbol of ethnic identityThe father in ‘My Fat Greek Wedding’ explaining the root of any word is Greek.An internationally recognized language slows down the speed of shiftFrench-Quebec
22Language death and loss When all people of a language die, the language dies too.Endangered languagesWhy is it an issue?A language carries the cultural heritage of its speakers.
23Examples 'Language Death: A Problem for All' By David Crystal
24How a minority language can be maintained It is a symbol of group identity.The degree and frequency of contact with the the home group.Social factor may help.Extended family vs. nuclear familyInstitutional supportDomains: education, law, religion, government, media
25Ethnolinguistic vitality We can predict the likelihood that a language will be maintained by measuring its ethnolinguistic vitality.ComponentsThe status of the languageThe size of the groupThe extent of institutional support
26Language revival Attitude How strongly the speakers want to revive the languageTheir reasons for doing so
27Six factors which may help a language to progress (Crystal, 2000) An endangered language will progress if its speakers:increase their prestige within the dominant communityincrease their wealthincrease their legitimate power in the eyes of the dominant communityhave a strong presence in the education systemcan write down the languagecan make use of electronic technology
28Examples of language revival Puyuma Language RevivalBunun Language RevivalHebrewOcitanMaori