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Option 1 (no Essay 2): Phase 1: 5% / Phases 2/3/4 & Essay 1: 15% each / Peer Review & Attendance: 10% for a total of 85 pts. Final score = Pts *100/85.

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Presentation on theme: "Option 1 (no Essay 2): Phase 1: 5% / Phases 2/3/4 & Essay 1: 15% each / Peer Review & Attendance: 10% for a total of 85 pts. Final score = Pts *100/85."— Presentation transcript:

1 Option 1 (no Essay 2): Phase 1: 5% / Phases 2/3/4 & Essay 1: 15% each / Peer Review & Attendance: 10% for a total of 85 pts. Final score = Pts *100/85. If you are happy with your current score (i.e. if it's an A), please have a nice holiday break. Option 2 (with Essay 2): Phase 1: 5% / Phases 2/3/4 & Essay 1: 15% each / Peer Review & Attendance: 10% / Optional Essay 2: 15 pts for a total of 100 pts A A B B B C C D F Optional Essay 2

2 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 2 f) an understanding of professional, legal, and ethical issues and responsibilities as it pertains to computer engineering. h) the broad education necessary to understand the impact of computing in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context. i) a recognition of the need for an ability to engage in lifelong learning. j) a knowledge of contemporary issues.

3 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 3 Solution Space – The Technology Problem Space – The Real World Software and computer systems are an interpretation of some aspect of the real world, modeled into the computer. People exist at the computers interface to the real world. Computers in Society

4 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 4 Data accuracy Privacy Fairness Misuse of Technology Besides design, who is responsible for…

5 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 5 Do you TRUST technology? GPS bad - GPS good -

6 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 6 Have you used a computer today? your car an ATM - problems.html played music any modern appliance building exits, elevators, climate control Just TRY to count the computers in your home. How many have wireless access? 1986: color copier - $65, : color copier, scanner, fax - $99 The Ubiquity of Computers and the Rapid Pace of Change

7 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 7 Some Negative Impacts of New Technology: Unemployment – how? Alienation – reduced social interaction - Social Networking is not Socializing… main shtml Tote-Laptop/dp/B000E1PY6U/ref=pd_bxgy_t_img_b Examining the Gift: An Introduction to Some Issues and Themes

8 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 8 No Human Customer Service. e449-49c3-88d2-a568100c2944 UNFIXABLE Errors Computer-based Crime – where is all of your private info? Loss of Privacy. This: rom_Beirut&only shatters-our-faith-in-well-not-publishing-but-maybe-god php These issues didnt exist 30 years ago

9 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 9 Convenience. New types of jobs. proof-careers/ More options for transactions - health care? Improvements in crime-fighting. Small error rate. Great amounts of information in little time (medical, incident responders) Some Positive Impacts of New Technology:

10 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 10 Benefits Computers Bring to the Disabled Disability-specific computer applications (e.g., a braille printer). Control of household and workplace appliances. Mobility. Control of artificial limbs. Improved vision. Access to adaptive educational equipment. Improved communication. Opportunity to return to work. Appreciating the Benefits

11 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 11 Website for current tech events Safety: Cost: Extension: display / amazing uses of technology

12 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 12 Death By Computer 4/ htm sp pacific/ stm

13 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 13 Billing Errors – wrong info tied to your SSN Lack of tests for inconsistencies and inappropriate amounts. Incorrect information resulting in wrongful treatment or acts. Communications: Telephone, online, and broadcast services. Business: Inventory and management software. Financial: Stock exchange, brokerages, banks, etc.. Transportation: Reservations, ticketing, and baggage handling. What Else Can Go Wrong? Accuracy

14 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 14 Points to Consider: Models are simplifications of either physical or intangible systems. Those who design and develop models must be honest and accurate with results. Computer professionals and the general public must be able to evaluate the claims of the developers. Why Models Might Not Be Accurate: Developers have incomplete knowledge of the system being modeled. Developers have a solution space prejudice. Data might be incomplete or inaccurate. Power of the computer might be inadequate. Variables are difficult to numerically quantify. Political and economic motivation to distort results. Solution Space Models Accuracy

15 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 15 Google Maps gathers-wireless-data-with-street.htmlhttp://www.gainesvillecomputer.com/blog/google- gathers-wireless-data-with-street.html report-back-on-students-reading-habits/40928 Are computers watching?

