2 What’s language knowledge Could be anything about the target languageGrammarVocabularythe characteristic features of particular text typesCultureunderstanding of how the language works in the context
3 Implicit and explicit Implicit knowledge Explicit knowledge acquire and use unconsciouslyPick up on the way of exposing to the languageExplicit knowledgerequires conscious teaching and learningImplicationDon’t have to teach everything
4 Heavy heritageRenowned for the explicit teaching of language knowledgeIn class, we used to teach nothing but language knowledgeMuch is said, but little is done to translate language knowledge into the ability to use the language as a toolCramming and rote learning are the most often used method to teach language knowledge
5 How language knowledge comes into being? Language in its natural formFlow of soundsSystem of written symbols
6 Language in linguists’ eyes discourseparagraphssentencesphraseswordsMorphemesRelationshipphonemesBelow included in above
9 Effective way of obtaining knowledge scaffold students’ learning of specific language forms by setting well-constructed communicative tasks that naturally lead them to notice and reproduce those forms so that they gain implicit knowledge of themmake this knowledge explicit, for example by discussing the language forms incidentally
10 Meaning-based v.s. form-based Research has shown that language learners benefit when their attention is drawn to the forms of words, grammatical structures, and texts incidentally, in the context of real messages with meaningful content. Teaching grammatical rules explicitly and expecting students to memorize them is less effective. An important part of a language teacher’s repertoire is knowing how to teach language forms in meaningful and effective ways.
11 Meaning, form and use Meaning---sugar coat Form---the medicine Use---the directions
12 Restrained teacher talk A Wise Old Owlby Edward Hersey RichardsA wise old owl sat on an oak.The more he saw the less he spoke;The less he spoke the more he heard.Why aren’t we like that wise old bird?
13 Keep the explanations brief A simple comment that the past tense refers to events in the past serves as an adequate explanation. The same holds true of a few comments on the past perfect, or any other structure. A visual diagram and several examples also further highlight the target language.
14 Limit the explanation to the task/lesson at hand There may be several exceptions to the rule. There may be times when the language isn't used for some situation or with some medium. Yet this is all extraneous information. The teacher wants to provide just enough explanation for the students to practice the language correctly and purposefully.
15 Consider devoting several lessons to a specific grammar or language point This allows the teacher to address and practice the rules and exceptions, yet not overwhelm the class with too much information. The teacher can also practice different skills/mediums, yet return to the same language point.
16 Address grammar and vocabulary again and again. The teacher should provide several opportunities to acquire the target language during a course of study. Just because students have studied the target material once doesn't mean they can use it well. By revisiting the target structures, then students who grasped the form have a second chance to grasp the meaning and use of the target structure. Students who grasped the meaning have a second chance for the form and use.
18 Formulaic expressions expressions that can be used meaningfully in a consistent form in a specific context (without reference to how it might be adapted for other uses )
19 VocabularyWhere vocabulary is introduced and practised in communicative contexts (rather than in lists), students are likely to see the relevance of learning words and phrases and to be sufficiently interested and motivated to remember themFrom receptive to productive
20 A effective tool to help remember words Mind Maps!Good to engage students’ background knowledge, potentially pre-teach vocabulary… Can give a topic and have them
21 Mind Maps! Word or Phrase Related Category Related Category Related wordRelated wordRelated wordRelated wordWord or PhraseRelated wordRelated wordRelated CategoryRelated CategoryRelated wordRelated wordRelated wordRelated wordRelated wordRelated word
22 Mind Maps! Features: Fast Little preparation-time Pictures as prompts Different colorsCan be used for any topicPre-teach vocabularyShow the example of how colour can help make it easier to remember vocabulary in a mind map.22
23 Is it easier to remember words in “mind maps” compared to lists? Get feedback on seeing how many words they remembered from the mind map.Hopefully, the majority will have scored better for the mind map style. Ask audience why they found this one easier before revealing answers on next slide. Ss count up how many words they remembered correctly and compare results for the listing style and mind map style. Ask audience :Who got a better result for the listing style?Who got exactly the same result for both styles?Who got a better result for the mind map style?23
24 Memorize these words in 60 seconds Word Lists vs. Mind MapsMemorize these words in 60 secondsNO WRITING!!!activealivebicycleboatbreadbuildcalldifferentfootinvitejeanskilometermatchshowertennisTheaterThirstywoman
27 Music happy sad Instruments Sounds piano guitar soft loud drums People TypesShow the example of how colour can help make it easier to remember vocabulary in a mind map.classicalSingerGuitaristrockpopPianist27
