Presentation on theme: "SPEECH PRE-PLANNING Before you begin writing any speech there are numerous items to consider that will help you to be more successful in the writing and."— Presentation transcript:
SPEECH PRE-PLANNING Before you begin writing any speech there are numerous items to consider that will help you to be more successful in the writing and delivery of your speech.
SPEECH PRE-PLANNING No part should be skipped, overlooked, or forgotten, as they are ALL important and serve a specific purpose.
Pre-planning Steps KNOW YOUR PURPOSE! STICK to the purpose of the speech!
I. Purpose of the Speech A.GENERAL PURPOSE: Your broad goal for the speech. The THREE GENERAL purposes are: 1. To Inform: to share information 2. To Persuade: to generate action, to influence behavior, or beliefs 3. To Suit a Special Occasion: to suit the need of the occasion (graduation, eulogy, wedding toast, etc.)
GENERAL PURPOSE Do NOT include persuasive wording in a merely INFORMATIVE speech. Informative=neutral Cannot tell which side speaker feels
I. Purposes for Speaking B. SPECIFIC PURPOSE: A statement starting with to that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech. Usually the general purpose plus the specific points of your topic. To inform my audience about…. To persuade my audience to….
SPECIFIC PURPOSE Examples: 1. To inform my audience about the three major types of staging for plays. 2. To demonstrate the steps in CPR. 3. To persuade my audience to vote for proposal two. 4. To honor the bride and groom with a wedding toast.
SPECIFIC PURPOSE Write specific purpose statement at top of your outline (under the title) to keep yourself on target.
Practice Activity 1. Choose a topic you know something about. Topic: 2. Choose a general purpose General purpose: To ________ 3. Write a specific purpose statement Specific purpose: To _____(GP + specific speech points)
PARTS OF A SPEECH I. Introduction II. Body III. Conclusion
SPEECH OUTLINES Type in MLA format Review MLA format Handout Practice
Speech Outlines & Class Notes Class notes and practice outline-Handout Held accountable for information May add additional notes from listening and power point in the margins
Speech Titles Usually decided at end Title= Centered Should NOT be the type of speech Informative Speech=NO! SHOULD reflect content be creative
I. INTRODUCTION Write in COMPLETE SENTENCES (The introduction, although the first part of the speech, is often written AFTER the body of the speech) A COMPLETE introduction contains the following: Attention Getter Thesis Audience Relevance Credibility ALL must be labeled on your outline for points.
I. INTRODUCTION: A. ATTENTION GETTER Attention-Getter (first sentence of the speech) ALWAYS THE FIRST WORDS OUT OF YOUR MOUTH! 1. To get your audiences attention-Hook them! 2. Purpose a. Gain contact with the audience b. Get attention c. Arouse interest The more interested your audience the more effectively they will listen and the more likely your speech is to make an impact.
I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter 3. Types of attention getters a. Quotations (appropriate) Must be labeled on your outline for points. i. Cite (say) the speaker in the introduction ii. Cite the source on the outline in parenthesis and on the Works Cited (to be discussed later) Use of a direct quote said by someone of importance or whose words are worthy, insightful and relative to the topic.
QUOTE EXAMPLES H. G. Wells once said, The past is but the beginning of a beginning. ( thinkexist.com/quotes/h._g._wells) In the words of JFK Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country. ( www.brainyquote.com/)
I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter b. Startling Statements/Statistics. Must be labeled on your outline for points. Uses a startling, shocking statistic or makes some bold statement to catch peoples attention. Cite the source on the outline in parenthesis and on the Works Cited (to be discussed later)
EXAMPLE STARTLING STATISTICS More than 3,800 young drivers ages 15-20 are killed every year and more than 326,000 young drivers are injured every year. (http://www.tdot.state.tn.us/wzsafety)
STARTLING STATISTICS When using a statistic-do the math and match to the number in your audience. Example: 10% of all teens ages 13-16 will get an STD (cite source). That is # ____ of you sitting in this room. Practice one of your own. Share.
I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter c. Challenging question or series of questions/Rhetorical Question Must be labeled on your outline for points. i. Questions not meant to be answered ii. Stimulate audience to think about your topic.
