Presentation on theme: "Shanghai Normal University Conference on Identity and Intercultural Communication December 28-29, 2008 English as a Multicultural Language and Intercultural."— Presentation transcript:
Shanghai Normal University Conference on Identity and Intercultural Communication December 28-29, 2008 English as a Multicultural Language and Intercultural Communication Nobuyuki Honna Aoyama Gakuin University
2 Topics of Presentation 1. Two Characteristics of Contemporary English (Introduction) 2. Diffusion and Adaptation 3. Lexical and Syntactic Creations 4. World Englishes 5. Overcoming Intervarietal Incommunicability 6. Identity and English Across Cultures (Conclusion)
3 Two Major Characteristics of Contemporary English 1. Global Spread: Internationalization of English 2. Development of National Varieties: Diversification of English
4 ENL UK USA Australia Canada NZ ESL Ghana India Kenya Pakistan Singapore … EIL China CIS Egypt France Germany Indonesia Japan Korea Spain Turkey Vietnam Zimbabwe … The Global Spread of English While inspired by the three historically concentric circles of Kachru (1992: 356), this diagram is rather intended to depict the current spread of English from a geopolitical point of view. ENL= English as a native language ESL= English as a second language EIL= English as an international language
5 ENL Australia Canada New Zealand UK USA ESL Brunei India Malaysia Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka … EIL Afghanistan Bangladesh Cambodia China Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Maldives Myanmar Nepal Thailand Vietnam … English in Asia
6 Spread of English Among Non-Native Speakers: English as a Multinational / Multicultural Language Native Speakers Non-Native Speakers Native Speakers × Non-Native Speakers Japanese Chinese Indians French Germans Egyptians Brazilians
Diffusion (Internationalization) Adaptation (Diversification) Input American/British English Enculturation/Indigenization Process Regional/Local Sociocultural Contexts Output Regional/Local Varieties of English Diffusion and Adaptation 7
8 From Singapore English Example Sentences 1 Face Expressions 1.I lost a lot of face by being unable to answer the question. 2.That saved me a great deal of face. 3.They started quarreling... I dont know where to hide my face. 4.How can you do that to me? I really got no face now. 5.You must go to his sons wedding dinner. You must give him face.
Example Sentences 2 Face Expressions (Continued) 6.Since I dont know where to put my face in this company, I might as well leave and save what little face I have left. 7.Just tell him what you really think. There is not need to give him any face. 8.Lets ask Datok Ali for help. He knows the right people and he has got a lot of face. 9
10 Syntactic Reduplication 1.If you go to Seiyu, everything is cheap-cheap. (Taxi driver) 2.I like to wear big-big. (T-shirt vendor referring to her XL size) 3.My friend from China, she likes (to) shop-shop. (Clerk) 4.Saturday can-can. (Reservation clerk at a restaurant) 5.Play-play, no money; work-work, no leisure. 6.Choose- choose-choose-choose-choose, but no buy. (Shop clerk referring to recent Japanese tourists) Example Sentences 3
11 Syntactic Reduplication 1.I horned, I horned, but they didnt move. (Taxi driver) 2.Joke joke only lah. (T-shirt vendor) 3.The group does different different things. (Teacher) 4.Oh, the curry was hot hot. (Shop clerk) 5.At one time I like pork very much, you know---morning pork, afternoon pork, evening pork, every meal pork pork pork pork. (Ho 1998:13) 6.My fathers diet is all meat meat meat meat meat. He died of a mild stroke. (ibid) Example Sentences 4
China English: face collocations 1. practice of face 2. face negotiation 3. maintain (strive for) some amount of face 4. hold up the Chinese face to the world 5. she hasnt showed us the least amount of face 6. you shouldnt have given her so much face 7. you are simply losing my face 8. a Chinese way of giving face to somebody 9. love (desire) for face 10. give (grant) me some face 11. reject (refuse) face 12. rather die to save face 13. take my face into consideration 14. your face is bigger than mine 15. there is no faceless communication 16. hierarchical face 17. group face 18. care for the others face 19. have no face (left) 20. faceless Jia (2005) 12
Japanese English 1. We went to Kyoto by car yesterday. (cf. We drove to Kyoto yesterday.) 2. I went there. Why didnt you come? (cf. I was there. Where were you?) 3. This restaurant is very delicious. 13
14 Larry Smith,ed. (1983) Readings in English as an International Language (1) English belongs to the world and every nation which uses it does so with different tone, colour, and quality. English is an international…language. It is yours (no matter who you are) as much as it is mine (no matter who I am). We may use it for different purposes and different lengths of time on different occasions, but nonetheless it belongs to all of us. English is one of the languages of Japan, Korea, Micronesia, and the Philippines. It is one of the languages of the Republic of China, Thailand, and the United States. No one needs to become more like Americans, the British, the Australians, the Canadians or any other English speaker in order to lay claim on the language. (2) World Englishes: A Useful Concept
15 The Expanding Capacity of English Areas Native Speakers Have Explored Singapore/Malaysian English You wait here, lah. African English They blamed him, they blamed him for all the troubles that have befallen our land. East African English Its porridge. West African English He has long legs. Expanding
16 English as a British/ American Language (Native Speaker Varieties as the Standard) English as a Multicultural Language (Intervarietal Incommunicability) Global Spread of English
17 There was a quiet knock at the door and in came a young Chinese police constable. He was, of course, wearing his uniform. He saluted the superintendent and stood smartly to attention in front of the large wooden desk. A Case of Intervarietal Incommunicability My Mother Isnt Well, Sir.
