Presentation on theme: "SPEECH PRE-PLANNING Before you begin writing any speech there are numerous items to consider that will help you to be more successful in the writing and."— Presentation transcript:
1 SPEECH PRE-PLANNINGBefore you begin writing any speech there are numerous items to consider that will help you to be more successful in the writing and delivery of your speech.
2 SPEECH PRE-PLANNINGNo part should be skipped, overlooked, or forgotten, as they are ALL important and serve a specific purpose.
3 STICK to the purpose of the speech! Pre-planning StepsKNOW YOUR PURPOSE!STICK to the purpose of the speech!
4 I. Purpose of the SpeechGENERAL PURPOSE: Your broad goal for the speech.The THREE GENERAL purposes are:1. To Inform: to share information2. To Persuade: to generate action, to influence behavior, or beliefs3. To Suit a Special Occasion: to suit the need of the occasion (graduation, eulogy, wedding toast, etc.)
5 GENERAL PURPOSEDo NOT include persuasive wording in a merely INFORMATIVE speech.Informative=neutralCannot tell which side speaker feels
6 I. Purposes for Speaking B. SPECIFIC PURPOSE: A statement starting with “to” that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.Usually the general purpose plus the specific points of your topic.To inform my audience about….To persuade my audience to….
7 SPECIFIC PURPOSE Examples: 1. To inform my audience about the three major types of staging for plays.2. To demonstrate the steps in CPR.3. To persuade my audience to vote for proposal two.4. To honor the bride and groom with a wedding toast.
8 SPECIFIC PURPOSEWrite specific purpose statement at top of your outline (under the title) to keep yourself on target.
9 Practice Activity 1. Choose a topic you know something about. Topic: 2. Choose a general purposeGeneral purpose: To ________3. Write a specific purpose statementSpecific purpose: To _____(GP + specific speech points)
10 I. Introduction II. Body III. Conclusion PARTS OF A SPEECHI. IntroductionII. BodyIII. Conclusion
11 SPEECH OUTLINESType in MLA formatReview MLA formatHandoutPractice
12 Speech Outlines & Class Notes Class notes and practice outline-HandoutHeld accountable for informationMay add additional notes from listening and power point in the margins
13 Speech Titles Usually decided at end Title= Centered Should NOT be the type of speechInformative Speech=NO!SHOULD reflect contentbe creative
14 I. INTRODUCTION Write in COMPLETE SENTENCES (The introduction, although the first part of the speech, is often written AFTER the body of the speech)A COMPLETE introduction contains the following:Attention GetterThesisAudience RelevanceCredibilityALL must be labeled on your outline for points.
15 I. INTRODUCTION: A. ATTENTION GETTER Attention-Getter (first sentence of the speech)ALWAYS THE FIRST WORDS OUT OF YOUR MOUTH!1. To get your audience’s attention-Hook them!2. Purposea. Gain contact with the audienceb. Get attentionc. Arouse interestThe more interested your audience the more effectively they will listen and the more likely your speech is to make an impact.
16 I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter 3. Types of attention gettersa. Quotations (appropriate) Must be labeled on your outline for points.i. Cite (say) the speaker in the introductionii. Cite the source on the outline in parenthesis and on the Works Cited (to be discussed later)Use of a direct quote said by someone of importance or whose words are worthy, insightful and relative to the topic.
17 QUOTE EXAMPLESH. G. Wells once said, “The past is but the beginning of a beginning.” (thinkexist.com/quotes/h._g._wells)In the words of JFK “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.” (www.brainyquote.com/)
18 I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter b. Startling Statements/Statistics.Must be labeled on your outline for points.Uses a startling, shocking statistic or makes some bold statement to catch people’s attention.Cite the source on the outline in parenthesis and on the Works Cited (to be discussed later)
19 EXAMPLE STARTLING STATISTICS More than 3,800 young drivers ages are killed every year and more than 326,000 young drivers are injured every year.(http://www.tdot.state.tn.us/wzsafety)
20 STARTLING STATISTICSWhen using a statistic-do the math and match to the number in your audience.Example:10% of all teens ages will get an STD (cite source). That is # ____ of you sitting in this room.Practice one of your own. Share.
21 I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter c. Challenging question or series of questions/Rhetorical QuestionMust be labeled on your outline for points.i. Questions not meant to beansweredii. Stimulate audience to thinkabout your topic.
