Presentation on theme: "A Transgender Primer For OCHRS Members"— Presentation transcript:
1A Transgender Primer For OCHRS Members Renée Baker, Ph.D., LMTGenderPower.ComOct 22, 2009 2009 by Renée Baker. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilm and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from Renée Baker.
2Contents Introduction Part 1: From My Heart to Yours - A Personal Transgender Sharing (oral)Mystery of gender, a childhood lookGrowing up and family lifeComing outJourney to selfTransitional experiences from HRT to surgeryQ&APart 2 – Working With Transgender Individuals (slides)TerminologyHistoryEtiquetteEquality, rights and current eventsTransgender standards of careMarketing to Transgender ClientsTen Steps to a Transgender Inclusive WorkplaceBack Matter
3A Personal Transgender Sharing Part 1From My Heart to YoursA Personal Transgender Sharing(oral presentation)
5Transitional Changes December 2004 Circa 2000 First Day of Hormones August 30, 2005Right Before FFSMay 2006One week after FFS
6Working With Transgender Individuals Part 2Working With Transgender IndividualsKnowing terminology is a way to connect and empathize with your clients.
7TerminologyKnowing terminology is a way to connect and empathize with your clients.
8Pssst…we haven’t talked about sex and gender yet. Males & FemalesHelp!See Joan Roughgarden, page 23.Biologically speaking, the only defining factor for whether an organism is male or female is the gamete size it produces.Males – sperm or small gametesFemales – eggs or large gametesPssst…we haven’t talked about sex and gender yet.
9The Root of Sex: Biological Hermaphrodites* The most common reproductive systemProduces both large and small gametes during a lifetime (biological term)Simultaneous hermaphroditicboth gametes made same timeSequentially hermaphroditicboth gametes made different timesMost flowering plants are simultaneously hermaphroditicas are many deep sea fishFlowering plantspollen is the male partseeds or ovule is the female partAbout ¼ of the fish near coral reefs are hermaphroditic.*Do not use this to refer to intersexed people.
10SexTraditionalSex is defined as whether a human is either male or female, or by which gamete they produce.Assumptions about what genitalia should then look like are then made.The ProblemSecondary sex characteristics and sexual anatomy are much more diverse.There is spectrum of human males and human females.About 2% of the human population is intersexed having a sexed body outside of what society “expects”.We’re X girl stuffI am Y boy stuff*See A. Lev
11Commonality of Intersexed Conditions Intersexed people or mammalsProduce eggs & spermAnd/or have combinations of egg/sperm related genitaliaIntersexed beings play an important role in society and in biologyCommonality of Intersexed Conditions Among MammalsFlowering plantspollen is the male partseeds or ovule is the female partPercent of Species
12Varying Effects of Intersexed Conditions There are over 70 types of chromosomal and hormonal conditions causing intersexed syndromes or ambiguous genitalia (Lev)Effects are quite diverseVarying penis or clitoris sizeVarying location of urethra opening along penisClosure of labia / scrotal appearanceVarying vaginal depth or no vaginaVarying size testes or partially descended or not descendedNo uterus or cervix or fallopian tubesVarying degrees of feminization or masculinizationVarying body shapesMany intersexed people are raised as the “opposite sex” to their chromosomesMany intersexed people are given genital surgery for “correction”Many consider this practice unethicalAbout five baby girls have their clitorises operated on each day (Ms. Mag.)Many intersexed people also identify as transgenderedFlowering plantspollen is the male partseeds or ovule is the female part
13More on SexModernSex is the anatomical and physiological makeup of a human being, referred to as the biological or natal sex.Sex is not bipolar in one type of male and one type of female.Sex is a complex interaction of determinates that affect the body physiology and sexual differentiation in the brainGeneticsHormoneMorphology,BiochemistryAnatomicalIn short, there are more than two sexes, even if we only legally have two.*See A. Lev
14See! As I said, all men clowns SexismSexism is when an individual is judged to be certain way by virtue of their sex.See! As I said, all men clownsSexism or any kind of ism is when we generalize from a single example and then impose that generalization. It is a simplification, and our brains do this naturally, until we are able to step back and re-evaluate the situation to see it as more complex than it was. The brain or ego loves to simplify which is an act of pre-judgement, or prejudice.Sexism is abusive.Assuming people are a way they aren’t is damaging and hurtful.For example:We shouldn’t assume men are aggressive and tough, but allow them to be compassionate and caring.We shouldn’t assume women are docile and weak, but allow them to be intelligent and capable of leadership.No we aren’t!
15The male seahorse carries the baby and gives birth Sex Myth Busters*Males and females are males and females for life. False!The most common form of plant life is simultaneous male & femaleHalf of the animal kingdom is simultaneously male or female or changes throughout lifeFemales always give birth. False!In many species, the female deposits the eggs in the male’s pouch and the male tends the nestThe male seahorse carries the baby and gives birthMales are always bigger than females. False!No, in many species such as fish, the female is the biggestMales always have XY chromosomes and females have XX. False!In birds, the reverse is true (ZZ is male, ZW is female)In many species, males and females have the same chromosomes.The turtle’s sex is determined by temperature of egg laying environment*See Joan Roughgarden reference
16Sometimes the male of a species lactates Sex Myth Busters IIThere are only two genders. False!Many species have three or more gendersEach sex can have more than one formMales and females always look different. False!In some species, males and female look alikeThe male always has a penis and the female lactates. False!The female hyena for example has a penis like structureThe male fruit bat of Borneo for example produces milk in mammary glandsMales always control females. False!In some species, females actually dominateFemales don’t always prefer a dominant maleFemales always prefer monogamy and males want to fool around. False!In many species, males and females play aroundLifelong monogamy is rareSometimes the male of a species lactates
17Nature sometimes seeks a balance Sex Myth Busters IIINo animal species changes their sex. False!Many fish families change their sex (both ways)The moray eel changes its sexsex changeNature sometimes seeks a balanceof males and femalesProtogynyFemales change into malesProtandryMales change into females
18GenderTraditionalGender is defined as a way a person expresses their sexual identity in a given society. The assumption is that all men have something in common and women differ from men. Men are considered the norm and women deviate.Masculine - differing attributes of malesFeminine - differing attributes of femalesModernGender is defined in terms of attributes we ascribe to an individual regardless of their sexual identityEmotionsThoughtsDesiresBehaviorsGender and Sex are not synonymousI am areal man!
19GenderOur gender role is the social roles we play in life, conscious or not.Our gender identity is how we describe ourselves in terms of genderIncluding man, woman or androgyne and so on. It is a self description.Person of gender is a term not used much, but I am promoting asan alternative to transgendered and is inclusive of all humans. Itputs the focus on that we are persons first.The gender community is an inclusive term for gender variantIndividuals and SOFFA (significant others, friends, family, allies)
21fall outside of the expected range for a given sex. TransgenderAn umbrella term encompassing all those gender expressions thatfall outside of the expected range for a given sex.A term of empowermentfor those that use it.