18 Yes? enquired the superintendent. My mother is not very well, sir, started the constable. Yes?, repeated the superintendent, a frown appearing on his brow. She has to go into hospital, sir, continued the constable. So? On Thursday, sir. A Case of Intervarietal Incommunicability My Mother Isnt Well, Sir.
19 The superintendents frown was replaced by a look of exasperation. What is it that you want?, he asked sternly. At this direct question, the constables face fell and he simply mumbled, Nothing, sir. Its all right, and turned and left the room. A Case of Intervarietal Incommunicability My Mother Isnt Well, Sir.
20 As soon as the door had closed the superintendent turned to me and said: You see. A classic case. They cant get to the point. So, what would you want him to say?, I asked. Well, instead of beating around the bush, he should come straight to the point. A Case of Intervarietal Incommunicability My Mother Isnt Well, Sir.
21 He obviously wants some leave so he can look after his mother. He should ask for leave and not waste my time going on about his poor mother. You want him to say something like, Can I have some leave please, sir? Yes, exactly, replied the superintendent. Source: Honna, Kirkpatrick and Gilbert (2000) English Across Cultures Tokyo: Sanshusha A Case of Intervarietal Incommunicability My Mother Isnt Well, Sir.
22 Pedagogy Matters Who Do You Think Is Responsible For the Communication Breakdown? ("My Mother Isn't Well, Sir.") 1. The British superintendent? 2. The Chinese constable? 3. Both? 4. I dont know.
23 N=138 (2000) Who Do You Think Is Responsible For the Communication Breakdown?
24 Chinese: "My mother is not very well, sir." Japanese: "Oh, I'm sorry. You must be worried." Chinese: "She has to go into hospital, sir." Japanese: "When?" Chinese: "On Thursday, sir." Japanese: "If you want to take a leave, I suggest you do not hesitate to ask. Take one when needed." Asian Conversation (1)
25 Chinese: "My mother is not very well, sir." Japanese: "Oh, you must be worried. Would you want to take a leave and take care of your mother? " Asian Conversation (2)
26 English as a British/American Language (Native Speaker Varieties as the Standard) English as a Multicultural Language (Intervarietal Incommunicability) Standardization Diversity Management (Intercultural Awareness) Global Spread of English
27 Intercultural Literacy through Awareness of Language (1) Intercultural literacy is an awareness, attitude, preparedness, and competence to transmit own message and understand others appropriately in a cross-cultural encounter. (2) It involves an ability to adjust intercultural differences in a mutually beneficial manner. (3) Intercultural literacy is the literacy of the fourth kind after basic literacy, media literacy, and information literacy. (4) It is expected to be introduced to the school curriculum across disciplines from primary, through secondary, to tertiary education. Honna (2003: )
28 Diversity Management: Intercultural Literacy Teaching Awareness of Language (Understanding How Language is Designed And How People Use Language) Improving Sensitivity to, and Tolerance of Linguistic Diversity (Overcoming Inconveniences of Incommunicability of English as a Multicultural Language)
29 Cognitive linguistics Sociolinguistics Awareness of Language for English Across Cultures
kōchōsensei sensei ore nīsan watashi otōsan omae name boku ojisankimi bōya name + chan otōsan omae name sensei name + kun, san omae name boku anata kimi niisan boku Choice of Terms of First Person Singular and Second Person Singular in Japanese Governed by Social Relation Rules Adapted from Suzuki (1973, p.148) 30
31 Differences Are Not a Threat British bonnet boot bumper dip switch gear lever fascia indicator silencer windscreen American hood trunk fender dimmer stick shift dashboard blinker muffler windshield Automobile Terms
32 Conclusion: Centrifugal and Centripetal English for international communication English for intranational communication
33 References Donmall, B. G. (ed.) Language Awareness. London: Centre for Information on Language and Research (CILT). Hawkins, E Awareness of Language: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Awareness of Language/Knowledge About Language in the Curriculum in England and Wales: An Historical Note on Twenty Years of Curriculum Debate. Language Awareness, 1 (1), Honna, Nobuyuki Sekaino Eigowo Aruku (Exloring World Englishes). Tokyo: Shueisha English as a Multicultural Language in Asian Contexts: Issues and Ideas. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
34 James, C. & Garrett, P. (eds) Language Awareness in the Classroom. London: Longman. Jia, Yuxin The Chinese Concept of Face and Face Negotiation in Conflict Resolution. In Honna, N. and Matsuda, T., eds English as an International Language Tokyo: ALC Press, Inc. Smith, Larry, ed Readings in English as an International Language. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Suzuki, Takao Kotoba to Bunka (Language and Culture). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. References (continued)