2John O’Sullivan used the term manifest destiny in the New York newspaper saying: “it is manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us.”
3Manifest DestinyWhat O’Sullivan meant by that is that the United States was clearly destined to expand it’s way of life all the way to the Pacific coast.
4Can you see all the pieces of Propaganda in this painting of the idea of Manifest Destiny? This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress, is an symbolic representation of Manifest Destiny. Here Columbia, the feminine personification of the United States of America, leads civilization westward with American settlers.
51844 Presidential Election James K. PolkHenry ClayDemocratic candidate.Whig candidate.The slogan referred to the line of latitude that the democrats believed should be the nations borderDid not take a strong position on the border.Used the slogan 54’40’ or fight.Results…Senator Henry Clay in a Daguerreotype taken in 1849 by Photographer Matthew Brady
10Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country In 1824, Russia surrenders claim to its land south of Alaska.Four Nations claimed the Oregon CountryRussiaGreat BritainSecretary of State John Q Adams negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain in 1819USASpain
11Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country U.S. negotiates joint occupation of the area with Britain!(Convention of 1818)Great BritainUSA
12Fur traders were the first Americans to reach the Oregon territory.
13Mountain men were people who spent most of their time on the Rocky Mountains Mountain ManMountain men met to trade once a year at a rendezvous where they could also help Oregon Trail travelers find their way and replenish supplies they needed.
14Emigrants were pioneers that left the already established United States to go to Oregon!
16The Oregon Trail was the easiest passage west The path started at Independence Missouri,Went across the great plains,Along the Platte River,Through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains and into the Oregon Territory.
17Can you see how the Rocky Mountains influenced the path that became the Oregon Trail?
18Can you imagine taking an entire wagon train through land like this? On the TrailCan you imagine taking an entire wagon train through land like this?MenDrove Wagons, attended to the animals, and hunted.WomenCared for children, cooked, and watched fires.
20Sound Familiar? How did Spanish land in Texas become Mexican Land? In 1819, very few people were living in Spanish Texas. The people who did live there were called Tejanos (Mexicans that claimed Texas for settlement).In 1820, Spain was unable to defend its colony anymore. Mexico declared its independence from Spain, taking Texas with it (1821).Sound Familiar?
22and settles along the Brazos River and… the Colorado River.
23More Americans would follow Austin's lead and live in Texas Problems Anyone?
24His group later becomes known as the Old 300 This map shows land claims from Notice that the Austin Colony is near Galveston Bay .
25Texans were angered with Mexico’s government because the Mexican government stopped immigration with the U.S.
26In October of 1835, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Mexico) sent troops in to Gonzales, in Texas, to punish the rebels.Conflict begins at the town of Gonzales! (Mexicans tried to seize Texan cannons)"Come and take it" was a slogan used in the Texas Revolution in 1835.Remember… this is not what Texas looked like in 1835!
27At the minor skirmish known as the Battle of Gonzales, a small group of Texans successfully resisted the Mexican forces who had orders to seize their cannon. As a symbol of defiance, the Texans had fashioned a flag containing the phrase along with a black star and an image of the cannon which they had received six years earlier from the hands of a Mexican official.
28EARLY WAR...The Texans scored a important early victory at San Antonio.San Antonio brings confidence to the Texans similar to Concord and Bunker Hill in the Revolution .
29Mad about the loss, Santa Anna marched his troops north where they found a small Texan force barricaded inside the AlamoAntonio Lopez de Santa Anna
30Inside the Alamo was Davy Crockett, and 150 brave volunteers.
31Outside the Alamo was Santa Anna and several thousand soldiers.
32Davy Crockett and the tough Texan volunteers held Santa Anna off For 12 days, until final the Mexicans stormed the fortress and kill all the defenders leaving only a few women and children to tell the story.
33But... Was the Alamo Really a Victory? Much needed time to regroup and prepareA rallying cry for the rest of the war."Remember the Alamo!Remember Goliad!"The Mexican constitution of 1824 gave the people of Texas rights similar to those enjoyed at the time by the citizens of the United States, but every new Mexican government attempted to increase control over Texas. To call attention to this, Texans removed the coat of arms from the center of a Mexican flag, and replaced it with the date of the constitution. It was this banner that flew from the walls of the Alamo.
35End of the War…After the loss at the Alamo, Sam Houston lead an army of about 800 to fight a battle at San Jacinto (near present day Houston).Sam Houston at San Jacinto
36Houston’s army had great success, killing 600 and capturing 700 more Mexican soldiers (including Santa Anna).
37Santa Anna than signed a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas The painting "Surrender of Santa Anna" by William Huddle shows the Mexican strong-man surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston
38Annexation =take overThe original (or "Burnet") flag of Texas (1836–1839)
39Once Independent Texas wanted to become part of the United States, but Andrew Jackson refused to let them.Jackson didn’t want to stir up the issue of adding a slave state or risk war with Mexico themselves!