22 How many of you…. What would you do if… Why might you….. SAMPLE: Challenging question or series of questions/Rhetorical QuestionHow many of you….What would you do if…Why might you…..NOTE: Rhetorical Questions can be used in combination with other techniques!NOTE: Do not overuse!
23 I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter d. Humor (tell an appropriate joke or humorous story) Must be labeled on your outline for points.i. Must relate to the subjectii. In good taste (appropriate to the classroom)iii. Not offensiveiv. When in doubt-DON’T!v. Make sure it is funny toeveryone!
24 I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter e. Attention Capturing incidentMust be labeled on your outline for points.i. Might be a personal experienceUses a personal experience to introduce the topic, show that the speaker has an understanding or reason to be concerned with the topic.“This morning I saw......”ii. STORIES-Anecdote or NarrativeANECDOTE-A personal story, often humorous, that draws the audience in. It may even be an experience they can relate to, therefore grabbing their interest.NARRATIVEA story relative to the topic that may not be a personal experience.
25 I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter f. Visual/Audio Aid (picture, chart, music)Must be labeled on your outline for points.i. Related to subjectii. Must be held up, displayed, or played to classiii. Do not pass visual aids aroundiv. Must be reinforced by first words: Explain connection to topic.
26 I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter g. Immediate issue or challenge/Reference to a recent eventMust be labeled on your outline for points.Something in the news related to your topic.EXAMPLE: Referring to a news story about global warming or health care, etc.Most of you probably heard the big news yesterday about….(also good if you can combine with a quote from the story/news).
27 I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention Getter h. Hypothetical Situation-You set up a fake sample to get into your topic.Must be labeled on your outline for points.What if…..Imagine….
28 ATTENTION GETTER PRACTICE ACTIVITY 1. Choose one of the following topics.Study Habits The Golden Rule Pet CareShoe Selection Road Rage PollutionVideo Games Money(It is likely, but not required, that you will have to narrow your general topic down to some more specific element of the overall topic in order to create a truly useful or interesting attention-getter.)2. Select three types of attention-getting techniques and write out a potential attention-getter for your practice topic using the correct format for each of the three techniques you have selected. LABEL IT!
29 I. Introduction B. CREDIBILITY 1. Must include SPEAKER CREDIBILITYa. Expertise/knowledgeb. Trust2. Must be labeled on your outline for points.
30 SPEAKER CREDIBILITYCredibility is the amount of trust and belief the speaker inspires in the audience. It is the level of knowledge or expertise the speaker has related to the topic. The audience is not likely to listen to a speaker whom they feel lacks credibility.1. Why are you qualified to speak on the topic? How long have you been interested in it or researching it?2. Why should they listen to you? How has the topic impacted or related to you?
31 I. Introduction C. Audience Relevance 3. Have clear AUDIENCE RELEVANCE or WIIFM (What’s In It For Me?)a. Tell how the topic relates to or is important to your audience.b. Link your topic to the interests or concerns of your audience. Why should they listen to you? How does it concern/relate to them?c. Must be labeled on your outline for points!
32 I. Introduction D. Thesis Statement D. Thesis sentence (usually the last sentence of the introduction)1. Identifies topic and purpose of the entire speech (developed from your specific purpose statement)2. Name main points when 3 main points are requireda. arrange list in order to be covered in thespeechb. Thesis should make a general statement about purpose of the speech when you have more than three main points.Must be labeled on your outline for points.
33 I. Introduction D. Thesis Statement Do NOT ever say:“I am going to tell you…..”
34 INTRODUCTION ACTIVITY Class create one together.Choose TopicChoose General & specific purposeChoose type of attention-getterWrite and label the introduction.
35 INTRODUCTION ACTIVITY 1. Choose one of the following topics: assisted suicide vegetarianism recyclinganimal testing driving laws illegal drugs2. Write:TopicGeneral purposeSpecific purposeThesis statement.3. Write an introduction for this speech making sure that all parts of an introduction are included. Label each part in parenthesis where it occurs in the introduction. When labeling the attention-getter you must identify which kind it is. (Attention-getter, Credibility, Audience Relevance, Thesis)
36 Organizational Possibilities PRACTICE You are to take the following list and organize the items in ways that make sense.Title/label each category.Organize in as many methods as make sense.