28 Write as many words as you can remember… use a mind map!
30 Historically, grammar has been considered to be (Hinkel & Fotos 2002): -nouns-verbs-participles-articles-pronouns-prepositions-adverbs-conjunctionsFor more than 2000 years, people used these categories to describe the rules of any language studied (usually greek and roman languages)
31 The advent of other approaches: -Direct approaches (audio-lingualism)-Functional approaches-Communicative approaches-found that the 8 categories not sufficient for language instruction- esp in English where there are so many exceptions
32 The Audiolingual Method The audiolingual method focuses on the comprehension of language at a largely mechanical level (Davidson, 1978).Examples of mechanically structured activities might include repetition or substitution. The teacher is in control of the lesson, and students can often successfully participate without any understanding of meaning (Davidson, 1978).-direct approach – AL happening around WW2, due to the large scale need for language learning –still see many elements of this technique in the classroom
33 Functional Approaches These are usually based on situational language needs (Hinkel & Fotos, 2002).According to Skehan, these activities often follow a “presentation, practice, and production” protocol (cited in Hinkel & Fotos, 2002).Around the 1960s- developed based on communicative needs of a language learner, often ordered in terms of priorityAn example would be “how to order in a restaurant”
34 Communicative/Humanistic Approaches These methods mimic a natural acquisition of language, for example, how a child acquires L1 (Hinkel & Fotos, 2002).Language is acquired using meaningful input, with no formal grammatical instruction. It is assumed that ELLs will naturally acquire the forms of language when this approach is used (Hinkel & Fotos, 2002).-This emerged in the 70s/80s- result of an influx of ESL learners into the US.
35 Myth: Grammar structures are meaningless forms (Larsen-Freeman, 1995) - Learning a structure in grammar, is not complete unless its function is explored at the same time (Wagner-Gough, 1975).- There are 3 dimensions to grammar instruction: form, meaning and function/use (Larsen-Freeman, 1995).- Grammar instruction should include the answers to when and why to use any given structure (Larsen-Freeman, 1995).- Larsen-Freeman example of passive-active voice activities that are usually taught using worsheets
36 Myth: Grammar acquisition consists of arbitrary rules (Larsen-Freeman, 1995) -Interlanguages (ILs) appear to follow rules, and are systematic (Larsen-Freeman, 1995).This does not mean that an ELL would be using a grammatical structure as a NS would from first exposure, but that they are still moving toward its proper use while forming rules in his/her IL.-Though systematic, this development through an IL may not be linear (Larsen-Freeman, 1995).-arbitrary- as in by chance – goes from right to wrong-we should encourage development through stages in IL- not just right or wrong-this might not always be linear: a learner might use no go and don’t go within a brief time frame-but this still lends credence to the idea of contextualized grammar learning as their may be an ordered process for incorporating grammatical elements
37 Myth: Grammar structures are learned one at a time (Larsen-Freeman, 1995) -The acquisition of some structures may depend on the acquisition of others. A simple accumulation of structures, one at time, can lead to a phenomenon known as backsliding. When backsliding occurs, it is because certain elements become omitted in order to make room for new elements (Larsen-Freeman, 1995).When one element is focused on, to the neglect of other learned elements, the formerly understood elements may be forgotten
38 Myth: Grammar is acquired naturally, and doesn’t have to be taught (Larsen-Freeman, 1995) - In French immersion programs, where the focus is on meaning alone, students have demonstrated a less than expected understanding of grammar in the language (Harley & Swain, 1984).- Students may develop the ability to convey meaning, without developing proper grammar. Selective form-focused instruction may therefore be necessary to ensure that as language develops, so does grammar (Larsen-Freeman, 1995).We should be asking ourselves, according to Larsen-Freeman, not how to emulate what could happen naturally in the untutored environment, but how we can maximize learning if we are to mediate it.-Not instructing any grammar may lead to the development of an IL that has a lack of form, but that still works to convey meaning for the ELL.