SAMPLE: Challenging question or series of questions/Rhetorical Question How many of you…. What would you do if… Why might you….. NOTE: Rhetorical Questions can be used in combination with other techniques! NOTE: Do not overuse!
I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter d. Humor (tell an appropriate joke or humorous story) Must be labeled on your outline for points. i. Must relate to the subject ii. In good taste (appropriate to the classroom) iii. Not offensive iv. When in doubt-DONT! v. Make sure it is funny to everyone!
I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter e. Attention Capturing incident Must be labeled on your outline for points. i. Might be a personal experience Uses a personal experience to introduce the topic, show that the speaker has an understanding or reason to be concerned with the topic. This morning I saw...... ii. STORIES-Anecdote or Narrative ANECDOTE-A personal story, often humorous, that draws the audience in. It may even be an experience they can relate to, therefore grabbing their interest. NARRATIVE A story relative to the topic that may not be a personal experience.
I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter f. Visual/Audio Aid (picture, chart, music) Must be labeled on your outline for points. i. Related to subject ii. Must be held up, displayed, or played to class iii. Do not pass visual aids around iv. Must be reinforced by first words: Explain connection to topic.
I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter g. Immediate issue or challenge/Reference to a recent event Must be labeled on your outline for points. Something in the news related to your topic. EXAMPLE: Referring to a news story about global warming or health care, etc. Most of you probably heard the big news yesterday about….(also good if you can combine with a quote from the story/news).
I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter h. Hypothetical Situation-You set up a fake sample to get into your topic. Must be labeled on your outline for points. What if….. Imagine….
ATTENTION GETTER PRACTICE ACTIVITY 1. Choose one of the following topics. Study HabitsThe Golden RulePet Care Shoe SelectionRoad RagePollution Video GamesMoney (It is likely, but not required, that you will have to narrow your general topic down to some more specific element of the overall topic in order to create a truly useful or interesting attention-getter.) 2. Select three types of attention-getting techniques and write out a potential attention-getter for your practice topic using the correct format for each of the three techniques you have selected. LABEL IT!
I. Introduction B. CREDIBILITY 1. Must include SPEAKER CREDIBILITY a. Expertise/knowledge b. Trust 2. Must be labeled on your outline for points.
SPEAKER CREDIBILITY Credibility is the amount of trust and belief the speaker inspires in the audience. It is the level of knowledge or expertise the speaker has related to the topic. The audience is not likely to listen to a speaker whom they feel lacks credibility. 1. Why are you qualified to speak on the topic? How long have you been interested in it or researching it? 2. Why should they listen to you? How has the topic impacted or related to you?
I. Introduction C. Audience Relevance 3. Have clear AUDIENCE RELEVANCE or WIIFM ( Whats In It For Me?) a. Tell how the topic relates to or is important to your audience. b. Link your topic to the interests or concerns of your audience. Why should they listen to you? How does it concern/relate to them? c. Must be labeled on your outline for points!
I. Introduction D. Thesis Statement D. Thesis sentence (usually the last sentence of the introduction) 1. Identifies topic and purpose of the entire speech (developed from your specific purpose statement) 2. Name main points when 3 main points are required a. arrange list in order to be covered in the speech b. Thesis should make a general statement about purpose of the speech when you have more than three main points. Must be labeled on your outline for points.
I. Introduction D. Thesis Statement Do NOT ever say: I am going to tell you…..
INTRODUCTION ACTIVITY Class create one together. Choose Topic Choose General & specific purpose Choose type of attention-getter Write and label the introduction.
INTRODUCTION ACTIVITY 1. Choose one of the following topics: assisted suicidevegetarianismrecycling animal testingdriving lawsillegal drugs 2. Write: A.Topic B.General purpose C.Specific purpose D.Thesis statement. 3. Write an introduction for this speech making sure that all parts of an introduction are included. Label each part in parenthesis where it occurs in the introduction. When labeling the attention-getter you must identify which kind it is. (Attention-getter, Credibility, Audience Relevance, Thesis)
Organizational Possibilities PRACTICE You are to take the following list and organize the items in ways that make sense. Title/label each category. Organize in as many methods as make sense.