22DRAG Queens Dressed As a Girl (DRAG) Most DRAG Queens are male identified female performers, often gaySome DRAG Queens are female identified female performers, often lesbianA typical performance is song and dance with lip syncing and comedyIt is common for DRAG Queens to support local GLBT community fundraising (e.g., Lone Star Court / Gay Bingo)It is common for DRAG Queens to perform at clubs, organizations and schools as part of GLBT outreachDRAG Queen competitions are common and many earn money by performingDRAG is not universally acceptedMiss and Mr. Texas Gay Rodeo Association hosting the UT Dallas DRAG Queen GALA, benefiting the Resource Center of Dallas, 2008.Source: Renee Baker
23Cross DressersCross dressers are those that occasionally wear clothes outside the socially prescribed gender normsCross dressers are typically male identified and cross dress outside of their functioning male rolesWomen that wear men’s casual clothes occasionally generally don’t define themselves as cross dressersMany early cross dressers will later identify as trans womenMany cross dressers do not identify with the term transgenderedCross dressers often just want to be a “girl for a night” to break from the male role.Majority of CDs are closeted in some respect.Derogatory and Passé - TransvestiteA male identified cross dresser with a supportive spouse at Southern Comfort Conference, Source: Renee Baker
24Crossdressing Accessories CorsetsHip padsBreast FormsGaffsWigsCrossdressers and transgender individuals will often go to great lengths to “pass” or “blend”The opposite of passing is “being read”.Part of the unfolding is to learn not to worry what others think. Passing no longer is a priority and instead self-expression is the key.DermablendMakeup
25Bi-GenderMany people reject the notion that we have one gender as male or femaleSome are androgynous displaying masculine and feminine traits simultaneouslySome are gender neutral like “Pat” on Saturday Night LiveOther common namesTwo-SpiritGender Queer,Third SexGender BenderGender Warrior
26Trans Men and WomenTranssexuals are people that alter their bodies (surgically or hormonally) with the desire to change their sexThe term transsexual is a medical term and has a pathological history of abuse by the psychological and psychiatric community“Trans” is often preferred, or just man or womanTransgenderist is someone that feels they are more than a cross-dresser, but not a transsexualEthan St. PierreA Female to Male (FTM)Trans Manphoto courtesy of
27TransitionTransition is that time of life we go from one state to another.Three StepsAn ending occursA challenging neutral zone of disorienting and reorienting is experiencedA new beginningThe big transgender question: Should I transition?Transition is often a painful time, fraught with uncertainty, sadness, depression and loss.Transition is a time that is disorienting and reorienting.Solitude is needed for a time of reflection to break patterns and awaken.
28Possible Steps in a Male to Female (MTF) Transition CounselingPersonal ChangesName ChangeReal Life TestHormone TreatmentsHair RemovalBreast AugmentationGender SurgeryFacial SurgeryGender Marker Change
29Coming Out Coming out is allowing self-disclosure We have a choice at each moment of encounterTo share who we areTo hide who we areLGB people come out about their sexualityT people come out about their gender identityThe more educated people become about gender and sexuality, the more accepting they are.Acceptance by allowing others to simply be is a great gift of love.Avoiding judgment allows others a chance to discover their authentic selves.
30MTF Hormone Therapy* Typically, trans women take Estrogen: feminizing growth hormoneSpironolactone: antiandrogen to decrease masculinizationTypical feminizing effectsBreast developmentSoftening of skinEmotional changes similar to experienced in pubertyAn increase in fatSubcutaneous below the skinHips and buttocksDecrease in size of testes and prostate glandDecrease in ejaculate and frequency of erectionsEventual infertilityEffects NOT expectedDecrease in beard growthA change in one’s voice or increase in pitchEstradiol 2 mgSpironolactone 100 mg*Not medical advice. See doctor for proper treatment.
31HistoryKnowing terminology is a way to connect and empathize with your clients.
32Roman HistoryEunuchs were well known throughout ancient Roman times. There were two typesEunuchs by natureEunuchs by castrationServed as guardians for women and childrenMany were strongly female identifiedMany became priestesses to the goddess CybeleIn the Middle East, Mukhannathun were a group of “feminine men” that would be considered modern day MTF transgendered
33Source: wikipedia, public domain Medieval HistoryJehanne or “Joan” is a popular hero for trans menBorn in France in 1412A military leader who defeated the English at Orleans making the way for Charles to receive the crownDressed as a man as religious dutyBurned at the stake alive at age 19Jehanne D’ ArcSource: wikipedia, public domain
34Modern History “Ex-GI Becomes Blonde Beauty” – NY Daily, 1952 Christine Jorgensen was the first widely known transsexualWoman in the U.S.The first modern day “sex change” was in 1945The stonewall riots of 1969 were in response ofpolice brutality towards transgender womenTransgender women and bi-gender individualsIgnited riots to protestStonewall was the launch of the modern daygay rights movement.
35EtiquetteKnowing terminology is a way to connect and empathize with your clients.
36BathroomsGenerally we should allow people to use bathrooms in the gender they are presenting in.A business has a right to decide which bathrooms people can use, or can escort the client off premises.
37Terms of Endearment* Problematic Terminology Endearing Terminology CommentA transgenderA transgender personTransgender is an adjective, not a nounSex change, pre-op, or post-opTransitionOne does not have to have surgery to change their sexSex change surgeryGender Confirming Surgery or Gender Reassignment SurgerySex reassignment surgery is also used, but usage is decliningHermaphroditeIntersexedHermaphrodite is old school and often used to sensationalize intersexed people*See GLAAD.org
38Phrases to Avoid Problematic Phrase Comment You look just like a woman or just like a man.Saying a transwoman or transman look just like a woman or man is arrogant , judgmental and presumptuous. It reduces a person to an object.You pass so well.The goal is to be authentic and not to pass. If someone is authentic, they “pass” as themself.If you had facial surgery (etc.), you would pass better.A transgender person should never be pressured to have surgery or make physical changes. They should be encouraged to discover themselves until they “know” what is best for them.I never would have known you were a man / woman.It is really not a complement to say how well a person passes. It makes you feel like you are not being valued as a human, but a physical object.
39Defamatory* Defamatory Terminology Comment "she-male," "he-she," "it," "trannie," "tranny," "gender-bender"These are all dehumanizing terms that tend to reduce transgender people to something less than human. They are sometimes used by transgender people themselves, but in general, they should be avoided and assumed to be degrading."deceptive," "fooling," "pretending," "posing," or "masquerading"While transgender people are expressing gender in a gender-variant way, it is insulting to assume they are putting on a show or faking it. For those just coming out of a closet, extra patience is needed while allowing the transgender individual time to try on various hats until the right one fits.*See GLAAD.org
40Names and Pronouns* Name To be respectful, be sure to use the individual’s chosen name , regardless of their legal name or their previous legal name.PronounsWhen you are not sure which pronoun to use, go ahead and ask the person which pronoun they prefer. They may prefer you to use he or she dependent upon the situation and how they are presenting at that time. If you can’t ask, then you can use gender neutral “they” or “them” as singular pronouns even if awkward.Quotation MarksAvoid putting quotation marks around names and pronouns. It implies a snarky attitude.*See GLAAD.org
41Equality, Rights and Current Events Knowing terminology is a way to connect and empathize with your clients.
42EqualityEquality for transgender individuals is the same as equality for anyone elseEveryone wants the same opportunity for life, liberty and the pursuit of happinessIf we can understand that everyone has a masculine and feminine side, then we recognize that equality for transgender people is equality for all.
