Presentation on theme: "Renaissance in the North The Renaissance spread across all of Europe, but the visual style of Northern artists during the 1400s and 1500s was very different."— Presentation transcript:
Renaissance in the North The Renaissance spread across all of Europe, but the visual style of Northern artists during the 1400s and 1500s was very different from their Italian counterparts. Artists working in Belgium and Holland used everyday objects as religious symbols, creating sharply focused pictures filled with great detail. Hard edge realism was generally an important element, with an emphasis on tangible textures. Later, in the sixteenth century, Germany became the Northern European art center. The greatest innovation was the new medium of oil paint, which replaced tempera and fresco. Oil paint can be applied in transparent layers, called glazes, which allows the color to glow vividly. Colors could also be blended more easily with these slow drying paints.
FLEMISH and DUTCH ARTISTS Robert Campin/Master of Flemalle ( ) Jan van Eyck ( ) Rogier van der Weyden ( ) Hans Memling ( ) Hieronymus Bosch ( ) Pieter Bruegel ( )
Robert Campin/ Master of Flemalle ( ) Merode Altarpiece/ Oil on wood, ca.1425 This is a Bible scene painted in the setting of a contemporary Flemish dwelling. The two people depicted in the left panel paid for this painting project. Notice awkward use of perspective and abrupt shifts in scale; the people on the left are too big for the doorway. See detail on next slide...
Robert Campin/ Master of Flemalle ( ) Merode Altarpiece detail Anunciation Oil on wood, ca.1425 The objects are all symbols; for example, the vase of lilies stands for purity.
Robert Campin Master of Flemalle ( ) Merode Altarpiece detail Annunciation Oil on wood, ca.1425 The objects are all symbols; for example, the vase of lilies stands for purity.
Robert Campin Master of Flemalle ( ) Merode Altarpiece detail Oil on wood, ca.1425 Here we see Joseph, the father of Jesus, in his carpentry shop. He has made a mousetrap, to symbolize Christs appearance in the world in human form as a means of fooling and catching the Devil.
Robert Campin/Master of Flemalle ( ) Portrait in Oil
Robert Campin/ Master of Flemalle ( ) Portrait in Oil
Jan van Eyck ( ) Ghent Altarpiece Oil on panel 11.5 x 15, 1432 Notice a great amount of rendered detail and a close attention to the effects of light as it describes form. Detail follows...
Jan van Eyck ( ) Ghent Altarpiece, 1432 detail: Adam & Eve Oil on panel
Jan van Eyck ( ) Arnolfini Wedding, 1434 Oil on panel, 32 x 23 Light enters through the window on the left and illuminates all the objects which are rendered in great detail. The objects are symbolic; the mans raised right hand and dog are symbolic of fidelity, the cast aside shoes indicate that the couple stand on holy ground, the peaches ripening on the table behind the man on the left represent fertility. On the next slide we see the details of the reflection in the rear mirror...
Jan van Eyck ( ) Arnolfini Wedding, detail 1434 Oil on panel, 32 x 23
Jan van Eyck ( ) Annunciation Oil on panel The artist has taken an unusual viewpoint, showing this religious scene from above.
Jan van Eyck ( ) Possible Self- Portrait Oil on panel
Jan van Eyck ( ) Virgin and Christ Baby Oil on panel
Jan van Eyck ( ) Crucifixion and Last Judgement Altarpiece in Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC Oil on panel 1430
Jan van Eyck ( ) Man in a Blue Turban Oil on wood
Rogier van der Weyden ( ) Portrait of a Lady Oil on panel 14.4 x 10.5 Notice the delicate handling of the transparent fabric which covers the womans forehead, the strong, bold shapes and the intense contrast which give this image its graphic power.
Rogier van der Weyden ( ) Annunciation Oil on panel
Rogier van der Weyden ( ) Crucifixion Triptych, Oil on panel
Rogier van der Weyden Descent from the Cross Oil on panel 7x8 1435
Rogier van der Weyden ( ) Detail from Altarpiece, Oil on panel
Rogier van der Weyden ( ) Mans Portrait, Oil on panel
Rogier van der Weyden ( ) Womans Portrait, Oil on panel
Hans Memling ( ) Annunciation Oil on panel Memling was born in Germany but lived in Bruges, Belgium. He had studied under Rogier van der Weyden. Notice his interest in natural light, rigorous perspective, textures. and patterns both in the clothing and the floor tiles.
Hans Memling ( ) The Beheading of St. John the Baptist Oil on panel
Hans Memling ( ) Crucifixion, Oil on panel
Hans Memling ( ) Mans Portrait Oil on panel
Hieronymus Bosch ( ) Bosch was a Dutch painter with a vivid imagination; he presents a world full of weird images and puzzling symbols. His paintings are usually packed with tiny people, mostly naked, who are engaged in dozens of strange activities. Probably his most complex work is The Garden of Earthly Delights, seen in the next slide. It is a large triptych...
Hieronymus Bosch ( ) Garden of Delights Triptych Oil on panel 86 x 76
Hieronymus Bosch ( ) The Garden of Eden Left panel of triptych
Hieronymus Bosch ( ) Garden of Delights , Middle panel of triptych
Hieronymus Bosch ( ) Garden of Satan Right panel of triptych
Hieronymus Bosch ( ) Garden of Delights Detail of triptych
Hieronymus Bosch ( ) Garden of Delights , Detail of triptych
Hieronymus Bosch ( ) Garden of Delights Detail of triptych
Pieter Bruegel ( ) Bruegels early work shows the influence of Hieronymus Bosch, but he developed his own style to became the greatest Low Country master of the 16th century. Bruegels paintings are rich in narrative story-telling, frequently depicting the everyday lives of local, ordinary people. This artists inclusion of mountain landscapes in his pictures is quite unusual for painters living in the lowlands of Belgium and Holland. Bruegel had travelled to Italy and apparently saw the Alps; he put this imagery to use later on...
Pieter Bruegel ( ) The Triumph of Death 1562 Oil on wood panel 46 x 63 The influence of Bosch is evident in this work.
Pieter Bruegel ( ) Hunters in the Snow 1565 Oil on wood panel 46 x 64 Placing figures in a very deep, complex landscape was typical for Bruegel. Notice the dramatic mountains, which do not exist in Belgium.
Pieter Bruegel ( ) The Corn Harvest Oil on wood panel 46 x 63 Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC
Pieter Bruegel ( ) Peasant Wedding 1567 Oil on wood panel 45 x 64
Pieter Bruegel ( ) Landscape with the Fall of Icarus 1567 Oil on wood panel 29 x 45
Pieter Bruegel ( ) The Massacre of the Innocents 1567 Oil on wood panel 43 x 61 This image is an allegory showing the cruelties of Spanish troops subduing a rebellion. The lowlands had recently broken away from Spanish rule.
Pieter Bruegel ( ) Peasant Dance 1567 Oil on wood panel 45 x 65
Pieter Bruegel ( ) The Parable of the Blind 1568 Oil on wood panel 34 x 61 This picture symbolizes the declining fortunes of the country.