39 Lightbrown and Spada (1990)research (cited in Larsen-Freeman, 1995): -This study looked at 4 (primarily communicative) French immersion classes, each of which incorporated a varying level of form-based instruction in grammar.-Their results demonstrated that the class that never focused on grammatical form performed the worst according to the assessment used.- Part of the reason for this, according to Larsen-Freeman (1995), is that focusing student attention may facilitate learning.-so one class almost never looked at grammatical form, two were moderate, and one did complement their communicative approach to grammar instruction with form-focused activities.-used a “modified COLT” Communicative Orientation to Language Teaching through oral observation
40 Myth: Error correction and negative evidence might be unnecessary when instructing grammar (Larsen-Freeman, 1995)-If errors are not corrected, then overgeneralizations in language tend to occur (Larsen-Freeman, 1995).-Negative evidence might be part of the input that ELLs need, though they may not have needed it to the same extent for their L1 (Larsen-Freeman, 1995).-Example offered by Larsen-Freeman:-John drank his coffee slowly-Slowly, John drank his coffee-John slowly drank his coffee-John drank slowly his coffee.-Not needed in L1, because there aren’t as many sources for overgeneralizations- all you are exposed to are the correct way of doing things. Ie- keep in mind that these learners come through an IL, in which elements of L1 are present.
41 Myth: All grammatical structures are learned in the same way (Larsen-Freeman, 1995) “Any claim to the effect that all acquisition is the product of habit formation or of rule formation, or today, of setting/resetting parameters or the strengthening of connections in complex neural networks, is an obvious oversimplification of a complex process” (Larsen-Freeman, 1995, p. 141).On expressing the concern that second language acquisition will become explicable by a unique and bounded process. Too complicated to be accounted for by a single process.-back to the example of passive voice vs. active voice. A learner might discover form in one way, but that way of learning might not suffice to instruct this in a way that suggests how and why each version would be used. Ie- teaching in only one way may result in the omission of the semantics or pragmatics associated with the structure in question.
42 3 options in language teaching: Focus on FormsFocus on meaningFocus on form
43 Focus on Forms:“Parts of the language are taught separately and step by step so that the acquisition is a process of gradual accumulation of parts until the whole structure of language has been built up…At any one time the learner is being exposed to a deliberate limited sample of language” (Wilkins, 1976, p. 2).
44 Focus on Meaning:The essential claim is that people of all ages learn language best, inside or outside the classroom, not by treating the languages as the object of study, but by experiencing them as a medium of communication… “language is organized in terms of the purpose for which people are learning language and the kinds of language performance that are necessary to meet those purposes” (Wilkins, 1976, p. 13).
45 Focus on Form:“Overtly draws students’ attention to linguistic elements as they arise incidentally in lessons whose overriding focus is on meaning or communication”(Long, 1991, pp ).“Often consists of an occasional shift of attention to linguistic code features– by the teacher and/or one or more of the students– triggered by perceived problems with comprehension or production”(Long & Robinson, 1999, p. 23).
46 Advantage of Focus on Form: “The learner’s attention is drawn precisely to a linguistic feature as necessitated by a communicative demand” (Doughty & Williams, 1999, p. 3).
47 Arguments against Grammar Instruction: The study of grammar promotes knowledge about language not how to use the language (Krashen, 1983, p. 10).We acquire our first language without any explicit knowledge of grammar (Krashen, 1983, p. 10).The natural order (Krashen, 1983, pp ) in which languages are learned precludes the influence of instruction.If communicative competence is the goal, then classroom time is better spent engaging in language use (Krashen, 1983, p. 37).