43RightsRights are moral principles defining a human's freedom of action in societyTitle VII of the Federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits workplace discrimination based upon sexIn 2004, it was ruled that transgender people were included under Title VIIHowever, violence and discrimination is commonplace
44Example: Jet Pilot Fired Jamy Spradlin was fired in 2006 and lost her flying licenseIt took two years of fighting to get back in the airShe still has not found another flying job to replace her first oneWithin two hours of coming out as transgendered to her Human Resources department, corporate jet pilot Jamy Spradlin was put on paid administrative leave. To make matters worse, the Federal Aviation Administration delayed renewing her license to fly for nearly a year while they evaluated her psyche for stability after beginning hormone replacement therapy. Spradlin is 41 years old now, though she grew up as a biological male. She loves to fly. It’s in her soul and her passion, she says. "I’ve been flying since I was 16. I got bit by the flying bug and have to do it." She says it brings her great peace and great freedom, and she loves to share that with other people. But her former Dallas-based corporation said no, they did not want a transgender woman flying their executives around the country. Instead of asking how they could help her transition to female, the corporation’s lawyer asked her, "How can we help you transition - away from the company?" Spradlin does not wish to disclose the name of the corporation. Within four days of her coming out in March of 2006, the company asked Spradlin to tender her resignation. Because she was not in a financial position to fight a legal battle, she agreed to a settlement. Almost a year after being fired, Spradlin was ready to fly again, but her FAA medical certificate had lapsed. Getting that certificate reinstated has taken nearly another year, since last June. It should only have taken two hours as it had in the past, just like a driver’s license. "All of this is because I started taking estrogen," she says. Spradlin went to see her FAA-approved medical examiner, Dr. Gabriel Fried, M.D., in Dallas. Though she passed her First Class medical examination otherwise, when she told the examiner she was taking estrogen, Dr. Fried required two additional things: a letter from her licensed counselor describing her mental stability, and a letter from her family practitioner describing her hormone usage. The details of what Spradlin went through to get her medical certificate back almost requires a flow chart to understand. But the FAA thinks otherwise: Les Dorr, FAA spokesperson in Washington DC, maintains that "nothing happens" when you come out as transgendered to the FAA. Dorr says it is up to the individual medical examiner to determine whether pilots are fit to fly, but says that transgender people undergoing hormone treatment have "potentially associated medical psychiatric conditions." However, Dorr also says FAA chief psychiatrist Charles Chesanow is not aware of any transgender pilot that has ever been denied getting a license, nor of one that has ever lost a license. Though Dorr says the FAA leaves testing up to the medical examiner, the FAA required Spradlin to undergo extensive psychological evaluation, costing her $1400. In addition, Spradlin had to provide the FAA with a copy of her counselor’s therapeutic session notes. Spradlin says she is not aware of any non-transgender female pilots that have had to undergo such stringent evaluation when they began taking hormone replacement therapy. Spradlin believes the system is a mess. "The whole process was utterly frustrating," she says. "No one wanted to take responsibility." She says that most of the issues that came up were due to "lack of communication" and "lack of understanding". She believes that while she wasn’t personally discriminated against, the system unfairly assumes that transgender people are cognitively dysfunctional until proven otherwise. "They really didn’t have a clue, but I don’t blame them for not knowing what to do." Still, Spradlin remains optimistic that the FAA will eventually get it right. "You gotta laugh about it," she says. There was a lesson in all of this, she explains, and that is patience. Even as she was a day away from getting the needed medical certificate in the end, the assigned physician granting her a medical certificate had a heart attack, causing another three week delay. After two years of being grounded, Spradlin now has her medical certificate in hand and expects to find an industrial pilot position in the near future. She lives in Plano, Texas and is an active volunteer in the GLBT community and in her church. She is happy to have her wings back. Dr. Renee Baker is a massage therapist, transgender consultant and board member of Youth First Texas. She may be reached on her website atJamy SpradlinSource: Renee Baker
45Example: Police Beating In June of 2008, footage was leaked to the press of a police beating caught on tapeTwo officers were firedThe transgender woman filed suitShe was mysteriously murdered “execution style” before trialIt’s been over forty years since Martin Luther King Jr.’s embarked on his impassioned civil rights crusade, battled with police forces and ultimately was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. The recent beating of an African American transgender woman, Duanna Johnson, suggests that discriminatory police brutality in Memphis has not ended. WMC-TV in Memphis recently obtained surveillance footage from the reception room of a local police station, where Johnson was beaten and maced by two police officers. It’s "every trans-person’s nightmare come true," says Donna Rose, transgender woman and a leader in several national GLBT organizations. Johnson was booked on prostitution charges Feb. 12 at the Shelby County Criminal Justice Center in Memphis - charges that have now been dropped because the district attorney’s office found no probable cause for arrest. Video footage shows Johnson being brutally beaten by officer Bridges McRae, while probationary officer James Swain holds her down. Michael Silverman of the Transgender Legal Defense and Education Fund says the outburst was not only unconscionable, but extreme and disproportionate to the case. Silverman says they receive many complaints of mistreatment by police, but none on this scale of brutality. Jennifer Donnals, communications director of the Shelby County district attorney’s office, says the case is now being investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. When the FBI concludes its findings, the Shelby DA’s office will evaluate them for possible state charges. The U.S. attorney’s office will further review the findings for possible federal charges. The Memphis Police Department said in a statement that they are investigating the case. Officer Swain was immediately released from duty after the February beating incident. McRae was placed on non-enforcement status pending an administrative hearing until just yesterday, when he too was released from duty, according to WMC-TV. Donnals says that an investigation into how the video was released to the media is being done by a separate agency, as "release of evidence to the public in this manner could jeopardize a case" against the officers if it comes to trial. According to WMC-TV, the video was released to the media by Johnson’s attorney, Murray Wells, who felt it was an outrage that McRae was not immediately fired and no disciplinary actions were forthcoming. WMC-TV reports Memphis PD director Larry Godwin denies he was slow to hold a hearing until the tapes went public. McRae was fired just one week after the video footage was released to the media, and four months after the initial beating. What exactly prompted the officers to beat Johnson is still unclear. The consensus among witnesses at the event and LGBT organizations is that Johnson’s actions in no way justified the police officers’ violent actions. Johnson was said to have ignored prompts from the officer to stand up after he called her derogatory names such as "faggot" and "he-she." Patrick Callahan, public information officer of Transgender Community of Police and Sheriffs, an international organization of 800 transgender law enforcement officers and personnel, is very concerned about the video footage released. "The actual mistreatment or even the perceived mistreatment of a prisoner while in the custody of police officers sworn to uphold the law and to protect and serve is intolerable," he says. Callahan says that transgender police officers themselves have trouble transitioning in the workplace, and that many have to remain in stealth mode. "Police officers, just like the people they protect and serve, can often be very conservative people and may not easily accept change, particularly a change perceived to be as drastic as the transition from one gender to another." But Callahan thinks that the Memphis PD has more serious issues. "The severity of the attack on Ms. Duanna Johnson...suggests that there may be more severe issues that exist within the Memphis PD that place not only minority populations in danger, but the greater community as well." All those interviewed agreed education is needed. "The entire police department needs education," Rose says. "We need to find ways of turning this inexcusable act of violence into something positive so others will not have to face the same thing." Silverman, who says though we will have to wait for the legal process to mature, believes that Johnson should most likely be [financially] compensated and the officers should be punished. According to WMC-TV, Johnson is making plans to sue the Memphis Police Department. Though Johnson was not available for immediate comment, Wells says he is proud of how she is handling the case.Grainy security camera footage at Memphis police station shows police officers brutally beating Duana Johnson Source:WMC-TV Memphis, TennesseeDuanna JohnsonMurdered Nov. 9, 2008
