3Scales of productionHow a product is produced depends on the quantity of items being manufactured. Production systems include:one-off productionbatch productionmass production.Which method of production do you think is used to produce high street clothes?High-street clothes are normally batch produced, as different items are produced each season.
4How many other examples of one-off textile products can you think of? One-off productionOne-off production is when a single product is made for a customer.It is very unlikely that there has been any large machinery involved.The item may be made entirely by one person or by a small group of people.A production sample or mock up (toile) may be made to present to the customer.This method can be extremely time consuming and therefore very expensive.Wedding dresses are often made to measure, to the customer’s specific requirements.How many other examples of one-off textile products can you think of?
5One-off productionDesigner outfits are often made-to-measure and can cost between hundreds and thousands of pounds.Other one-off items include tailor-made suits and theatre costumes.The items you produce for your coursework will often be one-off products.
6Batch productionClothing is often produced using batch production methods, as it accommodates demands for new styles and designs in response to constantly changing fashions.A specified number of identical items is produced in one go, in response to an order for a one-off consignment.Orders are often made due to seasonal change. For example, factories will start producing vest tops ready for summer.A skilled workforce will be required to work on different products as they are produced.Image from Sentinel Clothing Company (http://www.sentinelclothingco.com/).
7Ready to wearReady to wear items are also sometimes called ‘off the peg’.Customers can walk into a shop and purchase an item off the rail.The same item will be available in a number of sizes and sometimes a range of colours.It is likely that the item would have been batch produced to meet a particular trend or season.
8Mass productionMass production is one of the most economical methods of manufacture as the more items produced in a short period of time, the lower the costs.Each worker will complete one task before passing the product down the production line.Mass production often uses a continuous production system which never stops: machinery runs 24 hours a day to produce items, with machines only stopping to be cleaned.To make this process worthwhile, the product must be in high demand.
9Mass productionWhere a continuous or mass production system is in place, a factory is normally set up to only produce one product. Changing the line to make a different product would be time consuming and costly. Continuous production is not often used to produce clothing, as styles change too often. However, it is used to manufacture fabrics which can then be used for a variety of purposes.CAM is used to allow continuous, mass and batch production systems to run smoothly and to automatically check the quality of items.Image from Sentinel Clothing Company (http://www.sentinelclothingco.com/).
11Textile production systems In textile manufacturing, goods are produced using a range of production systems depending on the type of product, the number of items being made and the skills the staff have.Cell production involves staff working in small teams. Each person is responsible for the finished end product. Workers concentrate on a different parts of the garment/textile item at a time.Progressive bundle production is similar to cell production. However, staff are accountable for a particular part of the garment/textile item.The make-through system is when the garment/textile item is produced by one person, or a small team, from start to finish. This system tends only to be used in very small factories which employ extremely skilled staff.
12Just-in-time production Just-in-time production relies greatly on an excellent team of stock controllers.It works on the basis that components arrive just in time for manufacture.Control systems are put in place to ensure that component stocks are replenished on a rolling basis.This method reduces warehouse and storage costs.One drawback is that if components do not arrive, there are major implications as manufacture will stop, incurring heavy costs.