5What is Feminism?Radical - capitalism is barrier to ending female oppression. No alternative other than the total uprooting and reconstruction of society to achieve goalsSocialist - women being held down as a result of their unequal standing in workplace and the domestic sphere. Both must change for equality.
6What is Feminism?LiberalEquality will happen through political & legal reformEco-feminismBelief in the interconnectedness of all forms of life and each act effects the whole.All forms of oppression affect us allTwo kinds of power: power over & power within. Power from within is empowerment& is unlimited & renewable.Diversity is needed in the system to maintain stability. (true for political and economic systems also.)
7The Influence of Feminism: Three Waves First Wave - Right to vote Second Wave – Right to reproductive control, equal pay for equal work, no fault divorce, gender neutral language & sanctions against marital rape Third wave –celebrate diversity; combat inequalities women face as a result of age, gender, race, sexual orientation, economic status or level of education; access to NRT for single women and lesbians
8Gender Role Socialization Exercise What messages did you get about being an man/woman when you were growing upHow has your socialization influenced your practiceAssign a recorder/discussBe prepared to report back10 Mins
10Structural Family Therapy Salvador MinuchinDirective & action orientatedGoal: modify the present, not explore pastGoal: not symptom relief but for family to reorganize itself around a symptomNo pathologizing/ labeling of individualsTherapist not to impose their beliefs on familyNo consideration of power differential between men, women & children
11Strategic Family Therapy Jay HaleyDoes not address gender/power differencesTherapist responsible for influencing familyAssociated with use of paradoxical techniquesGive tasks and homeworkNot concerned with the pastView of dysfunction: symptoms regulate homeostasis in families; symptom is a type of behavior. Symptoms carry a function for the family
12Strategic Family Therapy The identified patient ( symptom carrier) cannot be viewed separate & apart from the family. Unless the system changes, it is difficult for the individual to change.Insight is not needed for change to take place.
13BowenianMurray BowenGoal for the individual to differentiate & take "I" position in family of originIndividual must stay connected to family & therapy generally involves 3 generations of familyTriangulation is a key concept. Triangles are likely to develop during times of distance.In relationships, the partner who experiences the most distress will often connect with someone else as a way to gain an ally.
14BowenianConceptualizes togetherness and individuality as competing forcesTherapy focus on "overcoming togetherness needs and increasing individuality"No recognition that women are relationalTherapist neutralDoes not address gender/power differences
15Narrative Family Therapy Michael White and David EpsteinDeveloped as a reaction to labelling & pathologizing of traditional family therapyStresses a collaborative relationship with familyKey concept is externalization, creates a team made up of therapist & persons united against an outside problem
16Narrative TherapyEmphasis is on victory over problems & not on problem-saturated story.Emphasis is on uniqueness of persons, not their “deviance”Fits very well with a feminist approach
17My Big Fat Greek Wedding As you watch the video clip, consider the socialization messages?Who carries the power in this family?
18Feminist Family Therapy Developed in Second WaveRachel Hare-Mustin (1978): A Feminist Approach to Family TherapyApplication of feminist theory & values to family therapy, including personal & politicalUnderstanding gender & power is the core of therapeutic practiceUnderstanding client’s problems requires a socio-cultural perspectiveSocietal changes & empowerment of the individual
19Feminist Family Therapy Explores way gender roles & socialization affect each individual & their relationships with one another in family system, society & within the client therapist relationshipRecognizes the unequal status of women & the reasons for that inequalityFeminist family theory is a philosophy, not just a set of techniquesTherapists help clients examine & challenge gender rules & roles
20Themes in Feminist Therapy Understanding power & control issuesExamining external forces that influence behaviorIdentifying messages receive in growing upLearning to accept appropriate responsibilityExploring personal values/beliefsRecognition that both women & men live in a gendered context & that male gender roles can also be problematicParenting is not the sole responsibility of women
21Feminist Family Therapy Egalitarian role of feminist therapistTherapeutic alliance: Recognize power imbalance between client & therapistJudicious use of self-disclosure to reduce power differential between client & counselorNo labelling & pathologizingNo giving interpretationsClient is “expert” on self
22Feminist Family Therapy Historically women & men have been socialized in different way. Men socialized to be task focused; women are socialized to be emotional caretakers.Masculinity is defined through separation; femininity is defined through attachment.Important to incorporate a gender lens when counselling couples & families. Empowerment is a key concept.
23Brokeback MountainHow do same sex relationships challenge our assumptions about male female socializationConsider the importance of a gender lens
24EmpowermentEmpowerment: the process of increasing the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices & to transform those choices into desired actions & outcomes.
25Feminist Family Therapy Includes male clients and male therapistsSeeks non-gendered & culturally fair ways to approach & interpret traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniquesIt looks at gender role strain for both men & womenFamily seen as powerful resource for positive changeThe task of therapy is to mobilize that resource
26Intervention Techniques in Feminist Family Therapy Gender-role analysisHelp family understand the impact of gender-role expectations in their relationshipsProvides clients with insight into the ways social issues affect their problemsPower analysisEmphasis on identifying the power differences in relationships, in society, and impact on familyClients helped to recognize different kinds of power they possess and how they and others exercise power
27Intervention Techniques in Feminist Family Therapy Power issues detrimental to the family system are confrontedFeminist family therapists help clients examine and challenge rules and roles and reorganize them so that destructive patterns can changeFeminist family therapists encourage the development of inner resources and goal setting
28ReframingTurns problem behaviors into resources & conflict situations into platforms for agreementFundamental shift in our cultural paradigmEncouraged & rewarded to be problem-solvers from early ageSeeing self through the filters of being a problem solver sets our perceptual filters to "scan for problems"Life is seen primarily as a source of problems being served up so that we can maintain our status as master problem solver
29ReframingProblem solving is dominant theme in schools, psychotherapy, management & counselingThis orientation can hide from us the small successes that if noticed and nurtured, can lead to creative spirit of continuous improvement & success An individual attitude of reframing problems into potential and opportunity is more than just “sleight of mind”. It is literally a way to change the perceptions of ourselves and others
30Gaylord’s WallAcknowledging small successes: is it sleight of mind?
31Social Work & Feminist Family Therapy Core Social Work Values and Principles Value 1: Respect for Inherent Dignity and Worth of Persons Value 2: Pursuit of Social Justice Value 3: Service to Humanity Value 4: Integrity of Professional Practice Value 5: Confidentiality in Professional Practice Value 6: Competence in Professional Practice
32Core FTT Values and Principles Value 1: Respect clients' freedom to choose; emphasize development of collaborative relationships; therapy must be geared to helping the client see that she must be her own rescuer - that the power she longs for is not in someone else but in herself. Client as expert (Respect for Inherent Dignity and Worth of Persons)Value 2: The personal is political; consider problems within societal context; actively seeking to change gender injustices experienced by women and men. (Pursuit of Social Justice)
33Social Work & Feminist Family Therapy Value 3: Feminist therapist seeks multiple avenues for impacting change, including public ed. & advocacy within professional organizations, lobbying legislative actions (Service to Humanity)Value 4: Feminist therapist is accountable self, colleagues & clients. (Integrity of Professional Practice)
34Social Work & Feminist Family Therapy Value 5: Open agenda, informed consent; egalitarian relationship (Confidentiality in Professional Practice)Value 6: A feminist therapist will contract to work with clients & issues within the realm of her/his competencies (Competence in Professional Practice)