46International Bill of Transgender Rights Right to a Gender IdentityRight to Freedom From Involuntary Psychiatric Diagnosis & TreatmentRight to a Enter Marital ContractsRight to a Conceive, Bear or Adopt Children…to be ParentsRight to Sexual ExpressionRight to Change One’s BodyRight to a Gendered SpaceRight to Free Gender ExpressionRight to Medical and Professional CareRight to Employment
47Current Event – Transgender Regret Sometimes, transgender people regret their transition.Christine Daniels, a sports reporter for the LA Times, decided not to transition.He is returning to live as Mike Penner.Data is sketchy, but about one in twenty that begin transition change their minds.For some, shadow of regret cast over gender switchBy Steve Friess, special for USA TODAYThe day Mike Penner left the Los Angeles Times made the news. The longtime sportswriter wrote the article himself, a personal essay explaining that he was taking some time off and, upon his return, he would be known from then on as Christine Daniels.Penner's public acknowledgment in April 2007 that he was transgender and would soon live as a woman shocked the world of sports journalism and turned his new identity, Daniels, into an instant celebrity. Daniels gave speeches, was profiled in Sports Illustrated, collected honors for courage from transgender groups and wrote a blog for the Times titled "Woman In Progress."Except that the transition didn't last. In mid-October 2008, after a lengthy leave of absence, Penner, 51, returned to the sports pages and the Times newsroom as a man.And just as suddenly, Penner's story, heralded in its early days as a triumphant example of transgender progress, has instead become a cautionary tale of the lesser-known phenomenon: transgender regret."It's unfortunate and it's relatively uncommon but certainly not unheard of," says Denise Leclair, executive director of the International Foundation for Gender Education, a Waltham, Mass.-based transgender advocacy group. "The simplest way to think about it is being trans is something that never goes away. ... There's just a fairly constant social pressure to just go back. You don't have to be a genius to understand that society doesn't really accept this."Penner, a 24-year veteran of the newspaper, did not respond to calls and s for comment and has not written about his decision to resume life as a man. The blog and bylines as Christine Daniels have been removed from the newspaper's website.Though there's no data available on how many transgender people abandon their new gender, psychologist Ron Lawrence of the Community Counseling Center in Las Vegas says about 5% of his transgender patients revert. Leclair echoes that estimate.Adhering to a codeTransgender advocates say the case of Penner, who never had sex-change surgery, reflects the success of a system in which American sex-change surgeons, adhering to their own code of conduct, won't operate until the patient has had a year of intense psychotherapy while living publicly in the new gender."We're required (by doctors) to go through all this stuff for a reason, even though there are a lot of trans people who bristle at being told what they can and can't do," says Donna Rose, a male-to-female postoperative transsexual in Rochester, N.Y. "The thing that people have to understand is that even though Mike decided to retransition, that doesn't mean he's not trans. It's not like you go all of a sudden, 'Uh, I'm better.' Going back doesn't automatically clear the conundrum that causes you to get there in the first place."Rose reversed course on her own transition at first because her then-wife became so distraught and co-workers were insensitive. Six months later, she went through with it and ended the marriage.Transitioning carries with it the prospect of losing jobs, friends and family, as well as mockery from strangers who find the gender change visibly jarring, Rose and others attest. "You become a very visible minority," Leclair says. "The average male-to-female transsexual is taller, has bigger hands and feet, has more facial hair than most women. There are a lot of physical attributes that are hard to hide in a society that doesn't like you."Religion sometimes comes into play. Joseph Cluse of Newport News, Va., lived his life as Joanna for 30 years after having the surgery in the 1970s. Yet Cluse, who was married twice and raised one husband's children, became religious in recent years and decided that God wanted him to resume his life as a man. Cluse, 54, stopped taking hormones and had breast implants removed.Cases such as Penner and Cluse raise questions about the causes of transgenderism. Paul McHugh, director of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, is a leading proponent of the notion that the cause is not biological, that transgender people have chosen this path.He halted the university hospital's practice of performing gender reassignment surgeries in the late 1970s because, he says, a study indicated that postoperative transsexuals were no happier than they were before the operation. "You can live any way you want, but don't come to us and ask us to give medical resources to this proposal of yours, because we think it's a social construct and not a condition of nature," McHugh says."No one has demonstrated any physical mechanism or physical problem that causes this. The burden of proof is on them to prove that."Debating the causeSuch comments are anathema to the transgender advocates, who insist the decades-old study McHugh cites was debunked. Like most transsexuals, Daniels told Sports Illustrated in 2007 that her urges to be female began as a child, and she wrote in the Times that same year: "We are born with this. We fight it as long as we can, and in the end it wins."Claire Winter, a transsexual from Seattle who mentored Penner and spoke to him late last year, doubts the sportswriter's reversal will further confuse the general public about transsexualism."I think people are so bloody confused, I don't know if this has a significant effect," Winter says. "But maybe this will help people to understand that this is a very complex, highly difficult situation. This indicates the fundamental problem of trying to shove people into either end of the gender pole. It serves to point out the fact that it isn't as simple as flipping a coin."I would say give (Penner) some time," Winter says. "We have to wait for him to let us know when he figures it out."Christine DanielsSource: USA Today 2/26/09
48Days of Importance Day Description Transgender Day of Remembrance A day to remember those transgender individuals that were murdered. About two murders are occurring each month.TransAction DayGLSEN held this day for the first time in 2009 to educate teachers and counselors about gender variancePride DayMost major cities have a pride day to celebrate the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) communityYoung, Gay and MurderedKids are coming out younger, but are schools ready to handle the complex issues of identity and sexuality? For Larry King, the question had tragic implications.At 15, Lawrence King was small—5 feet 1 inch—but very hard to miss. In January, he started to show up for class at Oxnard, Calif.'s E. O. Green Junior High School decked out in women's accessories. On some days, he would slick up his curly hair in a Prince-like bouffant. Sometimes he'd paint his fingernails hot pink and dab glitter or white foundation on his cheeks. "He wore makeup better than I did," says Marissa Moreno, 13, one of his classmates. He bought a pair of stilettos at Target, and he couldn't have been prouder if he had on a varsity football jersey. He thought nothing of chasing the boys around the school in them, teetering as he ran.NEWSWEEKFrom the magazine issue dated Jul 28, 2008Ramin SetoodehBut on the morning of Feb. 12, Larry left his glitter and his heels at home. He came to school dressed like any other boy: tennis shoes, baggy pants, a loose sweater over a collared shirt. He seemed unhappy about something. He hadn't slept much the night before, and he told one school employee that he threw up his breakfast that morning, which he sometimes did because he obsessed over his weight. But this was different. One student noticed that as Larry walked across the quad, he kept looking back nervously over his shoulder before he slipped into his first-period English class. The teacher, Dawn Boldrin, told the students to collect their belongings, and then marched them to a nearby computer lab, so they could type out their papers on World War II. Larry found a seat in the middle of the room. Behind him, Brandon McInerney pulled up a chair.Brandon, 14, wasn't working on his paper, because he told Mrs. Boldrin he'd finished it. Instead, he opened a history book and started to read. Or at least he pretended to. "He kept looking over at Larry," says a student who was in the class that morning. "He'd look at the book and look at Larry, and look at the book and look at Larry." At 8:30 a.m., a half hour into class, Brandon quietly stood up. Then, without anyone's noticing, he removed a handgun that he had somehow sneaked to school, aimed it at Larry's head, and fired a single shot. Boldrin, who was across the room looking at another student's work, spun around. "Brandon, what the hell are you doing!" she screamed. Brandon fired at Larry a second time, tossed the gun on the ground and calmly walked through the classroom door. Police arrested him within seven minutes, a few blocks from school. Larry was rushed to the hospital, where he died two days later of brain injuries.The Larry King shooting became the most prominent gay-bias crime since the murder of Matthew Shepard 10 years ago. But despite all the attention and outrage, the reason Larry died isn't as clear-cut as many people think. California's Supreme Court has just legalized gay marriage. There are gay characters on popular TV shows such as "Gossip Girl" and "Ugly Betty," and no one seems to notice. Kids like Larry are so comfortable with the concept of being openly gay that they are coming out younger and younger. One study found that the average age when