BODY OF THE SPEECH ORGANIZING TRANSITIONS OUTLINING
ORGANIZING ACTIVITY DIRECTIONS: On the following slide you will have a master list of household items. You are to create as many headings as you can think of by which to group three or more items.
ORGANIZING ACTIVITY: SAMPLE DogMouse CatFish TigerShark ElephantOstrich HyenaSnake CrowWhale RatRhino Household pets Two legs or fewer African animals Zoo animals Scavengers Aquatic creatures Weigh more than 200 pounds
Items: List/Organize/Group Logically-3+items per group Blender Typewriter TV Pillow Toaster Spoon Laptop Stapler Blanket Blinds LadleRecipe Card PenReport Post-ItsTable PhoneDesk ChairNewspaper Curtains Couch Bed Strainer Bowl
Some Possibilities Rooms Size Characteristics Appliances Paper Furniture Electric vs. non-electric Soft vs. hard Ease of portability vs. difficulty Food vs. non-food relationship Container vs. non- container
ORGANIZATION D. Organizational Pattern(s)-all information needs to flow and make sense in the order and reason in which it is presented. There are a variety of organizational patterns such as: 1. Chronological-time 2. Spatial- space or location 3. Topical-all parts equal 4. Problem-Solution 5. Cause-Effect 6. Order of importance (most to least OR least to most) 7. Compare/contrast
ORGANIZATION For ALL research-based speeches you will be given the organizational template to use for MAIN POINTS- but you will still need to select the best order to present all of your SUPPORT for those main points.
Identifying Organizational Patterns Many citizens are victimized every year by incompetent lawyers. A bill requiring lawyers to stand for recertification every 10 years will do much to help solve the problem.
Identifying Organizational Patterns Correction: Was correct A. Many citizens are victimized every year by incompetent lawyers. B. A bill requiring lawyers to stand for recertification every 10 years will do much to help solve the problem. Problem-Solution order
Identifying Organizational Patterns The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance passage. The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber. The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the burial chamber. The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury.
Identifying Organizational Patterns The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance passage. The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber. The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the burial chamber. The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury. CORRECTION: A. The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance passage. B. The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber. C. The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury. D. The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the burial chamber. *Spatial order
Identifying Organizational Patterns The effects of sickle-cell anemia include liver damage, blindness, paralysis, and early death. Sickle-sell anemia is a hereditary blood disease caused by abnormal blood cells.
Identifying Organizational Patterns The effects of sickle-cell anemia include liver damage, blindness, paralysis, and early death. Sickle-sell anemia is a hereditary blood disease caused by abnormal blood cells. CORRECTION: A. The effects of sickle-cell anemia include liver damage, blindness, paralysis, and early death. B. Sickle-sell anemia is a hereditary blood disease caused by abnormal blood cells. Cause-effect
Identifying Organizational Patterns As a social worker, Jane Addams founded the settlement house movement in Chicago. As a reformer, Jane Addams campaigned for child-labor laws, unemployment compensation, and better public sanitation. As a suffragist, Jane Addams fought to give women the vote. As a writer, Jane Addams is best known for her autobiographical Twenty Years at Hull House.
Identifying Organizational Patterns CORRECTION: Was correct-as would be any order if years not attached. A. As a social worker, Jane Addams founded the settlement house movement in Chicago. B. As a reformer, Jane Addams campaigned for child- labor laws, unemployment compensation, and better public sanitation. C. As a suffragist, Jane Addams fought to give women the vote. D. As a writer, Jane Addams is best known for her autobiographical Twenty Years at Hull House. Topical
Identifying Organizational Patterns The head was protected by a helmet. The torso was protected by shoulder pieces, palates, a breastplate, a skirt of tasses and a tuille. The arms and hands were protected by brassards, elbow pieces, and gauntlets. The legs and feet were protected by cuisses, knee pieces, jambeaux, and sollerets.