40Texas operates as it’s own country for 9 years! (1836 – 1845) TheFirstFlagOfRepublic!
41Texas became a state during James K Texas became a state during James K. Polk’s presidency (election promise). On December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States.
42December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States. This was their state flag they used!
43New Mexico TerritoryIn the early 1800’s New Mexico was the vast territory between Texas and CaliforniaWilliam BecknellWent to tradeTook the Santa Fe TrailOthers followed in his footsteps.William Becknellwas able to make a2000% profit trading! He could buy something for $1 and sell it for $21!
44The Oregon trail assisted the movement in to California!
45California In 1821, California became a state in the Mexican nation. The first Americans were there to trade and go whalingAmericans wanted to add California as a state because of its mild climate, scenic beauty, and abundant resources.President Polk offered to buy California and New Mexico twice, but Mexico refused.
46The Mexican-American War After Mexico Refuses Polk’s offer, General Zachary Taylor marches his soldiers across the disputed border.(the Rio Grande River)TheMexican-American War
47Between the Nueces and Rio Grande R Between the Nueces and Rio Grande R., troops build a fort that later gets attacked by Mexican soldiersAnd the War Begins...
49California became a republic after a small group of farmers seized the town of Sonoma and started the republic of California ! (1846)
50The farmers new country was called the Bear Flag Republic because their flag showed a bear on it! Duh!
51As the fighting in California was winding down, the advancement on the southern portions of Mexico heated up!
52Troops ready to leave Texas to fight in the southern portions of Mexico.
53Was given the task of capturing Mexico City. Winfield ScottWas given the task of capturing Mexico City.Scott devised a brilliant campaign that would bring the war to a speedy conclusion.
54Zachary Taylor –Known as "Old Rough and Ready," Taylor had a forty-year military career in the United States Army, serving in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War, and the Second Seminole War. He achieved fame leading American troops to victory in the Battle of Palo Alto and the Battle of Monterrey during the Mexican–American War. As president, Taylor angered many Southerners by taking a moderate stance on the issue of slavery.
55By March 1847 Scott’s Troops reached Mexico City.
56By 1847 ,they had reached Mexico City and by mid- September taken it!
57Mexico gave up it’s claims to Texas. After the U.S. had taken Mexico City, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in February 1848.The Treaty Said…Mexico gave up it’s claims to Texas.Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande border between Texas and Mexico
58The Mexican Cession said that Mexico ceded its provinces of California and New Mexico
59Can you describe what areas we gained as a result of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
60WE ALSO MADE A 10 MILLION DOLLAR PURCHASE!! You know theTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo…Add theGadsden Purchase!
61THE 10 MILLION DOLLAR PURCHASE WILL HOPEFULLY HOUSE A INTERCONTINENTAL RAILROAD IN THE FUTURE! While the transcontinental railroad eventually was built on the green route on this map, you can see from the red path that this space was vital to the Southern Pacific Railroad.What mountain range is north of the Gadsden Purchase that would have forced the United States to buy land highlighted here so they could build a railroad that could pass through?
62Was Manifest Destiny Achieved at this point? What do you think?
63Settlers in California Want more on the gold rush? Go to…
64California population increased tremendously in 1849. Because of…The Gold Rush
65The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California.News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.Maybe they willname a footballteam after thissome day!Although the total number of migrants during the gold rush years is uncertain, the non-Indian population in California increased from 14,000 in 1848 to 223,856 by 1852.
66Settlers who came to California during this time were called Forty-niners
67They came by sea and through the Sierra Nevada mountain range, building new communities called boomtowns almost overnight.San Francisco (1851) grew fast and stayed strong even after the gold rush ended .
68Port cities, such as San Francisco grew from tiny villages to large cities very rapidly!
69The vigilantes where people that took the law into their own hands! “Courage is being scared to death but saddling up anyway” - John Wayne
70Many people who had come looking for gold stayed in the area to farm or run a business. Levi StraussSome of the towns didn’t survive and turned into Ghost towns like Sierra Nevada, California.
72Brigham Young lead the Mormons west to the Great Salt Lake in Utah. The violent death of Joseph Smith (left) caused Mormons to want to leave Illinois and head west.Brigham YoungIn 1844 Joseph Smith was killed by a mob while in custody in the city of Carthage, Illinois. In 1846, religious tension reached their peak, and in 1848 mobs burned the Latter-day Saint temple in Nauvoo.
7312,000 Mormons made the largest single migration in U.S. history.
7412,000 Mormons made the largest single migration in U.S. history.
75The Mormons made desert (Salt Lake City) flourish with hard work and determination.
76Utah would not become a state until 1896 after war almost broke out between the Mormons and United States Army.
77How does this painting show Manifest Destiny in a positive light? Emanuel Leutze painting: Westward the Course of Empire takes its Way, 1860