kids self-identify as gay has tumbled to 13.4; their parents usually find out a year later.What you might call "the shrinking closet" is arguably a major factor in Larry's death. Even as homosexuality has become more accepted, the prospect of being openly gay in middle school raises a troubling set of issues. Kids may want to express who they are, but they are playing grown-up without fully knowing what that means. At the same time, teachers and parents are often uncomfortable dealing with sexual issues in children so young. Schools are caught in between. How do you protect legitimate, personal expression while preventing inappropriate, sometimes harmful, behavior? Larry King was, admittedly, a problematical test case: he was a troubled child who flaunted his sexuality and wielded it like a weapon—it was often his first line of defense. But his story sheds light on the difficulty of defining the limits of tolerance. As E. O. Green found, finding that balance presents an enormous challenge.Larry's life was hard from the beginning. His biological mother was a drug user; his father wasn't in the picture. When Greg and Dawn King took him in at age 2, the family was told he wasn't being fed regularly. Early on, a speech impediment made Larry difficult to understand, and he repeated first grade because he had trouble reading. He was a gentle child who loved nature and crocheting, but he also acted out from an early age. "We couldn't take him to the grocery store without him shoplifting," Greg says. "We couldn't get him to clean up his room. We sent him upstairs—he'd get a screwdriver and poke holes in the walls." He was prescribed ADHD medication, and Greg says Larry was diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder, a rare condition in which children never fully bond with their caregivers or parents.Kids started whispering about Larry when he was in third grade at Hathaway Elementary School. "In a school of 700 students, you'd know Larry," says Sarah Ranjbar, one of Larry's principals. "He was slightly effeminate but very sure of his personality." Finally, his best friend, Averi Laskey, pulled him aside one day at the end of class. "I said, 'Larry, are you gay?' He said, 'Yeah, why?' " He was 10. Averi remembers telling Larry she didn't care either way, but Larry started telling other students, and they did. They called him slurs and avoided him at recess. One Halloween, someone threw a smoke bomb into his house, almost killing the family's Jack Russell terrier. In the sixth grade, a girl started a "Burn Book"—an allusion to a book in the movie "Mean Girls," where bullies scribble nasty rumors about the people they hate—about Larry. The Larry book talked about how he was gay and falsely asserted that he dressed in Goth and drag. And it ended with a threat: "I hate Larry King. I wish he was dead," according to one parent's memory of the book. "The principal called my wife on the phone and she was crying," Greg says. "She found the book, and said we needed to do something to help protect Larry." His parents transferred him to another elementary school, hoping he could get a fresh start before he started junior high.E. O. Green is a white slab of concrete in a neighborhood of pink and yellow homes. In the afternoons, SUVs roll down the street like gumballs, the sound of hip-hop music thumping. Once the students leave the campus, two blue gates seal it shut, and teachers are told not to return to school after dark, because of gang violence. Outside, there's a worn blue sign that greets visitors: this was a California distinguished school in The school is under a different administration now.E. O. Green was a comfortable place for Larry when he arrived as a seventh grader. He hung out with a group of girls who, unlike in elementary school, didn't judge him. But that didn't mean he was entirely accepted. In gym class, some of his friends say that the boys would shove him around in the locker room. After he started dressing up, he was ridiculed even more. He lost a high heel once and the boys tossed it around at lunch like a football. "Random people would come up to him and start laughing," Moreno says. "I thought that was very rude." One day, in science class, he was singing "Somewhere Over the Rainbow" to himself. Kids nearby taunted him for being gay. "He said to me, 'It's OK'," says Vanessa Castillo, a classmate. " 'One day, they'll regret it. One day, I'll be famous'."Larry's home life wasn't getting any better. At 12, he was put on probation for vandalizing a tractor with a razor blade, and he entered a counseling program, according to his father. One therapist said Larry might be autistic. At 14, Larry told Greg he thought he was bisexual. "It wouldn't matter either way to me," Greg says. "I thought maybe some of the problems would go away if we supported him." But the therapist told Greg he thought that Larry was just trying to get attention and might not understand what it meant to be gay. Larry began telling his teachers that his father was hitting him. Greg says he never harmed Larry; still, the authorities removed Larry from his home in November He moved to Casa Pacifica, a group home and treatment center in Camarillo, five miles away from Oxnard.Larry seemed to like Casa Pacifica—"peaceful home" in Spanish. The 23-acre facility—more like a giant campground, with wooden cottages, a basketball court and a swimming pool—has 45 beds for crisis kids who need temporary shelter. Every day a driver would take Larry to school, and some weeks he went to nearby Ventura, where he attended gay youth-group meetings. "I heard this was the happiest time of his life," says Vicki Murphy, the center's director of operations. For Christmas, the home gave Larry a $75 gift card for Target. He spent it on a pair of brown stiletto shoes.In January, after a few months at Casa Pacifica, Larry decided to dress like a girl. He went to school accessorized to the max, and his already colorful personality got louder. He accused a girl to her face of having breast implants. Another girl told him she didn't like his shoes. "I don't like your necklace," Larry snapped back. Larry called his mom from Casa Pacifica to tell her that he wanted to get a sex-change operation. And he told a teacher that he wanted to be called Leticia, since no one at school knew he was half African-American. The teacher said firmly, "Larry, I'm not calling you Leticia." He dropped the idea without an argument.The staff at E. O. Green was clearly struggling with the Larry situation—how to balance his right to self-expression while preventing it from disrupting others. Legally, they couldn't stop him from wearing girls' clothes, according to the California Attorney General's Office, because of a state hate-crime law that prevents gender discrimination. Larry, being Larry, pushed his rights as far as he could. During lunch, he'd sidle up to the popular boys' table and say in a high-pitched voice, "Mind if I sit here?" In the locker room, where he was often ridiculed, he got even by telling the boys, "You look hot," while they were changing, according to the mother of a student.Larry was eventually moved out of the P.E. class, though the school didn't seem to know the extent to which he was clashing with other boys. One teacher describes the gym transfer as more of a "preventative measure," since Larry complained that one student wouldn't stop looking at him. In other classes, teachers were baffled that Larry was allowed to draw so much attention to himself. "All the teachers were complaining, because it was disruptive," says one of them. "Dress code is a huge issue at our school. We fight [over] it every day." Some teachers thought Larry was clearly in violation of the code, which prevents students from wearing articles of clothing considered distracting. When Larry wore lipstick and eyeliner to school for the first time, a teacher told him to wash it off, and he did. But the next day, he was back wearing even more. Larry told the teacher he could wear makeup if he wanted to. He said that Ms. Epstein told him that was his right.Joy Epstein was one of the school's three assistant principals, and as Larry became less inhibited, Epstein became more a source of some teachers' confusion and anger. Epstein, a calm, brown-haired woman with bifocals, was openly gay to her colleagues, and although she was generally not out to her students, she kept a picture of her partner on her desk that some students saw. While her job was to oversee the seventh graders, she formed a special bond with Larry, who was in the eighth grade. He dropped by her office regularly, either for counseling or just to talk—she won't say exactly. "There was no reason why I specifically started working with Larry," Epstein says. "He came to me." Some teachers believe that she was encouraging Larry's flamboyance, to help further an "agenda," as some put it. One teacher complains that by being openly gay and discussing her girlfriend (presumably, no one would have complained if she had talked about a husband), Epstein brought the subject of sex into school. Epstein won't elaborate on what exactly she said to Larry because she expects to be called to testify at Brandon's trial, but it's certain to become one of the key issues. William Quest, Brandon's public defender, hasn't disclosed his defense strategy, but he has accused the school of failing to intercede as the tension rose between Larry and Brandon. Quest calls Epstein "a lesbian vice principal with a political agenda." Larry's father also blames Epstein. He's hired an attorney and says he is seriously contemplating a wrongful-death lawsuit. "She started to confuse her role as a junior-high principal," Greg King says. "I think that she was asserting her beliefs for gay rights." In a tragedy such as this, the natural impulse is to try to understand why it happened and to look for someone to blame. Epstein won't discuss the case in detail and, until she testifies in court, it's impossible to know what role—if any—she played in the events leading to Larry's death.Whatever Epstein said to Larry, it's