48 Arguments for Grammar Instruction: Without explicit instruction learners’ interlanguage often fossilizes.Grammar instruction may act as an advanced organizer helping learners to notice features of language when they are ready.Learning finite rules can help to simplify an otherwise daunting and complex task by organizing it into neat categories.Older students’ expectation about language learning often includes grammar instruction.Learning grammar structures allows for more creative applications of language.(Lightbown & Spada, 1990, pp )
49 Teaching Grammar:Teachers need to consider how to present grammar to their students (approach), what options for dealing with the grammar should be used, and which area they will focus on during practice (accuracy, fluency, or restructuring).
50 ApproachesDeductive– teaching through rules (the rule is provided followed by the provision of examples in which the rule is applied).Inductive– teaching through examples (students are provided with several examples from which a rule is inferred).
51 Sources of inductive instruction: Realia / ActionsWorksheets (can often be structured to inductively lead students to a grammar rule)Authentic texts (after listening to a dialogue or reading a text, students can answer questions to highlight certain grammatical structures– these may then be used to derive rules)DialoguesRecorded Conversations
52 Options: Teaching through practice: Drills: activities that are structured to allow only one correct answerExercises: Open-ended grammar activitiesPractice leads to the creation of a continuum ranging from text manipulation activities to text creation activities.
53 Practice:Text manipulation activities: Provide students with sentences that they will be required to operate on in some limited manner such as: fill-in-the blank, make a choice from items provided, substitute another item, or transform into another pattern.
54 Practice:Text creation activities: Require learners to produce language creatively using the target structure (these activities are not truly communicative because the students are aware that the purpose of the activity is to practice a specific structure).
55 Communicative grammar tasks: Provide students with genuine opportunities to communicate using language that is known.These tasks differ from text creation activities in that the students are not restricted in the language that is used.As a result, because students are not focused on the use of a particular structure, tasks must be designed to ensure that the desired structure is utilized.Refer to Penny Ur’s Grammar Practice Activities, (Lightbown & Spada, 1993)
56 Integrative Grammar Teaching Combines a form-based with a meaning-based focus.“form focused instruction and corrective feedback provided within the context of communicative interaction can contribute positively to a second language development in both the short and long term” (Lightbown & Spada, 1993, p. 205).Students should be able to learn explicit grammar rules as well as have a chance to practice them in communication in the authentic or simulated tasks (Musumeci, 1997).
57 PPP Presentation / Practice/ Production based on the Grammar-Translation Method in which grammar explanations are followed by exercises.follows the premise that knowledge becomes skill through successive practice and that language is learned in small chunks leading to the whole.views accuracy as a precursor to fluency.
58 PPP- Stage 1In the first stage of the sequence the teacher introduces the language and forms to be studied.
59 PPP- Stage 2In the second stage students practice using the language and grammar introduced by the teacher. This stage is often characterized by decontextualized drills.The focus of this stage is the accurate use of language.
60 PPP- Stage 3After students have demonstrated that they can accurately use the language and forms introduced, fluency is developed by providing opportunities for students to use what they have learned in a less controlled environment.
61 Criticism of PPP:SLA research demonstrates that practice does not lead to perfection (Lightbown, 1985).Language learning does not occur in a linear fashion influenced directly by the instruction that takes place (Ellis 1993; Skehan, 1996).Relies heavily on the use of decontextualized and meaningless drills (Wong & Van Pattten, 2003).
62 Task Based Language Teaching Accuracy and fluency are addressed in TBLT with a linguistic focus supporting the task or emerging out of difficulties experienced during the task.This maintains the focus on communication rather than learning particular forms and promotes the relevancy of grammatical instruction.
