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Fad Diets Pennington Biomedical Research Center Division of Education.

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1 Fad Diets Pennington Biomedical Research Center Division of Education

2 20092 Proliferation of fad diets There are many different types of diets available currently. Fat diets are available in book form, magazines, on-line, and on TV. Each one promises better cures than the next with huge weight losses in short time.

3 20093 How to recognize a fad diet 1.Promise quick weight loss. 2.Limit food selections and dictate specific rituals. 3.Use testimonials from famous people

4 20094 How to recognize a fad diet 4. They bill themselves as cure-alls. 5. They often recommend expensive supplements. 6. No attempts are made to change eating habits permanently.

5 20095 How to recognize a fad diet 7. Use scientific jargon and terms. 8. They are generally critical and skeptical about the scientific community.

6 20096 Types of Fad Diets: Macronutrient Restrictions Low or Restricted-Carbohydrate Approaches Low-Fat Approaches Novelty Diets

7 20097 Types of Fad Diets: Low or Restricted Carbohydrate Approaches Most common form of fad diet The brain requires glucose for normal functioning. Glucose is made from tissue proteins. This leads to protein tissue loss. How it works

8 20098 Types of Fad Diets: Low or Restricted Carbohydrate Approaches Dieter loses weight very rapidly with the loss of carbohydrates and fluids. Work in the short run because of limited food intake. Reduced eating due to limited selection. On normal diet fluids are restored and the weight is regained. Why you lose weight on it

9 20099 Problems With Low or Restricted Carbohydrate Approaches The plan lacks : fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Not intended for long-term use. The plan includes excessive intake of animal fats. Individuals experience reduced exercise capacity due to limited carbohydrate intake. Problems

10 Problems With Low or Restricted Carbohydrate Approaches Can result in metabolic dehydration. Due to use of bodys own stores of carbohydrates and protein. Results in initial weight loss. This is extremely stressful and forces the brain to alter its metabolism. Metabolic consequences

11 Problems With Low or Restricted Carbohydrate Approaches Can lead to such serious health problems such as kidney stress, liver disorders, and gout. These diets also increase the risk for: Coronary heart disease Diabetes Stroke Several types of cancer

12 Recent Finds Typical Atkins Diet can contain up to 59% fat and provides significantly fewer servings of grains, vegetables, and fruit than recommended by the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Very low-carbohydrate diet increases the risk for kidney stone formation and the potential for bone loss contributing to osteoporosis.

13 Recent Finds: From the American Heart Association According to the AHA, restricting carbohydrate levels can increase the risk of heart disease, high cholesterol, diabetes, stroke, and certain kinds of cancer.

14 Recent Finds : From the American Heart Association Most of these plans greatly exceed the AHAs dietary guidelines of 15-20% protein and only 10% saturated fats daily. 68% of the calories in the overall diet come from fat with 26% coming from saturated fat on the Atkins' Diet

15 Recent Finds: From The American Kidney Fund High-protein diets can cause scarring in the kidneys. Dehydration forces the kidneys to work harder to clean toxins from the blood.

16 Recent Finds : From the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund Diets high in saturated fat increase the risk of prostate, breast, and colon cancer. High-protein diets are low in protective dietary fiber, which lowers the risk of lung, oral, esophageal, stomach, and colon cancer.

17 Examples of : Low or Restricted Carbohydrate Approaches Dr. Atkins Sugar Busters Carbohydrate Addicts Diet The Five-Day Miracle Diet Protein Power Enter the Zone Endocrine Control Diet Healthy For Life The Doctors Quick Weight Loss Diet Woman Doctors Diet for Women Miracle Diet for Fast Weight loss Calories Dont Count Four Day Wonder Diet The Complete Scarsdale Medical Diet

18 Types of Fad Diets: Low Fat Less than 20% of energy comes from fat, usually only 5-10%. There is limited (or elimination of) animal protein sources; also all fats, nuts, and seeds. Dieters eat primarily grains, fruit, and vegetables, which most people cannot do for a very long time. Eventually, the individual wants some foods higher in fat or protein.

19 Problems: With Low Fat Diet Plans Little satiety Flatulence Possibly poor mineral absorption from excess dietary fiber Limited food choices sometimes leading to deprivation The diet is much lower in fat than a typical American diet.

20 Examples of: Low Fat Diet Plans The Rice Diet Report The Pritikin Diet Eat More, Weigh Less The 35+ Diet 20/30 Fat and Fiber Fat to Muscle Diet T-Factor Diet Fit or Fat Two Day Diet Complete Hip and Thigh Diet The Maximum Metabolism Diet The Pasta Diet G-Index Diet Lean Bodies Outsmarting the Female Fat Cell The Macrobiotic Diet (some versions)

21 Types of Fad Diets: Novelty Diets Some novelty diets emphasize one food or food group and exclude almost all others. The Rice Diet was originally designed in the 1940s to lower blood pressure. Another novelty diet is the Egg Diet, on which you eat all the eggs you want.