clear that his coming out proved to be a fraught process, as it can often be. For tweens, talking about being gay isn't really about sex. They may be aware of their own sexual attraction by the time they're 10, according to Caitlin Ryan, a researcher at San Francisco State University, but those feelings are too vague and unfamiliar to be their primary motivation. (In fact, Larry told a teacher that he'd never kissed anyone, male or female.) These kids are actually concerned with exploring their identity. "When you're a baby, you cry when you're hungry because you don't know the word for it," says Allan Acevedo, 19, of San Diego, who came out when he was in eighth grade. "Part of the reason why people are coming out earlier is they have the word 'gay,' and they know it explains the feeling." Like older teenagers, tweens tend to tell their friends first, because they think they'll be more accepting. But kids that age often aren't equipped to deal with highly personal information, and middle-school staffs are almost never trained in handling kids who question their sexuality. More than 3,600 high schools sponsor gay-straight alliances designed to foster acceptance of gay students, but only 110 middle schools have them. Often the entire school finds out before either the student or the faculty is prepared for the attention and the backlash. "My name became a punch line very fast," says Grady Keefe, 19, of Branford, Conn., who came out in the eighth grade. "The guidance counselors told me I should not have come out because I was being hurt."The staff at E. O. Green tried to help as Larry experimented with his identity, but he liked to talk in a roar. One teacher asked him why he taunted the boys in the halls, and Larry replied, "It's fun to watch them squirm." But Brandon McInerney was different. Larry really liked Brandon. One student remembered that Larry would often walk up close to Brandon and stare at him. Larry had studied Brandon so well, he once knew when he had a scratch on his arm—Larry even claimed that he had given it to Brandon by mistake, when the two were together. Larry told one of his close friends that he and Brandon had dated but had broken up. He also said that he'd threatened to tell the entire school about them, if Brandon wasn't nicer to him. Quest, Brandon's defense attorney, says there was no relationship between Larry and Brandon, and one of Larry's teachers says that Larry was probably lying to get attention.Like Larry, Brandon had his share of troubles. His parents, Kendra and Bill McInerney, had a difficult, tempestuous relationship. In 1993, Kendra alleged that Bill pointed a .45 handgun at her during a drunken evening and shot her in the arm, according to court records. She and Bill split in 2000, when Brandon was 6. One September morning, a fight broke out after Kendra accused her husband of stealing the ADHD medication prescribed to one of her older sons from her first marriage. Bill "grabbed Kendra by the hair," and "began choking her until she was almost unconscious," according to Kendra's version of the events filed in court documents. He pleaded no contest to corporal injury to a spouse and was sentenced to 10 days in jail. In a December 2001 court filing for a restraining order against Kendra, he claimed that she had turned her home into a "drug house." "I was very functional," Kendra later explained to a local newspaper, in a story about meth addiction. By 2004, she had entered a rehab program, and Brandon went to live with his father. But he spent years caught in the middle of a war.While his life did seem to become more routine living with his dad, Brandon's troubles resurfaced in the eighth grade. His father was working in a town more than 60 miles away, and he was alone a lot. He began hanging out with a group of misfits on the beach. Although he was smart, he didn't seem to have much interest in school. Except for Hitler—Brandon knew all about the Nuremberg trials and all the names of Hitler's deputies. (When other kids asked him how he knew so much, he replied casually, "Don't you watch the History Channel?" Brandon's father says his son was interested in World War II, but not inappropriately.) By the end of the first semester, as his overall GPA tumbled from a 3.3 to a 1.9, he was kicked out of his English honors class for not doing his work and causing disruptions. He was transferred to Boldrin's English class, where he joined Larry.Larry's grades were also dropping—he went from having a 1.71 GPA in November to a 1.0 in February, his father says. But he was too busy reveling in the spotlight to care. "He was like Britney Spears," says one teacher who knew Larry. "Everyone wanted to know what's the next thing he's going to do." Girls would take photos of him on their camera phones and discuss him with their friends. "My class was in a frenzy every day with Larry stories," says a humanities teacher who didn't have Larry as one of her students. He wore a Playboy-bunny necklace, which one of his teachers told him to remove because it was offensive to women. But those brown Target stilettos wobbled on.The commotion over Larry's appearance finally forced the school office to take formal action. On Jan. 29, every teacher received an with the subject line STUDENT RIGHTS. It was written by Sue Parsons, the eighth-grade assistant principal. "We have a student on campus who has chosen to express his sexuality by wearing make-up," the said without mentioning Larry by name. "It is his right to do so. Some kids are finding it amusing, others are bothered by it. As long as it does not cause classroom disruptions he is within his rights. We are asking that you talk to your students about being civil and non-judgmental. They don't have to like it but they need to give him his space. We are also asking you to watch for possible problems. If you wish to talk further about it please see me or Ms. Epstein."Jerry Dannenberg, the superintendent, says the front office received no complaints about Larry, but according to several faculty members, at least two teachers tried to formally protest what was going on. The first was the same teacher who told Larry to scrub the makeup off his face. She was approached by several boys in her class who said that Larry had started taunting them in the halls—"I know you want me," he'd say—and their friends were calling them gay. The teacher told some of her colleagues that when she went to the office to file a complaint, Epstein said she would take it. "It's about Larry," the teacher said. "There's nothing we can do about that," Epstein replied. (Epstein denies she was ever approached.) A few days later another teacher claims to have gone to the school principal, Joel Lovstedt. The teacher says she told him that she was concerned about Larry and she thought he was a danger to himself—she worried that he might fall in his three-inch stilettos and injure himself. Lovstedt told the teacher that he had directions, though he wouldn't say from where, that they couldn't intervene with Larry's sexual expression. (Lovstedt denied NEWSWEEK's request for an interview.) There was an unusual student complaint, too. Larry's younger brother, Rocky, 12, also attended E. O. Green, and the kids started picking on him the day in January when Larry showed up in hot pink knee-length boots. Rocky says he went to several school officials for help, including Epstein. "I went up to her at lunchtime," he says. "I said, 'Ms. Epstein, can you stop Larry from dressing like a girl? The kids are saying since Larry is gay, I must be gay, too, because I'm his brother'."As you talk to the teachers, many of them say they tried to support Larry, but they didn't always know how. In blue-collar, immigrant Oxnard, there is no gay community to speak of and generally very little public discussion of gay issues, at least until Larry's murder happened. One teacher was very protective of Larry, his English teacher, Mrs. Boldrin. To help Larry feel better about moving to Casa Pacifica, she brought Larry a present: a green evening dress that once belonged to her own daughter. Before school started, Larry ran to the bathroom to try it on. Then he showed it to some of his friends, telling them that he was going to wear it at graduation.And then there was Valentine's Day. A day or two before the shooting, the school was buzzing with the story about a game Larry was playing with a group of his girlfriends in the outdoor quad. The idea was, you had to go up to your crush and ask them to be your Valentine. Several girls named boys they liked, then marched off to complete the mission. When it was Larry's turn, he named Brandon, who happened to be playing basketball nearby. Larry walked right on to the court in the middle of the game and asked Brandon to be his Valentine. Brandon's friends were there and started joking that he and Larry were going to make "gay babies" together. At the end of lunch, Brandon passed by one of Larry's friends in the hall. She says he told her to say goodbye to Larry, because she would never see him again.The friend didn't tell Larry about the threat—she thought Brandon was just kidding. There are many rumors of another confrontation between Larry and Brandon, on Feb. 11, the day before the shooting. Several students and teachers said they had heard about a fight between the two but they hadn't actually witnessed it themselves. The next morning a counselor at Casa Pacifica asked Larry what was wrong, and he said, vaguely, "I've had enough." When he got to school, his friends quizzed him about his noticeably unfabulous appearance. He said that he ran out of makeup and hair gel (which wasn't true) and that he had a blister on his ankle (this was true—he'd just bought a new pair of boots). Larry walked alongside Boldrin to the computer class and sat in front of a computer. A few minutes later, a counselor summoned him to her office. She told him that his grades were so low, he was at risk of not graduating from the eighth grade. He went back to his computer. He had written his name on his paper as Leticia King. Most of the campus heard