37 ORGANIZING TRANSITIONS OUTLINING BODY OF THE SPEECHORGANIZINGTRANSITIONSOUTLINING
38 ORGANIZING ACTIVITYDIRECTIONS: On the following slide you will have a master list of household items.You are to create as many headings as you can think of by which to group three or more items.
39 ORGANIZING ACTIVITY: SAMPLE Dog MouseCat FishTiger SharkElephant OstrichHyena SnakeCrow WhaleRat RhinoHousehold petsTwo legs or fewerAfrican animalsZoo animalsScavengersAquatic creaturesWeigh more than 200 pounds
40 Items: List/Organize/Group Logically-3+items per group BlenderTypewriterTVPillowToasterSpoonLaptopStaplerBlanketBlindsLadle Recipe CardPen ReportPost-Its TablePhone DeskChair NewspaperCurtainsCouchBedStrainerBowl
41 Some Possibilities Ease of portability vs. difficulty RoomsSizeCharacteristicsAppliancesPaperFurnitureElectric vs. non-electricSoft vs. hardEase of portability vs. difficultyFood vs. non-food relationshipContainer vs. non-container
42 ORGANIZATION 1. Chronological-time 2. Spatial- “space” or location D. Organizational Pattern(s)-all information needs to flow and make sense in the order and reason in which it is presented. There are a variety of organizational patterns such as:1. Chronological-time2. Spatial- “space” or location3. Topical-all parts equal4. Problem-Solution5. Cause-Effect6. Order of importance (most to least OR least to most)7. Compare/contrast
43 ORGANIZATIONFor ALL research-based speeches you will be given the organizational template to use for MAIN POINTS-but you will still need to select the best order to present all of your SUPPORT for those main points.
45 Identifying Organizational Patterns Many citizens are victimized every year by incompetent lawyers.A bill requiring lawyers to stand for recertification every 10 years will do much to help solve the problem.
46 Identifying Organizational Patterns Correction: Was correctA. Many citizens are victimized every year by incompetent lawyers.B. A bill requiring lawyers to stand for recertification every 10 years will do much to help solve the problem.Problem-Solution order
47 Identifying Organizational Patterns The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance passage.The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber.The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the burial chamber.The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury.
48 Identifying Organizational Patterns The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance passage.The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber.The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the burial chamber.The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury.CORRECTION:A. The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance passage.B. The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber.C. The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury.D. The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the burial chamber.*Spatial order
49 Identifying Organizational Patterns The effects of sickle-cell anemia include liver damage, blindness, paralysis, and early death.Sickle-sell anemia is a hereditary blood disease caused by abnormal blood cells.
50 Identifying Organizational Patterns The effects of sickle-cell anemia include liver damage, blindness, paralysis, and early death.Sickle-sell anemia is a hereditary blood disease caused by abnormal blood cells.CORRECTION:A. The effects of sickle-cell anemia include liver damage, blindness, paralysis, and early death.B. Sickle-sell anemia is a hereditary blood disease caused by abnormal blood cells.Cause-effect
51 Identifying Organizational Patterns As a social worker, Jane Addams founded the settlement house movement in Chicago.As a reformer, Jane Addams campaigned for child-labor laws, unemployment compensation, and better public sanitation.As a suffragist, Jane Addams fought to give women the vote.As a writer, Jane Addams is best known for her autobiographical Twenty Years at Hull House.
52 Identifying Organizational Patterns CORRECTION: Was correct-as would be any order if years not attached.A. As a social worker, Jane Addams founded the settlement house movement in Chicago.B. As a reformer, Jane Addams campaigned for child-labor laws, unemployment compensation, and better public sanitation.C. As a suffragist, Jane Addams fought to give women the vote.D. As a writer, Jane Addams is best known for her autobiographical Twenty Years at Hull House.Topical
53 Identifying Organizational Patterns The head was protected by a helmet.The torso was protected by shoulder pieces, palates, a breastplate, a skirt of tasses and a tuille.The arms and hands were protected by brassards, elbow pieces, and gauntlets.The legs and feet were protected by cuisses, knee pieces, jambeaux, and sollerets.