63 Willis’ (1996) ModelPre-Task: lexicon is introduced and learners are engaged in brief activities to activate their schemata about a particular topic or to equip them to participate in the main task.Task: learners are actively engaged in completing a communicative task.Language Focus: learners’ errors are highlighted and specific activities are utilized to allow them to practice using the correct language forms.
64 Accuracy Addressed Through Focused Tasks Focused tasks are tasks that are likely to require the use of a particular form.For example, writing a recipe will require the use of the imperative and decorating a room will require the use of prepositions.
65 Willis’ TBLT Framework Willis (1996) advocated addressing accuracy through the structure of lessons:a) Pre-taskb) Taskc) Post-task (language focus)
66 Pre-task Phase In this phase the teacher will: Introduce and define the topicUse activities to help students recall or learn vocabulary and phrasesProvide examples of how the task may be completedProvide instructions for completing the task
67 Task PhaseDuring this stage the students complete the central task of the cycle individually (in pairs or groups).While the students work, the teacher ensures students understand the task and are being productive.The teacher monitors time closely and observes how groups are functioning. This information may be relayed to students to promote effective group functioning or may be used in formulating future groups.
68 Language focus phaseIn this phase students move from a focus on meaning to a focus on form.The purpose of this phase is to develop accuracy by directing students’ attention to particular language forms and usage.
69 Tasks to Promote Negotiation Negotiation contributes to language acquisition by making input more comprehensible (Long, 1985) and by providing opportunities to attend to form (Pica, 1994).
70 Types of Tasks – Willis (1996) Listing – brainstorming, fact-findingOrdering and Sorting – sequencing, ranking, categorizing, classifyingComparing – matching, finding differences and similaritiesProblem SolvingSharing Personal ExperiencesCreative Tasks
71 Types of Tasks – Pica, Kanagy, Falodun (1993) Jigsaw – learners combine different pieces of information to create a wholeInformation-Gap – learners have different information. They negotiate to find the other individual’s informationProblem-Solving – students must find a solution for a problem (typically there is one resolution)Decision-Making – students solve an open-ended problem by discussing multiple options and choosing the bestOpinion Exchange – learners exchange ideas without needing to come to a consensus
72 Some benefits of TBLTCurrent educational research outlines that learners engage in the learning process using a variety of styles and intelligences.TBLT provides an inductive approach to instruction and addresses different learning styles than PPP.TBLT encourages more meaningful learning experiences that are relevant to students.
73 Some benefits of TBLT (Willis, 1996) PPP is a form of the “banking model” of education whereas TBLT is a student-centered approach that provides a voice to students (content and language usage).Principles of democracy are more reflective of a TBLT classroom.
74 Comparison TBLT PPP Textbook language Communicative language Official content valuableViews students as “unknowing”Learning content not problematicPower difference inherentTBLTCommunicative languageProcess valuableStudents are valuable contributorsLearning opportunitiesStudents are given a voice
75 Social RationaleTBLT empowers learners by giving them agency and recognizing the value of their language (non-standard forms of English).
76 A sample lesson--- Party time Work in pairs or small groups and discuss the questions below.Today's article is about a man who spent $17.5 million on a party. What kind of party do you think it was? What do you think he bought for the party?The man in today's article is Britain's second richest man and has about $6.5 billion. What kind of car do you think he drives? What kind of watch do you think he wears?Now share your ideas with your classmates.
77 Matching use a dictionary, or through peer cooperation fortune concert luxury liner generosity
78 PredictionAccording to the information we get from the previous activities and the four words we discussed just now, what do you think today's article is about? Tell your partner.
79 Read for gist(skimming) Find the answers to the following questions in the article as quickly as you can. Do NOT use your dictionary.What did Hans Rausing spend $17.5 million on?What kind of car does Rausing drive?What kind of watch does Rausing wear?600 guests on a luxury liner for a week and exclusive entertainment including a concert by Elton John.A modest Morris Minor car.A cheap Timex watch.