Identifying Organizational Patterns CORRECTION: Correct A. The head was protected by a helmet. B. The torso was protected by shoulder pieces, palates, a breastplate, a skirt of tasses and a tuille. C. The arms and hands were protected by brassards, elbow pieces, and gauntlets. D. The legs and feet were protected by cuisses, knee pieces, jambeaux, and sollerets. Spatial or Order of Importance
Identifying Organizational Patterns The problem can be solved by a combination of business, government, and individual action. Disposable batteries have become one of Americas most serious environmental problems.
Identifying Organizational Patterns CORRECTION: The problem can be solved by a combination of business, government, and individual action. Disposable batteries have become one of Americas most serious environmental problems. A. Disposable batteries have become one of Americas most serious environmental problems. B. The problem can be solved by a combination of business, government, and individual action. Problem-solution
Organizational Pattern Activity Group organizational activity using interactive disc if time allows.
TRANSITION WORDS & SENTENCES 1. Purpose: Helps intro to flow and leads to thesis statement 2. Used whenever and wherever needed in the speech-especially between main ideas and between sub-points. 3. Refer to your YELLOW HANDOUT.
II. BODY-OUTLINING II. Body (second part of speech; Write the body FIRST using only KEY WORDS or 3-5 word PHRASES) Use a TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE OR SENTENCE (refer to yellow transitions handout) between points Use proper outlining format-see handout
OUTLINING BASIC RULES ALWAYS 3 CAPITAL ROMAN NUMERALS: I, II, III I. Introduction II. Body III. Conclusion
OUTLINING BASIC RULES Your Body (II.) MUST have at LEAST 3 MAIN POINTS-Capital A. B. C. II. Body A. B. C. These match the three main points stated in your thesis statement.
OUTLINING BASIC RULES Order is always number-letter-number-letter Capitals to lower case Roman numerals-to digits-to lower case Roman numerals. I. A. 1. a.i.
You indent every time you get smaller I. A. 1. a. i.
MINIMUM OF TWO PIECES OF SUPPORT If you have an a. you MUST have a b. If you have a 1. you MUST have a 2.
II. Body A. First main point in thesis statement 1. First sub-point (separate notes will be given on Types of Support to research and how to cite properly.) a. Detail b. Detail c. Detail
II. Body (all details used from research MUST be CITED or it is PLAGIARISM!) B. Second main point in thesis statement (Remember to use a transitional word or phrase when moving to a new main point)
II. Body C. Third main point in thesis statement
III. CONCLUSION (Third part of every speech; Write last using COMPLETE SENTENCES; remember to use a solid transition)
III. Conclusion A. First 2-4 sentences 1. Clinch the central idea a. Restate the thesis statement (may use exact wording or rephrase) b. Summarize ideas presented c. Make sure purpose of speech is clear. i. To Inform (teach or demonstrate) ii. To convince (sell or debate) iii. To Suit a Special Occasion
III. Conclusion 2. Consider appropriate wording/tone to get desired response a. enthusiastic b. angry c. thoughtful d. logical e. other
III. Conclusion 3. Do NOT add new information in the conclusion.
III. Conclusion B. Last sentence: End smoothly with one clear sentence; STRONG LAST WORDS HEARD! 1. in other words or moral of the story 2. Epigram (short saying that says a lot) Examples: It does not take much strength to do things, but it requires great strength to decide on what to do. All suffering is caused by an obstacle in the path of a force. See that you are not your own obstacle. (http://www.roycrofter.com)
III. CONCLUSION 3. Appropriate question 4. Illustration (with commentary) or striking incident a. Appeal or challenge b. Picture of better things to come
III. Conclusion 5. PSYCHOLOGICAL FULL CIRCLE; reverence back to your attention getter, opening story, quote or scenario in a concluding or tie-back manner.
The IMPORTANCE OF WORD CHOICE Examples: talking to a friend vs. meeting your dates parents, vs. a job interview, vs. playing with children, etc.
AUDIENCE ANALYSIS: WORD CHOICE ACTIVITY Choose an abstract concept and explain it to three different audiences adapting the language/vocabulary, details, examples, amount and complexity of information etc to suit the audience. Example: define/explain honesty to: 1. Employees at work, 2. Teenagers, 3. 6-year olds