the gunshots. Some described it like a door slammed shut very hard.On March 7, the school held a memorial service for Larry. Epstein stood at the podium with students who read from notecards about what they liked best about Larry: he was nice, he was unique, he was brave. The band played "Amazing Grace," and two dozen doves were released into the sky. Averi read a poem about how her friend was like a garden seed that grew, and died; Larry's mom wept in the front row. Deep in the audience, an eighth grader turned to one of Brandon's friends and whispered, "That's so gay."The obvious question now is whether Larry's death could have been prevented. "Absolutely," says Dannenberg. "Why do we have youngsters that have access to guns? Why don't we have adequate funding to pay for social workers at the school to make sure students have resources? We have societal issues." Many teachers and parents aren't content with that answer. For them, the issue isn't whether Larry was gay or straight—his father still isn't convinced his son was gay—but whether he was allowed to push the boundaries so far that he put himself and others in danger. They're not blaming Larry for his own death—as if anything could justify his murder—but their attitude toward his assailant is not unsympathetic. "We failed Brandon," a teacher says. "We didn't know the bullying was coming from the other side—Larry was pushing as hard as he could, because he liked the attention."Greg King doesn't feel sympathy for Brandon, but he does believe his son sexually harassed him. He's resentful that the gay community has appropriated his son's murder as part of a larger cause. "I think the gay-rights people want it to be a gay-rights issue, because it makes a poster child out of my son," King says. "That bothered me. I'm not anti-gay. I have a lot of co-workers and friends who are gay." That anger was made worse when he heard this summer that Epstein would be promoted to principal of an elementary school. "This is a slap in the face of my family," Greg says. Many teachers wonder if the district moved her because she had become a lightning rod for criticism after Larry's death. Dannenberg, the superintendent, says that she was the most qualified person for the new principal job.The school has conducted its own investigation, though its lawyer won't make it public. But it will likely be brought up when Brandon goes to trial. He is charged with first-degree murder and a hate crime, and is scheduled to be arraigned this week. Hundreds of his classmates have signed a petition asking that he be tried in juvenile court. The district attorney wants him tried as an adult, which could result in a prison sentence of 51 years to life. "Brandon was being terrorized," says Bill, who has set up a public defense fund in his son's name. "He was being stalked almost, to the degree of the school should have never let this happen." What happened to Larry and Brandon was certainly extreme, but it has implications for schools across the country. "If we're going to be absolutely sure this isn't going to happen again," says Elaine Garber, 81, who has served on the school's board for 48 years, "this has got to be discussed some more."As if anyone has stopped talking—and arguing—about Larry King. He had an entire page devoted to him in the E. O. Green yearbook. On the Internet, he's become a gay martyr, and this year's National Day of Silence, an annual event created to raise awareness of homophobia, was dedicated to Larry. And in Averi Laskey's bedroom, she still keeps a handmade purple get-well card she made for Larry on the day after he was shot. At the time, there was still hope he would pull through. He had survived the night, which the doctors said was a good sign. Averi rounded up dozens of teachers and friends between classes to sign messages of encouragement. "Larry, I miss you. Get better," Boldrin wrote in blue ink. "Keep up your spirit. A lot of people are rooting for you to get better," the principal wrote. Some of Larry's classmates apologized for how he had been treated. A few even left their phone numbers, so he could call them if he ever needed to talk to someone. But when Averi got home that day, she learned that Larry had suffered a fatal stroke. Larry was pronounced brain-dead that afternoon, and the family decided to donate his organs. The following day, Feb. 14, doctors harvested his pancreas, liver, lungs and the most important organ of all, which now beats inside the chest of a 10-year-old girl. On Valentine's Day, Larry King gave away his heart, but not in the way he thought he would. In the five months NEWSWEEK spent examining Larry King's death, we spoke with several dozen people, including faculty, students and parents. All students named were interviewed with their parents' permission. Some of our sources would speak only anonymously; the school's staff was instructed not to speak to the media because of the criminal proceedings and the possibility of civil litigation. While they agreed to be interviewed on the record, Jerry Dannenberg, the district superintendent, and Joy Epstein, E. O. Green's former assistant principal, were limited in what they could say for the same reasons.URL:With Andrew Murr and Jennifer OrdoñezLawrence KingMurdered Feb 12, 2008
50WPATHThe World ProfessionalAssociation For Transgender HealthMission is “to promote evidence based care, education, research, advocacy, public policy and respect in transgender health.”Publish the “Standards of Care and Ethical Guidelines” for gender transition
51Marketing to Transgender Clients Knowing terminology is a way to connect and empathize with your clients.
52Marketing to the Gender Community ConnectionWhat To DoCounselorsConnect with local counselors that offer transgender counseling and let them know you are trans-friendly. Find them on the internet by searching on “WPATH” as they will be members. Counselors will have resource “sheets” that they give to clients. Ask to be on it. Drop off business cards or postcards.Local transgender and cross-dresser clubs.Connect with local organizations and offer a get-to-know you seminar.Facial SurgeonsFind facial surgeons that are transgender friendly. Let them know you are trans friendly and can support their clients.Wig SalonsMost wig salons work with transgender clients. Start a referral program and offer referral fee for any transgender clients they send to you.GLBT Community CentersMost large cities have a resource center for the gay community. Investigate their transgender programs and attend their meetings.
53Marketing to the Gender Community ConnectionWhat To DoLocal ChaptersFind local chapters of national transgender organizations and get connected to their organization. Make yourself available for seminars and public speaking.MediaFind local and national GLBT media outlets. Write articles on your expertise related to transgenderism, gender or sex.Current EventsParticipate in local or national transgender events such as DOR and TransAction Day.Word of MouthWord of mouth is your best bet. Deliver a good service and be generous and you will be valued.Yahoo, Facebook, Myspace, Forums, LinkedIn, TwitterThere are a plethora of transgender groups online that you can become a part of. Advertise with the online company to place ads on trans individuals pages in your area (hyper-local ads).
54A Few Organizations to Know NameWhat To DoWebsiteInternational Foundation For Gender EducationThe IFGE resource directory lists local organizations and counselors by state and city.Tri-Ess, The Society for Second SelfTri-Ess has local chapters throughout the country.Out & Equal Workplace AdvocatesO&E has regional affiliates throughout the U.S.Human Rights CampaignHRC has local communities in the U.S.Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against DefamationGLAAD has media resourcesGay, Lesbian and Straight Education NetworkGLSEN sponsors TransAction Day and Day of Silence.Trans Youth Family AlliesTYFA supports transgender youth
55Ten Steps to a Transgender Inclusive Workplace Knowing terminology is a way to connect and empathize with your clients.
56The Trans Inclusive Checklist HR departments are generally responsible for ensuring that all transgender employees follow certain procedures through any type of gender transition.The following checklist should help ensure that the transition takes place in a positive manner for transgender employees, coworkers and the management team.
57human and have equal potential Step 1 – EEO PolicyStep 1: Create An Inclusive Equal Opportunity Employment PolicyThe most important step in becoming a transgender inclusive company is to include language in the EEO policy stating the company prohibits discrimination and harassment of individuals because of their “gender identity, gender expression or gender characteristics.”Very simply include all three phrasesGender IdentityGender CharacteristicsGender ExpressionCloseted employees will then feel safe to come out of the closet and potential employees will know to consider you for employmentEqualityis not just a wordis a way of lifesays we are allhuman and have equal potential
58Step 2 – Update Policies Step 2: Update Transgender Related Policies The company will need to address company policies in several areas as the transgender employee goes through transition.Bathrooms (be very careful not to segregate)Dressing Rooms/ShowersDress Codes (all employees, including trans, must follow the dress codes)Employee Records and IdentificationOffsite TravelHelp, there is a frog in my bathroom!
59Step 3 – Transition Policy Step 3: Create a Transgender Transition PolicyThe company will need to create a new policy addressing gender transition in the workplace. The policy should include the following items:Purpose of the policyStatement of corporate intention to be supportive of transgender transitionBasic transgender / corporate definitions and terminologyResponsibilities and Steps by HR or Diversity LeadershipResponsibilities and Steps to be taken by the EmployeeResourcesHelp! I’m making a change, what is the company’s policy for transition?