16 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 16 Small-scale privacy atrocities take place every day. Ask Dr. Denise Nagel, executive director of the National Coalition for Patient Rights, about medical privacy, for example, and she rattles off a list of abuses that would make Big Brother blush. She talks about how two years ago, a convicted child rapist working as a technician in a Boston hospital rifled through 1,000 computerized records looking for potential victims (and was caught when the father of a nine-year-old girl used caller ID to trace the call back to the hospital). How a banker on Maryland's state health commission pulled up a list of cancer patients, cross-checked it against the names of his bank's customers and revoked the loans of the matches. How Sara Lee bakeries planned to collaborate with Lovelace Health Systems, a subsidiary of Cigna, to match employee health records with work- performance reports to find workers who might benefit from antidepressants. - Time Magazine

17 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 17 HOW YOU'RE SPIED ON - Everyday events that can make your life a little less private BANK MACHINES Every time you use an automated teller, the bank records the time, date and location of your transaction. PRESCRIPTION DRUGS If you use your company health insurance to purchase drugs, your employer may have access to the details. EMPLOYEE ID SCANNERS If you rely on a magnetic-stripe pass to enter the office, your whereabouts are automatically recorded. BROWSING ON THE WEB Many sites tag visitors with "magic cookies" that record what you're looking at and when you have been surfing. CELLULAR TELEPHONE Your calls can be intercepted and your access numbers cribbed by eavesdroppers with police scanners. CREDIT CARDS Everything you charge is in a database that police, among others, could look at. REGISTERING TO VOTE In most states, voter-registration records are public and online. They typically list your address and birth date. - Time Magazine

18 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 18 MAKING A PHONE CALL The phone company doesn't need a court order to note the number you're calling--or who's calling you. SUPERMARKET SCANNERS Many grocery stores let you register for discount coupons that are used to track what you purchase. SWEEPSTAKES These are bonanzas for marketers. Every time you enter one, you add an electronic brushstroke to your digital portrait. SATELLITES Commercial satellites are coming online that are eagle-eyed enough to spot you--and maybe a companion--in a hot tub. ELECTRONIC TOLLS In many places, drivers can pay tolls electronically with passes that tip off your whereabouts. SURVEILLANCE CAMERAS they're in banks, federal office buildings, 7-elevens, even houses of worship; new yorkers are on camera up to 20 times a day. MAIL-ORDER TRANSACTIONS Many companies, including mail-order houses and publishers, sell lists of their customers. Why do you think you're getting that Victoria's Secret catalog? SENDING In offices, is considered part of your work. Your employer is allowed to read it--and many bosses do.

19 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 19 Computer Matching - Combining and comparing information from more than one database. Some examples: Sharing of government agencies databases to detect fraud by recipients of government programs. Creating consumer dossiers from various business databases. Terror watch list – 50,000 false positives per year atch_list_ineffective/UPI Profiling - Using data in computer files to predict likely behaviors of people. Some examples: Businesses engage in profiling to determine consumer propensity toward a product or service. Government agencies use profiling to create descriptions of possible terrorists Organizations sell your profile: churches, schools, employers Privacy

20 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 20 Reporter: Do you use the Internet? Musician: I don't personally. The band has an account, but I don't look at it too much. I'm kind of not a fan of the Internet. I don't agree with it. I don't agree with technology very much. I think it's a way for people to completely trespass on your life. Whether you want to or not, I know people are bearing their souls for people to read. I think there are a lot of desperate people out there that do that. People think that everyone they encounter is like that. People don't get the right impression of each other, nobody respects each other, nobody admires each other, and nobody honors each other, I think because now everyone thinks that the entire world is a tight-knit group of friends thanks to Facebook, and that's not the case at all. facebook_n_ html Social Networking Sites

21 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 21 4 th Amendment - The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Expectation of Privacy: Governments rights are limited. Government must have probable cause to search private premises or seize documents. Privacy Challenges: New sensing and surveillance technologies enable the government access to private premises without physical entry. New technologies provide the government with access to huge amounts of personal data in business databases. Courts allow some searches and seizures of computers without search warrants. Rights Privacy

22 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 22 Enemy Combatants - no habeus corpus NSA data mining - no need for warrants Your image on security cameras entered as evidence Changes in recent years Privacy

23 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 23 Crime

24 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 24 There are seven major classes of criminal activity with computers: Unauthorized use Malicious software Cyberstalking Obscenity Online transactions / auctions Distribution of illegal materials (e.g. counterfeiting) Misrepresentation

25 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 25 From old crimes The legal problem of obscenity on the Internet is mostly the same as the legal problem of obscenity in books and magazines, except for some technical issues of personal jurisdiction on the Internet. Similarly, many crimes involving computers are no different from crimes without computers: the computer is only a tool that a criminal uses to commit a crime. For example, Using a computer, a scanner, graphics software, and a high-quality color laser or ink jet printer for forgery or counterfeiting is the same crime as using an old- fashioned printing press with ink. Stealing a laptop computer with proprietary information stored on the hard disk inside the computer is the same crime as stealing a briefcase that contains papers with proprietary information. Using the Internet or online services to solicit sex is similar to other forms of solicitation of sex, and so is not a new crime. Using computers can be another way to commit either larceny or fraud. In contrast to merely using computer equipment as a tool to commit old crimes, this essay is concerned with computer crimes that are new ways to harm people.