54 Identifying Organizational Patterns CORRECTION: CorrectA. The head was protected by a helmet.B. The torso was protected by shoulder pieces, palates, a breastplate, a skirt of tasses and a tuille.C. The arms and hands were protected by brassards, elbow pieces, and gauntlets.D. The legs and feet were protected by cuisses, knee pieces, jambeaux, and sollerets.Spatial or Order of Importance
55 Identifying Organizational Patterns The problem can be solved by a combination of business, government, and individual action.Disposable batteries have become one of America’s most serious environmental problems.
56 Identifying Organizational Patterns CORRECTION:The problem can be solved by a combination of business, government, and individual action.Disposable batteries have become one of America’s most serious environmental problems.A. Disposable batteries have become one of America’s most serious environmental problems.B. The problem can be solved by a combination of business, government, and individual action.Problem-solution
57 Organizational Pattern Activity Group organizational activity using interactive disc if time allows.
58 TRANSITION WORDS & SENTENCES 1. Purpose: Helps intro to flow and leads to thesis statement2. Used whenever and wherever needed in the speech-especially between main ideas and between sub-points.3. Refer to your YELLOW HANDOUT.
59 II. BODY-OUTLININGII. Body (second part of speech; Write the body FIRST using only KEY WORDS or 3-5 word PHRASES)Use a TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE OR SENTENCE (refer to yellow transitions handout) between pointsUse proper outlining format-see handout
60 OUTLINING BASIC RULES ALWAYS 3 CAPITAL ROMAN NUMERALS: I, II, III I. IntroductionII. BodyIII. Conclusion
61 OUTLINING BASIC RULESYour Body (II.) MUST have at LEAST 3 MAIN POINTS-Capital A. B. C.II. BodyA.B.C.These match the three main points stated in your thesis statement.
62 OUTLINING BASIC RULES Order is always number-letter-number-letter Capitals to lower caseRoman numerals-to digits-to lower case Roman numerals.I. A. 1. a.i.
64 MINIMUM OF TWO PIECES OF SUPPORT If you have an a. you MUST have a b.If you have a 1. you MUST have a 2.
65 II. Body A. First main point in thesis statement 1. First sub-point (separate notes will be given on Types of Support to research and how to cite properly.)a. Detailb. Detailc. Detail
66 II. Body(all details used from research MUST be CITED or it is PLAGIARISM!)B. Second main point in thesis statement(Remember to use a transitional word or phrase when moving to a new main point)
67 II. BodyC. Third main point in thesis statement
68 III. CONCLUSION(Third part of every speech; Write last using COMPLETE SENTENCES; remember to use a solid transition)
69 III. Conclusion A. First 2-4 sentences 1. Clinch the central idea a. Restate the thesis statement (may use exact wording or rephrase)b. Summarize ideas presentedc. Make sure purpose of speech is clear.i. To Inform (teach or demonstrate)ii. To convince (sell or debate)iii. To Suit a Special Occasion
70 III. Conclusion2. Consider appropriate wording/tone to get desired responsea. enthusiasticb. angryc. thoughtfuld. logicale. other
71 III. Conclusion3. Do NOT add new information in the conclusion.
72 III. ConclusionB. Last sentence: End smoothly with one clear sentence; STRONG LAST WORDS HEARD!1. “in other words” or moral of the story2. Epigram (short saying that says a lot)Examples:It does not take much strength to do things, but it requires great strength to decide on what to do.All suffering is caused by an obstacle in the path of a force. See that you are not your own obstacle.(http://www.roycrofter.com)
73 III. CONCLUSION 3. Appropriate question 4. Illustration (with commentary) or striking incidenta. Appeal or challengeb. Picture of better things to come
74 III. Conclusion5. PSYCHOLOGICAL FULL CIRCLE; reverence back to your attention getter, opening story, quote or scenario in a concluding or tie-back manner.
75 The IMPORTANCE OF WORD CHOICE Examples: talking to a friend vs. meeting your date’s parents, vs. a job interview, vs. playing with children, etc.
76 AUDIENCE ANALYSIS: WORD CHOICE ACTIVITY Choose an abstract concept and explain it to three different audiences adapting the language/vocabulary, details, examples, amount and complexity of information etc to suit the audience.Example: define/explain honesty to: 1. Employees at work, 2. Teenagers, 3. 6-year olds