80 Scanning---Vocabulary Find words in today's article that match the meanings below.the packages that are used to contain food (Paragraph 2)a person who receives money or goods when someone dies (Paragraph 2)something happened or came before (Paragraph 3)not expensive (Paragraph 3)food packagingheirpreviouslycheap / modest
81 Read for detailRead the following statements. Write T if you think a statement is true or F if you think it is false, according to the article.Hans Rausing is the richest man in Britain.Hans Rausing is usually very careful with his money.Hans Rausing works for his brother.Hans Rausing is 76 years old.Hans Rausing had 700 guests at his party.Elton John gave a concert at his party.Hans Rausing had a party because it was his birthday.FTFTFTF
82 Language focus"Hans Rausing spent $17.5 million on a party for 600 guests on a luxury liner..."spentonwhoHow much moneywhat
83 Decoding Gabrielle's parents spent $10,000 on her wedding. What was the money spent on?Her weddingWho spent the money?Gabrielle's parentsHow much was spent?$10,000
84 What Language focus Who Who "Rausing sold his stake in Sweden-based Tetra-Pak to his brother..."soldtoWhoWhatWho
85 Decoding Shay sold his toys to his brother. Toys Shay Shay's brother What was sold?ToysWho sold them?ShayWho bought them?Shay's brother
86 Exercises Christine spent $20 on a new Elton John CD. What was the money spent on?Who spent the money?How much money was spent?a new Elton John CDChristine$20
87 Exercises 1. Mark spent $50,000 on a new car. a new car Mark $50,000 What was the money spent on?Who spent the money?How much money did he spend?a new carMark$50,000
88 Exercises Karen sold her car to Pete. her car Karen Pete What was sold?Who sold it?Who bought it?her carKarenPete
89 Exercises Douglas sold his television to his friends Kate and Pete. What was sold?Who sold it?Who bought it?televisionDouglasKate and Pete
90 EncodingLook at the prompts below and write sentences on a sheet of paper using the two patternsRon / desk / TroyBob / $3,000 / paintingHarry / television / AndreaJoan / $200 / tennis racket
91 Post-reading activities CrosswordA writing taskGo to the internet to find more about old age pension in UK and be ready to report your findings to the class next time
92 Work in pairs on the crossword puzzle Clues Across 2. when somebody spends more money than is necessary 3. great comfort in beautiful and expensive surroundings 7. things that give people pleasure such as music, dance, and theater 8. a musical performance 9. a large shipClues Down 1. when somebody gives others gifts, time, or kindness freely 4. a very large amount of money 5. the different types of shares and investments an investor has 6. somebody who inherits something from his or her family
94 Writing taskYou are having a party soon. Write a party invitation that you can send to your friends. You can spend as much as you like! In your party invitation be sure to include the following information:When the party is. Where the party is. The kind of entertainment that will be at the party.You can include more information too. Use your imagination and have fun!
95 Prompts for reflection How is it different from a routine reading class in our classroom, and the pros and cons of each?Is it practical in my own class?How vocabulary and language points were coped with in the class?Can this way of teaching ensure students’ good performance in the TEST?
97 Confidence in students Have the God-given potential to learn a foreign language wellWith your supportBut not your swapping your role with your studentsDIY advocatedvocab. →DictionariesGram. →induction
98 Learn by doingThere is really only one way to learn how to do something and that is to do it. If you want to learn to throw a football, drive a car, build a mousetrap, design a building, cook a stir-fry, or be a management consultant, you must have a go at doing it. Throughout history, youths have been apprenticed to masters in order to learn a trade. We understand that learning a skill means eventually trying your hand at the skill. When there is no real harm in simply trying we allow novices to "give it a shot."Parents usually teach children in this way. They don't give a series of lectures to their children to prepare them to walk, talk, climb, run, play a game, or learn how to behave. They just let their children do these things. We hand a child a ball to teach him to throw. If he throws poorly, he simply tries again. Parents tolerate sitting in the passenger seat while their teenager tries out the driver's seat for the first time. It's nerve-wracking, but parents put up with it, because they know there's no better way.