22 Novelty Diets: Rice and Egg The rationale behind these diets is that you can only eat eggs, fruit, or rice for just so long before becoming bored, in theory, reducing your energy intake. However, it is more likely that you will abandon the diet entirely before losing much weight.

23 Novelty Diets: Information Some bizarre novelty diets claim that some food combinations putrefies ( ex. meat eaten with potatoes) in the intestines and creates toxins, which invade the blood and cause disease, and overweight and obesity. Examples of this type of novelty diet include: Fit for Life, the Beverly Hills Diet, and Eat Great, Lose Weight

24 Novelty Diets: Information The gimmicks proposed in the different books appear controversial but are really designed to sell books. And most importantly, there is No Research or Scientific Evidence backing up these claims.

25 Problems: With Novelty Diets They promote certain nutrients, foods, or combinations of foods as having unique, magical, or previously undiscovered qualities They can lead to malnutrition No change in everyday eating habits leading to relapse Unrealistic food choices leading to possible bingeing

26 Examples of: Novelty Diets Dr. Abravenels Body Type and Lifetime Fit for Life Dr. Bergers Immune Power Diet The Hilton Head Metabolism Diet The Beverly Hills Diet Dr. Debetz Champagne Diet Sun Sign Diet Eat to Win Cabbage-Soup Diet Eat Great, Lose Weight The Ultrafit Diet Two Day Diet Paris Diet Eat Right 4 Your Type 3 Season Diet Metabolize

27 Quackery Fad diets fall under the category of quackery, people taking advantage of others. Usually costs a considerable amount of money Often times, those offering the product or service were victims themselves.

28 Quackery: Tips Healthy weight loss approaches that work will be reported in the major journals, such as the – Journal of the American Dietetic Association, the – Journal of the American Medical Association, or – The New England Journal of Medicine. The rule of thumb on seeing a new diet aid on the market is that: If it sounds too good to be true, it usually is.

29 Other Diets

30 Moderate Calorie Restriction : General Overview Usually kcal per day, with a moderate fat intake Reasonable balance of macronutrients Encourages exercise May use behavioral approach Acceptable if vitamin and mineral supplement is used and permission of family physician is granted

31 Examples: Moderate Calorie Restriction The Setpoint Diet Slim Chance in a Fat World Weight Watchers Diet Mary Ellens Help Yourself Diet Plan The Beyond Diet Staying Thin The Calloway Diet Living Without Dieting Volumetrics Lose the Last 10 pounds Dieting with the Duchess Dieting for Dummies The Wedding Dress Diet Dr. Shapiros Picture Perfect Diet

32 Very Low Calorie Diets General Overview Less than 800 kcal per day Also known as protein-sparing modified fasts Must be under close physician scrutiny

33 Very Low Calorie Diets General Overview Used for fast weight loss under doctors supervision to get ready for surgery, for example.

34 Very Low Calorie Diets: Problems Organ tissue losses- especially from the heart Low blood potassium could lead to heart failure Expensive to follow Potential for kidney stones with rapid weight loss Potential for Gout

35 Examples: Of Very Low Calorie Diets Optifast Cambridge Diet HMR Ultrafast Thin So Fast

36 Formula Diets: General Overview Can help people who cannot regulate portion sizes Based on formulated or packaged products

37 Problems: With Formula Diets No change in habits are observed. Possibly leading to increased chance of relapse Expensive Often leading to constipation

38 Pre-measured Diets : General Information Most food supplied in pre-measured servings takes much of the decision making out of the process of eating. Expensive May not allow for easy sound eating later

39 Examples Of Pre-measured Diet Jenny Craig NutriSystem Health Management Resources

40 References Wardlaw G, Kessel M. Perspectives in Nutrition. 5 th ed

41 Pennington Biomedical Research Center Division of Education Heli Roy, PhD, RD Outreach Coordinator, Division of Education Phillip Brantley, PhD, Director, Division of Education Claude Bouchard, PhD Director, Pennington Biomedical Research Center Beth Kalicki Edited: October 2009

42 The Pennington Biomedical Research Center is a world-renowned nutrition research center. Mission: To promote healthier lives through research and education in nutrition and preventive medicine. The Pennington Center has several research areas, including: Clinical Obesity Research Experimental Obesity Functional Foods Health and Performance Enhancement Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Nutrition and the Brain Dementia, Alzheimers and healthy aging Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance The research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on healthy living and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis. The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific community and the public about research findings, training programs and research areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues. We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the exciting research studies being conducted at the Pennington Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page at or call (225) About Our Company…

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