26 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 26 The Law Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA, 1986) It is a crime to access, alter, damage, or destroy information on a computer without authorization. Computers protected under this law include: –government computers, –financial systems, –medical systems, –interstate commerce, and –any computer on the Internet. Hacking

27 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 27 The Law (contd) USA Patriot Act (USAPA, 2001) Amends the CFAA. Allows for recovery of losses due to responding to a hacker attack, assessing damages, and restoring systems. Higher penalties can be levied against anyone hacking into computers belonging to criminal justice system or the military. The government can monitor online activity without a court order. Hacking

28 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 28 Questions About Penalties Intent Should hackers who did not intend to do damage or harm be punished differently than those with criminal intentions? Age Should underage hackers receive a different penalty than adult hackers? Damage Done Should the penalty correspond to the actual damage done or the potential for damage? Or to a facilitys reputation? Hacking

29 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 29 Criticism of Computers

30 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 30 Internet Use: May create isolation from family, in-person friends, and neighbors. Creates long-distance associations focused on special interests.(good or bad?) Reduces or eliminates direct contact with customers and clients. Contributes to the formation of electronic relationships. Allows for teleworking from almost any location. May lead to Internet addiction. Lends authors an air of expertise which they have not earned. Degradation of societal norms: co_n_ html Computers and Community

31 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 31 s: –Hide inflection and body language –Shield from recipients reaction Constant cell phone use: –Distraction –Displacement ain shtml More

32 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 32 If you acquire weapons on a virtual game, they are valuable to other players. You can sell them for real money. The IRS considers that income, and you must pay taxes. If you accumulate weapons but do not sell them, the IRS still considers it wealth. And you must pay taxes on it. There are companies that accumulate and sell on-line property for profit. New Money

33 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 33 NPR: BROOKE GLADSTONE: Starting off with the Oxford English dictionary we see that in 1779 somewhere in Leicestershire England a man named Ned Ludd broke into a house in a fit of insane rage and destroyed two machines used for knitting stockings. Now this is legend, of course, but by around 1811, Ludd had transformed into a mythical figure called Captain or King Ludd, and the Luddites were leaving thousands of mangled knitting machines in their wake. By then, knitting machines had been putting workers out of work for more than two centuries. Though Luddite is an English word, it was by no means an exclusively English phenomenon. MARK ARANOV: There's the wonderful French term "saboteur" and that comes from the French word "sabot" --the old fashioned French wooden shoe. Sabotage comes from the act of throwing one's wooden shoe into a machine that's like throwing a spanner in the works or as John Lennon would have said, a Spaniard in the works. Luddites?

34 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 34 Do the Right Thing Behaving Ethically Includes: Being honest. Keeping promises. Doing your job well. Not stealing. Ethics

35 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 35 Deontological Emphasizes duty and absolute rules. Rules should apply to everyone. Use logic or reason to determine what is good. Treat people as an ends (not a means). Consequentialist Includes Utilitarianism Strive to increase utility (that which satisfies a persons needs and values) for the most people (the greater good). Consider the consequences for all affected people. Rule-Utilitarianism: Choose rules, or guidelines for behavior, that generally increase utility. Act-Utilitarianism: Analyze each action to determine if it increases utility. Natural Rights Derived from the nature of humanity Focus is on the process by which people interact. Respect the fundamental rights of others, including life, liberty, and property. Ethical Views

36 Adapted from PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark (Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall) 36 Some Important Distinctions –Right, Wrong, and Okay: acts may be ethically obligatory, ethically prohibited, or ethically acceptable. –Negative rights (liberties): the right to act without coercive interference. –Positive rights (claim-rights): imposing an obligation on some people to provide certain things. –Causing harm: some acts may cause harm to others but are not necessarily unethical. –Goals vs. actions: the actions we take to achieve our goals should be consistent with our ethical constraints. –Personal preference vs. ethics: some issues we disapprove of because of our dislikes, rather than on ethical grounds. –Law vs. ethics: some acts are ethical, but illegal; other acts are legal, but unethical. Ethics


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