60Step 4 – Create Transition Plans Step 4: Transgender Employee Transition PlanFor each employee that transitions, the company should have a personalized written plan describing the roles of the employee and company during the time period. The plan can be a form that is filled out with specific details pertinent to each employee.Name of employeeListing the approximate date transition is to begin (living as new gender role) and endDress codes expectedList of individual names / contact for supportHR transition leadEAP contactDiversity and/or Employee Resource Group contactsHealth benefits contactPTO/leave benefits contactNew name, pronouns and records changesSecurity clearance issuesBathroom / Dressing room / Offsite Facility usageTailor a personal plan for each employee
61Step 5 – Transgender Health Benefits Step 5: Determine Transgender Health BenefitsHealth benefits regarding licensed professional counseling, medical doctor treatments and potential surgeries should be addressed. As of 2008, the American Medical Association now regards gender reassignment surgery a medical necessity for transgender men and women. Personal time off or leave of absence will also need to be addressed. Here is a list of items to consider.Licensed Professional CounselingSexualityGender Identity DisorderMedical TreatmentsHormone Replacement TherapyHair Removal (Laser, Electrolysis)Potential Surgeries for Male to Female Transsexual WomenGenital Reconstruction Surgery (Orchiectomy, Penile Inversion)Facial Feminization SurgeryTracheal ShaveBody Feminization Surgery (Breast Augmentation, Liposuction, Abdominoplasty, Buttock Augmentation)Voice Box SurgeryPotential Surgeries for Female to Male Transsexual MenGenital Reconstruction Surgery (Hysterectomy, Metoidioplasty, Pedicle Flap)Facial Masculinization SurgeryBody Masculinization Surgery (Chest Reconstruction, Calf Implants, Thigh Lifts, Liposuction)
62Step 6 – Communications Checklist Step 6: Communicate, Communicate, Communicate!Communications during an employee transition is very important and also can be very challenging.Some companies tend to ignore the matter which can be seen as an invitation by some coworkers to harass the transgender employee.Communication helps to keep people informed so that anxiety is reduced.There are several items to keep in mind:Have an HR meeting w/ employee when they announce their transitionMeet with the employee’s supervisorMeet with the employee’s coworkers, usually without the employee so they may feel free to ask questionsHold a Transgender Sensitivity TrainingRemember thattransgender employees are often quite nervous during transition, so extra kindness is always welcome!
63Step 7 – Transgender Training Step 7: Transgender Sensitivity TrainingThe best thing a company can do in providing transgender diversity training is to bring a mature transgender voice into the workplace.Often, employers will depend upon the transgender employee to be that voice, but that is not fair to the employee as they are in the midst of the complex and generally emotional transition itself and are still learning.Training can include a number of topics such as:Sharing of a personal journeyCausation of TransgenderismWorkplace ExperiencesTerminologyHistoryEtiquetteEquality and Equal RightsCurrent EventsTransition ExperiencesParticipatory Exercises / TestingQ&AReal change may come when people listen to the voice of a transgender individual
64Step 8 – An Executive Statement In addition to any formal company policies and guidelines, the President or CEO of an organization should regularly address that the company is LGBT friendly and supports the creation of employee resource groups and safe zones. Leadership should be clear that discrimination and harassment will not be tolerated.Conscientious and caring employees generally appreciate executives that embrace diversity openly
65Step 9 – Legal & HealthStep 9: Be Aware of Transgender Laws and Health IssuesLawsThe local, state and national laws are in a constant state of flux, but the trend is moving towards providing protections for transgender and gender non-conforming people. Similarly, transgender transitions are being viewed as medically necessary and hence discriminatory to deny coverage.ENDA – Employment Non Discrimination Act will impact sexuality and gender variance (not passed)OSHA – Impacts bathroom usage, distance to bathrooms, etc.Title VII – 1964 Civil rights act ruling prohibiting discrimination. Diane Schroer v. Library of Congress Case ruled you can’t discriminate against trans in employment (i.e., overturns previous ruling that trans are neither men nor women, hence not covered under Title VII)Local statutes, court rulings, administrative regulations and administrative tribunals -Local rulings dictate discriminatory practices, which are still legal in some jurisdictionsLaws help protect both employers and employees!Trans Health OrganizationsWPATH – Impacts how the transition needs to take place for the employee (was HBIGIDA)APA / DSM - The American Psychiatric Association defines criteria for gender identity disorder controversial terminology)TransgenderCare.com – A popular resource for transition guidanceCheck the Gay and Lesbian Medical AssociationTrans Health Coordinators is a new resource coming online soonMuch research is yet to be done on transgender health
66Step 10 – Read! Step 10: Read Transgender Literature There are two recent books on transgender in the workplace and a more historical book on sexuality which is also quite helpful. With these three plus online resources (check genderpower.com), you will be in good shape!Jillian Weiss, Transgender Workplace Diversity, Booksurge Publishing.Vanessa Sheridan, Transgender in the Workplace, ABC-CLIO.Bob Powers and Alan Ellis, A Manager’s Guide to Sexual Orientation in the Workplace, Routledge.
68Back MatterKnowing terminology is a way to connect and empathize with your clients.
69ReferencesR. Baker, “The Mystery of Coming Out”, EDGE Publications, Aug. 20, 2008R. Baker, “Transgender Pilot Regains Her Wings”, EDGE Publications, June 20, 2008R. Baker, “Police Beating of Transgender Woman Ignites Controversy”, EDGE Publications, June 27, 2008R. Baker, “Metroplex Crossdressers Feel Support From Dallas Police”, EDGE Publications, Oct. 10, 2008A. Beall and R. Sternberg, 1993, The Psychology of GenderK. Bornstein, 1998, My Gender WorkbookP. Currah, R. Juang, S. Minter, 2006, Transgender RightsA. Lev, 2004, Transgender Emergence.J. Roughgarden, 2004, Evolutions Rainbow.P. Sherman and J. Alcock, 1998, Exploring Animal Behavior: Readings from American Scientist, 2nd ed.
70Presentation Description Understanding the Needs of Transgender ClientsRenee Baker, Ph.D.Most male-to-female transgender individuals undergoing gender reassignment surgery will undergo partial or complete facial hair removal. As transgenderism is an area not always widely understood, many individuals are unsure of how to approach and work with transgender individuals. In this talk, Dr. Renee Baker will present an overview of transgenderism as pertinent to those in the professional hair removal industry. In Part 1, Dr. Baker will share her life experiences as a post-operative transgender woman. She will share her journey in life so others can gain a more heart-felt understanding of some of the challenges one faces in transitioning from male to female. In Part 2, Dr. Baker will present a slide presentation covering issues and etiquette that an electrologist could be made aware of when working with transgender clients. Dr. Baker enjoys interaction and encourages questions even if they are of a personal nature.
71Renee Baker Biography Renee Baker, Ph.D. www.genderpower.com Dr. Renee Baker was originally from New England, but grew up mainly on the Great Plains of South Dakota. Her father was a Spanish teacher and her mother taught ESL, so her home was that of international diversity. Her brother is a children’s educator and teaches the value of character. Though Renee grew up in a generally happy family, she struggled for years with her own sense of gender. While in her early forties, Renee was finally able to come to terms with being a transgendered woman and made the decision to surgically and hormonally transition from male to female. Renee now feels strongly that we have a long way to go in society to reach gender equality. She speaks whenever she can to help others understand our gender inequality is rooted in fear. Renee holds a doctorate in engineering and spent over 20 years in industry and academia. Renee currently owns her own massage practice providing mind-body-spirit therapy. She also owns her own transgender outreach practice providing diversity training, professional speaking and mentoring. Renee is a volunteer and past board member at Youth First Texas, a nonprofit organization supporting LGBT youth. She also writes stories of human interest for EDGE Publications. Renee has one son Alex and currently lives in Dallas with her partner Wendi and their furry, four-legged animal friends.Renee Baker, Ph.D.3530 Forest Lane, #306Dallas, TX 75234